March 7, 2023


New TREC article
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Health, Well-being, and Quality of Work-Life Outcomes Among Direct Care Nursing Staff Working in Nursing Home Settings: Protocol for a Systematic Review.
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Thorne T, Duan Y, Slubik S, Estabrooks CA.
JMIR Res Protoc. 2023 Feb 28;12:e40390.
BACKGROUND: Increased workload, lack of resources, fear of infection, and the suffering and loss of residents have placed a significant emotional burden on regulated and unregulated direct care nursing staff (eg, registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and care aides) in nursing homes (residential long-term care homes). Psychological distress and burnout related to COVID-19 have been cited among direct care staff within nursing homes. Studies have also emphasized the resilience of direct care staff, who, despite the significant challenges created by the pandemic, remained committed to providing quality care. To date, only one nursing home-specific review has synthesized evidence from 15 studies conducted early in the pandemic, which reported anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression among direct care staff. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this systematic review are to (1) synthesize all empirical evidence on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on direct care staffs’ mental health, physical health, and work-life outcomes; (2) identify specific risks and protective factors; and (3) examine the effect of strategies or interventions that have been developed to improve these outcomes. METHODS: We will include all study designs reporting objective or subjective measurements of direct care staffs’ mental health, physical health, and quality of work-life in nursing home settings during the COVID-19 pandemic (January 2020 onward). We will search multiple databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, and PsycINFO) and gray literature sources with no language restrictions. Two authors will independently screen, assess data quality, and extract data for synthesis. Given the heterogeneity in research designs, we will use multiple data synthesis methods that are suitable for quantitative and qualitative studies. RESULTS: As of December 2022, full text screening has been completed and data extraction is underway. The expected completion date is June 30, 2023. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review will uncover gaps in current knowledge, increase our understanding of the disparate findings to date, identify risks and factors that protect against the sustained effects of the pandemic, and elucidate the feasibility and effects of interventions to support the mental health, physical health, and quality of work-life of frontline nursing staff. This study will inform future research exploring how the health care system can be more proactive in improving quality of work-life and supporting the health and psychological needs of frontline staff amid extreme stressors such as the pandemic and within the wider context of prepandemic conditions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42021248420; INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/40390.

Tool designed to help you think through and plan your facilitation approach using the i-PARIHS framework
Mi-PARIHS ‘Facilitation Planning Tool’

Flinders University
This is designed to provide you and your team with explicit direction and guidance to help you to work through the i-PARIHS phases of innovation, recipients, and context, to identify the key barriers and enablers. Using the identified key barriers and enablers, develop a facilitation plan to implement the innovation that is tailored to the recipients and context.

Alberta Auditor General reveals Alberta LTC homes pandemic response hindered by pre-pandemic structural issues
Alberta long-term care understaffed, unprepared in COVID-19 battle: Auditor general report

February 23, 2023
Alberta’s long-term care facilities were generally understaffed and unprepared to handle the deadly first waves of COVID-19, according to a report from the province’s auditor general.

New report from IRPP
Life and Death in Long-Term Care: Are We Learning the Wrong Lessons from COVID-19?

Michel Grignon and Harneet Hothi
February 28, 2023
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating effect on long-term care (LTC) homes. Governments and policymakers should use the experience to create a better model of care that puts the needs and interests of recipients first.
This study presents a novel approach to measuring the performance of long-term care institutions during the pandemic, and identifies the factors behind their performance. Based on the findings, it proposes three areas for action that could inform federal, provincial and territorial government discussions on how to improve long-term care in Canada.
Instead of using the most common metric for measuring the performance of LTC institutions — the percentage of long-term care deaths relative to total deaths — the report measures the change in differential mortality between a nonpandemic year, 2018, and the first wave of the pandemic in 2020. Differential mortality compares deaths in institutions with deaths in similar age groups living in the community. This approach reflects the fact that the risk of dying in an institution is higher than in the community, even in nonpandemic years. The report finds that the pandemic approximately doubled the risk of dying among residents of long-term care homes compared to comparable groups in the community.
The report concludes that one third of the differential mortality can be attributed to factors determined by the way institutions are organized and funded, such as crowding, and a lack of adequate staffing and prevention and control practices. The remainder can be attributed to factors outside institutional control, including the higher COVID-related mortality risk among residents with certain underlying illnesses.

Feds will move forward with consultations and engagement with stakeholders and Canadians on the Safe LTC Act
Government of Canada supports seniors in Long Term Care by helping to ensure they access safe and quality care

March 1 , 2023
Tthe Honourable Jean-Yves Duclos, Minister of Health, and the Honourable Kamal Khera, Minister of Seniors, reiterated the Government’s commitment to help ensure quality, safe and respectful care for seniors in LTC homes across Canada. This follows the January 31, 2023 release of two independent LTC standards from CSA Group and the Health Standards Organization (HSO), which provide guidance for delivering services that are safe, reliable and – most importantly – centred on residents’ needs.

AB Government Increases LTC budget by 15% over last year
Alberta boosts long-term care budget with emphasis on community, home care

March 3, 2023
$4.3B allocated for continuing care, a 15% increase over last year

Chance to get 15 minutes of your time back and win clerical support for your ORCID profile
Library Support for personal ORCID profiles

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3. Submit your ORCID record to the Library using this form.

Database on Ontario LTC Facilities and COVID
COVID-19 in Ontario Long-term Care Facilities Project, a manually curated and validated database.
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Kaur M, Bragazzi NL, Heffernan J, Tsasis P, Wu J, Kong JD.
Front Public Health. 2023;11:1133419.
Several databases exist, mainly dedicated to (non-pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical) public health interventions (4, 5), underlying biological mechanisms, in terms of pathways and cascades (6), but, to the best of authors’ knowledge, no one specifically on long-term care facilities. Specifically, there are websites that provide information for each long-term care home in Ontario such as the location of the home, type of facility, and general statistics pertaining to the care offered. However, the information is limited as the focus of this data is to provide guidance for people looking to send their loved ones to a long-term care home to assist with their daily needs. In contrast, British Columbia has one comprehensive resource curated by Seniors Advocate BC that is sponsored by the province of British Columbia called the Long-Term Care Facilities Quick Facts Directory (7). It contains detailed information regarding the facility, rooms, funding, care offered (e.g., direct care hours), licensing, incidents, resident profiles, and vaccine coverage that is specific to each long-term care home. Since this information is compiled into one reliable resource, it makes it possible for relevant information to be quickly accessed and analyzed. In Ontario, no such counterpart was found. Further, it was difficult to access relevant data that was directly available online. The only publicly available data pertaining to long-term care homes offered by the Ministry of Long-Term Care is data regarding the long-term care home location and data for publicly reported COVID-19 cases (MLTC datasets) (8). The present database was devised and implemented to fill in this gap.

New review on gender equity in health research
Global evidence of gender equity in academic health research: a scoping review.
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Tricco AC, Nincic V, Darvesh N, Rios P, Khan PA, Ghassemi MM, et al.
BMJ Open. 2023 Feb 15;13(2):e067771.
OBJECTIVES: To chart the global literature on gender equity in academic health research. DESIGN: Scoping review. PARTICIPANTS: Quantitative studies were eligible if they examined gender equity within academic institutions including health researchers. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcomes related to equity across gender and other social identities in academia: (1) faculty workforce: representation of all genders in university/faculty departments, academic rank or position and salary; (2) service: teaching obligations and administrative/non-teaching activities; (3) recruitment and hiring data: number of applicants by gender, interviews and new hires for various rank; (4) promotion: opportunities for promotion and time to progress through academic ranks; (5) academic leadership: type of leadership positions, opportunities for leadership promotion or training, opportunities to supervise/mentor and support for leadership bids; (6) scholarly output or productivity: number/type of publications and presentations, position of authorship, number/value of grants or awards and intellectual property ownership; (7) contextual factors of universities; (8) infrastructure; (9) knowledge and technology translation activities; (10) availability of maternity/paternity/parental/family leave; (11) collaboration activities/opportunities for collaboration; (12) qualitative considerations: perceptions around promotion, finances and support. RESULTS: Literature search yielded 94 798 citations; 4753 full-text articles were screened, and 562 studies were included. Most studies originated from North America (462/562, 82.2%). Few studies (27/562, 4.8%) reported race and fewer reported sex/gender (which were used interchangeably in most studies) other than male/female (11/562, 2.0%). Only one study provided data on religion. No other PROGRESS-PLUS variables were reported. A total of 2996 outcomes were reported, with most studies examining academic output (371/562, 66.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Reviewed literature suggest a lack in analytic approaches that consider genders beyond the binary categories of man and woman, additional social identities (race, religion, social capital and disability) and an intersectionality lens examining the interconnection of multiple social identities in understanding discrimination and disadvantage. All of these are necessary to tailor strategies that promote gender equity. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Open Science Framework:

Review on facilitating a learning culture in NHs
Facilitators for developing an interprofessional learning culture in nursing homes: a scoping review.
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Verbeek FHO, van Lierop MEA, Meijers JMM, van Rossum E, Zwakhalen SMG, Laurant MGH, et al.
BMC Health Serv Res. 2023 Feb 21;23(1):178.
BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals in nursing homes face complex care demands and nursing staff shortages. As a result, nursing homes are transforming into home-like personalised facilities that deliver person-centred care. These challenges and changes require an interprofessional learning culture in nursing homes, but there is little understanding of the facilitators that contribute to developing such a culture. This scoping review aims to identify those facilitators. METHODS: A scoping review was performed in accordance with the JBI Manual for Evidence Synthesis (2020). The search was carried out in 2020-2021 in seven international databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Web of Science). Two researchers independently extracted reported facilitators that contribute to an interprofessional learning culture in nursing homes. Then the researchers inductively clustered the extracted facilitators into categories. RESULTS: In total, 5,747 studies were identified. After removing duplicates and screening titles, abstracts and full texts, 13 studies that matched the inclusion criteria were included in this scoping review. We identified 40 facilitators and clustered them into eight categories: (1) shared language, (2) shared goals, (3) clear tasks and responsibilities, (4) learning and sharing knowledge, (5) work approaches, (6) facilitating and supporting change and creativity by the frontline manager, (7) an open attitude, and (8) a safe, respectful and transparent environment. CONCLUSION: We found facilitators that could be used to discuss the current interprofessional learning culture in nursing homes and identify where improvements are required. Further research is needed to discover how to operationalise facilitators that develop an interprofessional learning culture in nursing homes and to gain insights into what works, for whom, to what extent and in what context.

New article on social networks of members involved in aged care services
Relationship between social network and individual performance of core members from aged care services social organizations: cross-sectional study.
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Wang Z, Chen X, Ji K, Sang L, Bai Z, Chen R.
BMC Geriatr. 2023 Feb 23;23(1):108.
BACKGROUND: The social network of core members can affect the performance of the organization, while there is a lack of research on the relationship between the social network of core members of social organizations and individual performance in the field of aged care services. This study aimed to explore the relationship between social network and individual performance of core members from social organizations engaged in aged care services and explore measures to promote the development of aged care services. METHODS: We used a multi-stage stratified sampling method to conduct a cross-sectional study and collected the required data in six cities in Anhui Province, China. Univariate analysis and binary logistic regression were used to estimate the relationship between social network and individual performance. RESULTS: Our results indicated that core members with higher social network scores were more likely to yield better individual performance, including receiving awards or recognitions related to aged care services (AOR=2.534; 95% CI: 1.397-4.596). Moreover, teams led by the core members were more likely to receive awards or recognitions related to aged care services (AOR=2.930; 95% CI: 1.740-4.933). The core members or the teams led by them were more likely to be reported by the media (AOR=1.748; 95% CI: 1.030-2.966) and participate in the drafting or discussion of local aged care service standards or service specifications (AOR=2.088; 95% CI: 1.093-3.911). In addition, demographic variables such as gender, marital status, and education of core members were significantly related to their performance (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The social network of core members of aged care service social organizations has an impact on their individual performance. To improve the performance of the core members of senior citizens services and organizations, relevant measures should be taken from the government, social organizations and core members to strengthen the social network construction of core members.

New articles on LTC workers and the COVID pandemic
Residential Aged Care Facilities During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Staff Survey on Impact and Resources.
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Chróinín DN, Anthony A, Acosta RM, Thambyaiyah D, Hasan N, Patil A.
J Gerontol Nurs. 2023 Mar;49(3):13–7.
The current study explored the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on staff in residential aged care facilities (RACFs). A hardcopy, voluntary, anonymous survey was circulated to local RACFs (June-July 2020), exploring challenges, staffing effects, mood within RACFs, and staff perceptions of supports. Overall, 105 staff members responded, which were mainly nursing personnel (67.6%) and owners/managers (10.5%). Seventy percent believed they were equipped to handle patients with COVID-19. One quarter reported personal protective equipment shortages. Respondents reported pressures to accept patients with COVID-19 from hospitals and/or keep residents in the RACF. One third reported staff “calling in sick” related to COVID-19/quarantine. Common compensatory strategies included increasing part-time workers’ hours. Reported mood was largely positive. Most (86.4%) respondents felt supported by general practitioner and local geriatric outreach services. Opportunities to best support RACF staff require further research and dialogue. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 49(3), 13-17.].

Report on fraying resilience among the Ontario Registered Practical Nurse Workforce in long-term care homes during COVID-19.
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Connelly DM, Snobelen N, Garnett A, Guitar N, Flores-Sandoval C, Sinha S, et al.
Nurs Open. 2023 Feb 25
AIM: Registered Practical Nurses (RPNs) are frontline healthcare providers in Ontario long-term care (LTC) homes. Throughout COVID-19, RPNs working in LTC homes experienced prolonged lockdowns, challenging working conditions, and inadequate resource allocation. This study aimed to describe the personal and professional resilience of RPNs working in LTC during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: An open cross-sectional online survey containing the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Resilience at Work Scale®, and Resilience at Work Team Scale®. METHODS: The survey was distributed by the RPN Association of Ontario (WeRPN) to approximately 5000 registered members working in Ontario LTC homes. RESULTS: A total of 434 respondents participated in the survey (completion rate = 88.0%). Study respondents scored low on measures of resilience and reported extreme levels of job (54.5%) and personal (37.8%) stress. Resources to support self-care and work-life balance, build capacity for team-based care practice(s) are needed.

Experiences of a Nursing Team Working in a Residential Care Facility for Older Adults During the COVID-19 Pandemic.
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Doyle M, Louw JS, Corry M.
J Gerontol Nurs. 2023 Mar;49(3):40–6.
Experiences of staff working in residential long-term care facilities (LTCFs) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic are likely to differ from that of staff working in acute hospitals. The aim of the current study was to describe the experiences of the nursing team supporting frail older adults with high medical and care needs living in a LTCF. Using a descriptive qualitative design, data were gathered via one-to-one semi-structured interviews and thematically analyzed. Four themes emerged: Providing Care During COVID-19, Impact of COVID-19 on Staff, Organizational Management of COVID-19, and Training and Education. Visitation restrictions and staff shortages impacted all aspects of work life. Staff reported increased stress and exhaustion with COVID-19 infection resulting in long-term health issues. It is important to learn from these experiences to inform and empower staff to manage future outbreaks of infectious diseases. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 49(3), 40-46.].

Exploring Nursing Staff’s Experiences and Perspectives of COVID-19 Lockdown in a Residential Aged Care Setting in Australia.
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Muduzu L, Wei L, Cope V.
J Gerontol Nurs. 2023 Mar;49(3):34–9.
An exploratory qualitative study was performed to evaluate the experiences of nursing staff (N = 10) working in a residential aged care facility (RACF) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic lockdown. Semi-structured, in-person interviews were performed, and thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Care staff had little or no knowledge of how to cope with a lockdown necessitated by a pandemic. However, management developed proactive plans as they aligned with the changing care circumstances and ongoing government directives. Five major themes were identified: Prolonged Use and Shortage of Personal Protective Equipment; “Blind Leading the Blind”; Communication and Teamwork; Lack of Education; and Resident Response. RACF staff described working under stressful conditions during the initial COVID-19 pandemic lockdown; yet with experience, care staff and the management team adapted to pandemic requirements to meet the needs of residents in their care. RACFs should be prepared for the impact of pandemics on staff and ensure care resources and support are available for the continuity of safe and quality care of residents. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 49(3), 34-39.].

New article by Lisa Cranley
Evaluating knowledge and attitudes scales for the care of older adults among nursing students in Ghana.
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Abudu-Birresborn D, Brennenstuhl S, Puts M, McCleary L, Yakong V, Chu CH, et al.
BMC Nurs. 2023 Feb 21;22(1):47.
BACKGROUND: Understanding nursing students’ knowledge about and attitudes toward older adults’ using context-specific survey instruments can help to identify and design effective learning and teaching materials to improve the care for persons 60 years and above. However, there are no validated instruments to examine nursing students’ knowledge and attitudes toward the care for older adults in the African context. The study aimed to evaluate the items on the Knowledge about Older Patients Quiz and Kogan’s Attitudes towards Old People Scale suitable for the African context. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using second-and third-year nursing students from two public Nursing Training Institutions in Ghana. Using Sahin’s rule of sample size estimate of at least 150 participants for unidimensional dichotomous scales, 170 nursing students were recruited to participate after an information session in their classrooms. Data were collected from December 2019-March 2020 using the Knowledge about Older Patients Quiz and Kogan’s Attitudes Towards Old People Scale. Item response theory was employed to evaluate the Knowledge about Older Patients Quiz difficulty level and discrimination indices. Corrected item-to-total correlation analysis was conducted for Kogan’s Attitudes towards Old People Scale. The internal consistency for both scales was examined. RESULTS: Of the 170 participants, 169 returned completed surveys. The mean age of participants was 21 years (SD = 3.7), and (54%) were female. Of the 30-items of the Knowledge about Older Patients Quiz, seven items were very difficult for most students to choose the correct response, and one was easy, as most of the students chose the correct response. Although 22 items demonstrated appropriate difficulty level, discrimination indices were used to select the final 15- items that discriminated moderately between upper and lower 25% performing students. The Kuder-Richardson-20 reliability was. 0.30, which was low. Considering Kogan’s Attitudes towards Old People scale, 10-items were removed following negative and low corrected item-to-total correlation and a high Alpha coefficient if items were deleted. The final 22-items had a Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.65, which was moderately satisfactory. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of the scales demonstrated essential content validity and moderate internal consistency for the context of our study. Further research should focus on ongoing context-specific refinement of the survey instruments to measure nursing students’ knowledge about and attitudes toward caring for older adults in the African context.

New article by Gillian Harvey
Protocol for a process evaluation of a stepped wedge randomised controlled trial to reduce unnecessary hospitalisations of older people from residential aged care: the EDDIE+ study.
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Bracci E, Allen M, Carter HE, Cyarto L, Dwyer T, Graves N, et al.
BMJ Open. 2023 Feb 16;13(2):e066857.
INTRODUCTION: The Early Detection of Deterioration in Elderly residents (EDDIE+) programme is a theory-informed, multi-component intervention aimed at upskilling and empowering nursing and personal care staff to identify and manage early signs of deterioration in residents of aged care facilities. The intervention aims to reduce unnecessary hospital admissions from residential aged care (RAC) homes. Alongside a stepped wedge randomised controlled trial, an embedded process evaluation will be conducted to assess the fidelity, acceptability, mechanisms of action and contextual barriers and enablers of the EDDIE+ intervention. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Twelve RAC homes in Queensland, Australia are participating in the study. A comprehensive mixed-methods process evaluation, informed by the integrated Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (i-PARIHS) framework, will assess intervention fidelity, contextual barriers and enablers, mechanisms of action, and the acceptability of the programme from various stakeholder perspectives. Quantitative data will be collected prospectively from project documentation, including baseline context mapping of participating sites, activity tracking and regular check-in communication sheets. Qualitative data will be collected postintervention via semi-structured interviews with a range of stakeholder groups. The i-PARIHS constructs of innovation, recipients, context and facilitation will be applied to frame the analysis of quantitative and qualitative data. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval for this study has been granted by the Bolton Clarke Human Research Ethics Committee (approval number: 170031) with administrative ethical approval granted by the Queensland University of Technology University Human Research Ethics Committee (2000000618). Full ethical approval includes a waiver of consent for access to residents’ demographic, clinical and health services de-identified data. A separate health services data linkage based on RAC home addresses will be sought through a Public Health Act application. Study findings will be disseminated through multiple channels, including journal publications, conference presentations and interactive webinars with a stakeholder network. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Australia New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (ACTRN12620000507987).

New article by Andrea Gruneir & Adrian Wagg
Older persons living with dementia and their use of acute care services over 2 years in Alberta.
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Gruneir A, Youngson E, Dobbs B, Wagg A, Williamson T, Duerksen K, et al.
Can Fam Physician. 2023 Feb;69(2):114–24.
OBJECTIVE: To characterize transitions to acute and residential care and identify variables associated with specific transitions among community-based persons living with dementia (PLWD). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using primary care electronic medical record data linked with health administrative data. SETTING: Alberta. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged 65 years or older living in the community who had been diagnosed with dementia and who saw a Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network contributor between January 1, 2013, and February 28, 2015. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All emergency department visits, hospitalizations, residential care (supportive living and long-term care) admissions, and deaths within a 2-year follow-up period. RESULTS: In total, 576 PLWD were identified who had a mean (SD) age of 80.4 (7.7) years; 55% were female. In 2 years, 423 (73.4%) had at least 1 transition and, of these, 111 (26.2%) had 6 or more. Emergency department visits, including multiple visits, were common (71.4% had ≥1, 12.1% had ≥4). Of those hospitalized (43.8%), nearly all were admitted from the emergency department; the average (SD) length of stay was 23.6 (35.8) days, and 32.9% had at least 1 alternate level of care day. In total, 19.3% entered residential care, most admitted from hospital. Those admitted to hospital and those admitted to residential care were older and had greater historical health system use, including home care. One-quarter of the sample did not have any transitions (or die) during follow-up; they were typically younger and had limited historical health system use. CONCLUSION: Older PLWD experienced frequent, and frequently compound, transitions that have implications for them, their family members, and the health system. There was also a large proportion without transitions suggesting that appropriate supports enable PLWD to do well in their own communities. The identification of PLWD who are at risk of or who make frequent transitions may allow for more proactive implementation of community-based supports and smoother transitions to residential care.

New article by Adrian Wagg
Technological Solutions for Urinary Continence Care Delivery for Older Adults: A Scoping Review.
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Omotunde M, Wagg A.
J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2023 Mar 1;
PURPOSE: The aim of this scoping review was to examine available evidence regarding use of technology-based continence care delivery for older adults and to identify gaps in knowledge. METHODS: Scoping review. SEARCH STRATEGY: With the help of a medical librarian, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, ProQuest, PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and websites were searched. Search terms included technology, sensors, older adults, urinary incontinence, continence care, nursing homes, long-term care, and continence management. All literature elements except for opinion pieces and case reports written in English within the last 15 years were included. Articles not written in the English language were excluded; our search indicated that less than 6% of returned elements were written in other languages. FINDINGS: After duplications were removed, 2146 potential sources were identified. After exclusions, 19 results were included in the review. Review findings suggest positive effects of technology-based continence care on older adults and those involved in their care such as enhanced delivery of a successful toileting program. Information on potential harms, from either the perspective of care provider or recipient, is limited. It is important that needs of older adults and collaborative efforts are considered in the implementation of technology-based continence care. A paucity of guidelines on the use and adoption of technology-based continence care was found; additional research into uptake and sustainability is needed. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Technological solutions, such as sensors, need to be accurate in the measurement of urine saturation levels and timely in notifying caregivers for effective delivery of continence care. Adverse consequences of incontinence, such as incontinence-associated dermatitis or urinary tract infection, may potentially be reduced or avoided with technology-based continence care delivery.


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