New Article by Dr. James W. Dearing
Diffusion Of Innovations Theory, Principles, And Practice.
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Aspects of the research and practice paradigm known as the diffusion of innovations are applicable to the complex context of health care, for both explanatory and interventionist purposes. This article answers the question, “What is diffusion?” by identifying the parameters of diffusion processes: what they are, how they operate, and why worthy innovations in health care do not spread more rapidly. We clarify how the diffusion of innovations is related to processes of dissemination and implementation, sustainability, improvement activity, and scale-up, and we suggest the diffusion principles that can be readily used in the design of interventions.
New Article by Dr. Ali Hutchinson
‘Dignity’: A central construct in nursing home staff understandings of quality continence care.
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ing home residents require assistance to maintain continence or manage incontinence. Best practice guidelines promote active investigation of incontinence, treatment of underlying potentially reversible causes, and initial conservative interventions to prevent, minimise and/or treat incontinence. Despite research showing the positive benefits of implementing active interventions, translating the findings of research into practice in nursing homes has been modest. Understanding the perspectives of individuals who provide continence care may help bridge the gap between evidence and practice. DESIGN: A qualitative exploratory descriptive design. METHODS: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 19 nursing home staff: 8 Registered Nurses, 4 Enrolled Nurses, and 7 Personal Care Workers working in a nursing home in Australia between 2014-2015. Data were analysed inductively to identify themes and sub themes that described and explained staff beliefs about quality continence care in nursing homes. FINDINGS: Participants’ understanding and expectations about quality continence care were linked to beliefs about incontinence being an intractable and undignified condition in nursing homes. The key theme to emerge was ‘protecting residents’ dignity’ which was supported by the following six sub-themes: (i) using pads, ii) providing privacy, (iii) knowing how to ‘manage’ incontinence, (iv) providing timely continence care, (v) considering residents’ continence care preferences, and (vi) communicating sensitively. CONCLUSION: The findings provide new insight into the basis for continence care practices in nursing homes. Education about continence care should challenge beliefs that limit continence care practice to cleaning, containing and concealing incontinence. There is a need for a multidimensional framework that is informed by social, psychological and biomedical research about incontinence, research about the fundamental elements of care, care-dependent individuals’ expectations about care, and values about dignity and care.
New Article by Dr. Shannon Scott
A systematic review of parents’ experiences and information needs related to their child’s urinary tract infection.
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As a first step toward the development of an animated video and infographic to increase parents’ knowledge of pediatric urinary tract infections (UTIs), we conducted a systematic review of their experiences and information needs. METHODS: We searched Ovid Medline, Ovid PsycINFO, CINAHL, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global for studies published in 2000 or thereafter. We appraised quality using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. We summarised the quantitative data narratively and the qualitative data thematically. RESULTS: We identified 1493 records and included four. Sample size ranged from 20 to 2726 parents. The children ranged from 10 UTIs. Parents were not always aware of UTI symptoms and generally received little information. Parents sought information online, and desired it via other means. Some parents were not confident in healthcare providers’ (HCPs’) knowledge of UTIs. Inadequate information about diagnostic tests sometimes resulted in fear and non-compliance. CONCLUSIONS: From the limited literature, it appears that parents would like information about prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis, but do not always consider HCPs good information sources. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Care providers should communicate information in ways that suit parents’ self-identified needs.
Survey on Implementation Science and Practice in Canada
Reigniting the Canadian Implementation Network: Building science and practice links for implementation
If you’re working in implementation science or practice in Canada, let us know what you think!
Calls for Abstracts
CALL FOR ABSTRACTS:
Cochrane Canada Symposium 2018
Cochrane Canada is looking forward to receiving abstracts on a variety of topics relevant to evidence producers and decision makers, including:
-New and innovative methods for producing evidence syntheses, including living systematic reviews, rapid reviews and complex reviews.
-Methods for increasing efficiencies in the production of evidence syntheses (e.g. machine learning).
Methods or training in tools for creating or interpreting evidence syntheses, such as risk of bias and critical appraisal.
-Strategies to promote the use of evidence by decision makers (consumers, practitioners, researchers, policymakers and others), including methods for involving patients and caregivers in the production and knowledge translation of evidence syntheses.
CALL FOR APPLICATIONS:
FRAILTY MATTERS Innovation Showcase
On Thursday, September 20, 2018, selected applicants will have a unique and valuable opportunity to share their work with senior decision makers, other conference attendees and the media on how they are improving the lives of Canadians affected by frailty (travel to Toronto and accommodation at the conference will be provided by CFN). The innovations will be unveiled and presented in a showcase format, and a smaller group of the top applicants will be chosen to make a special plenary presentation to the conference. One of this group will be announced from the stage as the 2018 Frailty Innovation of the Year.
Grants & Awards
The aim of the call is to establish a limited number of ambitious, innovative, multi-national and multi-disciplinary collaborative research projects that address health and social care delivery at the macro level (system and infrastructures) as well as (at) the individual level of patients, their careers and families.
New scientific knowledge and innovation are often slow to disseminate. In other cases, providers rush into adopting what appears to be a clinically relevant innovation, based on a single clinical trial. In reality, adopting innovations without appropriate translation and repeated testing of practical application is problematic. In this article we provide examples of clinical innovations (for example, tight glucose control in critically ill patients) that were adopted inappropriately and that caused what we term a malfunction. To address the issue of malfunctions, we review various examples and suggest frameworks for the diffusion of knowledge leading to the adoption of useful innovations. The resulting model is termed an integrated road map for coordinating knowledge transformation and innovation adoption. We make recommendations for the targeted development of practice change procedures, practice change assessment, structured descriptions of tested interventions, intelligent knowledge management technologies, and policy support for knowledge transformation, including further standardization to facilitate sharing among institutions.
Learning collaboratives are increasingly used as mechanisms to support and hasten the diffusion and implementation of innovation, clinical evidence, and effective models of care. Factors contributing to the collaboratives’ success or failure are poorly understood. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) has sponsored collaboratives for nearly two decades to support improvements in health care quality and value by accelerating the diffusion and implementation of innovation. We examined AHRQ’s experience with these collaboratives to characterize their attributes, identify factors that might contribute to their success or failure, and assess the challenges they encountered. Building on the literature and insights from AHRQ’s experience, we propose a taxonomy that can offer guidance to decision makers and funders about the factors they should consider in developing collaboratives and planning their evaluation, as well as to researchers who seek to conduct research that will ultimately help decision makers make better investments in diffusing innovation and evidence.
A shift in the culture and practice of health and development research is required to maximise the real-world use of evidence by non-academic or non-research-oriented audiences. Many frameworks have been developed to guide and measure the research utilisation process, yet none have been widely applied. Some frameworks are simplified to an unrealistic linear representation while others are rendered overly complex and unusable in an attempt to capture all aspects of the research utilisation process. Additionally, many research utilisation frameworks have focused on the policy development process or within a clinical setting, with less application of the translation process at the programme level. In response to this gap – and drawing from over a decade of experience implementing research utilisation strategies – we developed a simple, four-phase framework to guide global health and development efforts that seek to apply evidence to policies and programmes. We present a detailed description of each phase in our framework, with examples of its relevance and application illustrated through our own case study experiences in global health. We believe the utility of this framework extends beyond the health sector and is relevant for maximising use of evidence to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.
The Health and Social Care Act mandated research use as a core consideration of health service commissioning arrangements in England. We undertook a controlled before and after study to evaluate whether access to a demand-led evidence briefing service improved the use of research evidence by commissioners compared with less intensive and less targeted alternatives. METHODS: Nine Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs) in the North of England received one of three interventions: (A) access to an evidence briefing service; (B) contact plus an unsolicited push of non-tailored evidence; or (C) unsolicited push of non-tailored evidence. Data for the primary outcome measure were collected at baseline and 12 months using a survey instrument devised to assess an organisations’ ability to acquire, assess, adapt and apply research evidence to support decision-making. Documentary and observational evidence of the use of the outputs of the service were sought. RESULTS: Over the course of the study, the service addressed 24 topics raised by participating CCGs. At 12 months, the evidence briefing service was not associated with increases in CCG capacity to acquire, assess, adapt and apply research evidence to support decision-making, individual intentions to use research findings or perceptions of CCG relationships with researchers. Regardless of intervention received, participating CCGs indicated that they remained inconsistent in their research-seeking behaviours and in their capacity to acquire research. The informal nature of decision-making processes meant that there was little traceability of the use of evidence. Low baseline and follow-up response rates and missing data limit the reliability of the findings. CONCLUSIONS: Access to a demand-led evidence briefing service did not improve the uptake and use of research evidence by NHS commissioners compared with less intensive and less targeted alternatives. Commissioners appear well intentioned but ad hoc users of research. Further research is required on the effects of interventions and strategies to build individual and organisational capacity to use research.
Audit and feedback aims to guide health professionals in improving aspects of their practice that need it most. Evidence suggests that feedback fails to increase accuracy of professional perceptions about clinical performance, which likely reduces audit and feedback effectiveness. This study investigates health professionalsâ€™ perceptions about their clinical performance and the influence of feedback on their intentions to change practice.
Health Care Administration and Organization
The purpose of the study was to determine the continuing education needs for nursing home nurses in rural central Illinois and to determine any potential facilitators or barriers to obtaining continuing education. METHOD: Data were collected using the Educational Needs Assessment questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were computed to examine continuing education preferences, facilitators, and barriers among nursing home nurses. Independent samples t tests were used to compare preferences between administrative and staff nurses. RESULTS: The sample included 317 nurses from 34 facilities. The five top needs were related to clinical problems. Administrative nurses had greater needs for professional issues, managerial skills, and quality improvement than staff nurses. Barriers included rural settings, need for vacation time for programs, and inadequate staffing. CONCLUSION: Continuing education needs of nursing home nurses in Illinois are similar to previous studies conducted in Arizona and North Carolina. Continuing education barriers were mostly organizational, rather than personal.
Food service staff are integral to delivery of quality food in aged care homes yet measurement of their satisfaction is unable to be performed due to an absence of a valid and reliable questionnaire. The aim of this study was to develop and perform psychometric testing for a new Food Service Satisfaction Questionnaire developed in Australia specifically for use by food service staff working in residential aged care homes (Flinders FSSQFSAC). METHODS: A mixed methods design utilizing both a qualitative (in-depth interviews, focus groups) and a quantitative approach (cross sectional survey) was used. Content validity was determined from focus groups and interviews with food service staff currently working in aged care homes, related questionnaires from the literature and consultation with an expert panel. The questionnaire was tested for construct validity and internal consistency using data from food service staff currently working in aged care homes that responded to an electronic invitation circulated to Australian aged care homes using a national database of email addresses. Construct validity was tested via principle components analysis and internal consistency through Cronbach’s alpha. Temporal stability of the questionnaire was determined from food service staff undertaking the Flinders FSSQFSAC on two occasions, two weeks apart, and analysed using Pearson’s correlations. RESULTS: Content validity for the Flinders FSSQFSAC was established from a panel of experts and stakeholders. Principle components analysis revealed food service staff satisfaction was represented by 61-items divided into eight domains: job satisfaction (alpha=0.832), food quality (alpha=0.871), staff training (alpha=0.922), consultation (alpha=0.840), eating environment (alpha=0.777), reliability (alpha=0.695), family expectations (alpha=0.781) and resident relationships (alpha=0.429), establishing construct validity in all domains, and internal consistency in all (alpha>0.5) except for “resident relationships” (alpha=0.429). Test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from 0.276 to 0.826 dependent on domain, with test-retest reliability established in seven domains at r>0.4; an exception was “reliability” at r=0.276. CONCLUSIONS: The newly developed Flinders FSSQFSAC has acceptable validity and reliability and thereby the potential to measure satisfaction of food service staff working in residential aged care homes, identify areas for strategic change, measure improvements and in turn, improve the satisfaction and quality of life of both food service staff and residents of aged care homes.
The potential of life story work to add quality to dementia care is widely acknowledged. Whether this potential is always realised in practice and under what circumstances is less clear. This paper explores whether knowing the person’s life story enhances healthcare professionals’ understanding of the person with dementia and whether this understanding impacts on the person’s care. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 registered nurses and 12 healthcare assistants who had used life story work with people with dementia living in long-stay care settings. Data were analysed using the constant comparative technique. Engaging in life story work enabled staff to see the person behind the dementia. Understanding (as opposed to knowing) the person with dementia’s life story changed staff’s thinking on what is important when delivering care to people with dementia, with staff giving concrete examples of changes in how they delivered care to the person with dementia and what they considered important when delivering that care. It was concluded that life story work can facilitate a shift to person centred dementia care but how it is implemented matters if this outcome is to be achieved.
Impact of person-centred care training and person-centred activities on quality of life, agitation, and antipsychotic use in people with dementia living in nursing homes: A cluster-randomised controlled trial.
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ctive psychosocial interventions to improve these outcomes, particularly in the absence of safe, effective pharmacological therapies. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a person-centred care and psychosocial intervention incorporating an antipsychotic review, WHELD, on QoL, agitation, and antipsychotic use in people with dementia living in nursing homes, and to determine its cost. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a randomised controlled cluster trial conducted between 1 January 2013 and 30 September 2015 that compared the WHELD intervention with treatment as usual (TAU) in people with dementia living in 69 UK nursing homes, using an intention to treat analysis. All nursing homes allocated to the intervention received staff training in person-centred care and social interaction and education regarding antipsychotic medications (antipsychotic review), followed by ongoing delivery through a care staff champion model. The primary outcome measure was QoL (DEMQOL-Proxy). Secondary outcomes were agitation (Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory [CMAI]), neuropsychiatric symptoms (Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home Version [NPI-NH]), antipsychotic use, global deterioration (Clinical Dementia Rating), mood (Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia), unmet needs (Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly), mortality, quality of interactions (Quality of Interactions Scale [QUIS]), pain (Abbey Pain Scale), and cost. Costs were calculated using cost function figures compared with usual costs. In all, 847 people were randomised to WHELD or TAU, of whom 553 completed the 9-month randomised controlled trial. The intervention conferred a statistically significant improvement in QoL (DEMQOL-Proxy Z score 2.82, p = 0.0042; mean difference 2.54, SEM 0.88; 95% CI 0.81, 4.28; Cohen’s D effect size 0.24). There were also statistically significant benefits in agitation (CMAI Z score 2.68, p = 0.0076; mean difference 4.27, SEM 1.59; 95% CI -7.39, -1.15; Cohen’s D 0.23) and overall neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPI-NH Z score 3.52, p < 0.001; mean difference 4.55, SEM 1.28; 95% CI -7.07,-2.02; Cohen's D 0.30). Benefits were greatest in people with moderately severe dementia. There was a statistically significant benefit in positive care interactions as measured by QUIS (19.7% increase, SEM 8.94; 95% CI 2.12, 37.16, p = 0.03; Cohen's D 0.55). There were no statistically significant differences between WHELD and TAU for the other outcomes. A sensitivity analysis using a pre-specified imputation model confirmed statistically significant benefits in DEMQOL-Proxy, CMAI, and NPI-NH outcomes with the WHELD intervention. Antipsychotic drug use was at a low stable level in both treatment groups, and the intervention did not reduce use. The WHELD intervention reduced cost compared to TAU, and the benefits achieved were therefore associated with a cost saving. The main limitation was that antipsychotic review was based on augmenting processes within care homes to trigger medical review and did not in this study involve proactive primary care education. An additional limitation was the inherent challenge of assessing QoL in this patient group. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the WHELD intervention confers benefits in terms of QoL, agitation, and neuropsychiatric symptoms, albeit with relatively small effect sizes, as well as cost saving in a model that can readily be implemented in nursing homes. Future work should consider how to facilitate sustainability of the intervention in this setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN62237498.
Keeping long-term care nurses employed is necessary to sustain the current and future demand for high-quality long-term care services. Understanding the factors relating to intention to stay among long-term care nurses is limited by the scarcity of studies in long-term care settings, lack of investigation of multiple factors, and the weakness of existing explanatory models. OBJECTIVE: To identify the factors associated with long-term care nurses’ intention to stay in their current workplace. DESIGN: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey. SETTING: Two hundred and fifty-seven hospitals with long-term care wards across Japan. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 3128 staff nurses and 257 nurse managers from the long-term care wards of the participating hospitals. METHOD: The questionnaire assessed nurses’ intention to continue working in the current workplace as well as potential related factors, including individual factors (demographic data, reason for choosing current workplace, burnout, work engagement, somatic symptom burden) and unit factors (unit size, nurse-manager-related data, patients’ medical acuity, average number of overtime hours, recreational activities, social support, perceived quality of care process, educational opportunities, feeling of loneliness, and ability to request days off). Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to determine which variables best explained nurses’ intention to stay in their workplace. RESULTS: Only 40.1% of the respondents reported wanting to continue working at their current workplace. The regression analysis revealed that long-term care nurses’ intention to stay was positively associated with nurses’ age (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.02 [1.01-1.03]), work engagement (1.24 [1.14-1.35]), getting appropriate support from nurse managers (2.78 [1.60-4.82]), perceived quality of care process (1.04 [1.01-1.06]), educational opportunities (1.06 [1.0-1.13]), and various specific reasons for choosing their workplace (e.g., a good workplace atmosphere, being interested in gerontological nursing, and a high salary). By contrast, intention to stay was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion (0.93 [0.91-0.95]) and depersonalization (0.91 [0.89-0.93]). Intention to stay was associated with neither nurses’ qualifications nor patient medical acuity. CONCLUSION: Reason for choosing the workplace, work engagement, getting support from the nurse manager, and perceived quality of care process are significant predictors of long-term care nurses’ intention to stay in the workplace. Promoting such nurses’ work engagement, provision of high-quality care, and access to educational opportunities might augment long-term care nurses’ intention to stay.
eveloped countries worldwide are facing an unprecedented demand for aged care services, with recent migrants of diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds increasingly recruited as care workers while at the same time there is growing cultural diversity among aged care residents. This situation is compounded by rapidly changing technology and varied educational levels of care workers from diverse backgrounds. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were threefold: to identify staff learning needs to enable them to provide high-quality cross-cultural care; to improve team cohesion; and identify preferred learning approaches. DESIGN: An interpretive qualitative study utilising focus group and interview data informed the development of an education resource. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: Fifty six care workers from four residential aged care facilities participated in either focus groups or interviews conducted in private meeting rooms within the care facilities. Participants included personal care attendants, registered and clinical nurses, managers, hospitality staff and allied health professionals. METHODS: Focus group and interview data were categorised and thematically analysed. Data relevant to cross-cultural care, team cohesion and preferred learning approaches informed education resource development, including case studies. RESULTS: Major themes identified the need to promote cultural awareness and understanding, and strategies for cross-cultural care and communication. Themes related to team cohesion demonstrated that staff were already sympathetic and sensitive to cross-cultural issues, and that culturally and linguistically diverse staff add value to the workforce and are supported by the organisation. Staff required clear, uncomplicated education resources to equip them with skills to address problematic cultural situations. Preferred learning approaches varied and highlighted the need for varied educational materials and approaches, as well as time efficient, opportunistic education strategies for the busy workplace. CONCLUSION: An education package was developed to value cultural diversity in the aged care workplace for staff and residents, and provide an exemplar for evidence informed education.
Organisational culture (OC) shapes individualsâ€™ perceptions and experiences of work. However, no instrument capable of measuring specific aspects of OC in community pharmacy exists. The purpose of this paper is to report the development and validation of an instrument to measure OC in community pharmacy in Great Britain (GB), and conduct a preliminary analysis of data collected using it. Design/methodology/approach Instrument development comprised three stages: Stage I: 12 qualitative interviews and relevant literature informed instrument design; Stage II: 30 cognitive interviews assessed content validity; and Stage III: a cross-sectional survey mailed to 1,000 community pharmacists in GB, with factor analysis for instrument validation. Statistical analysis investigated how community pharmacists perceived OC in their place of work. Findings Factor analysis produced an instrument containing 60 items across five OC dimensions â€“ business and work configuration, social relationships, personal and professional development, skills utilisation, and environment and structures. Internal reliability for the dimensions was high (0.84 to 0.95); item-total correlations were adequate (r=0.46 to r=0.76). Based on 209 responses, analysis suggests different OCs in community pharmacy, with some community pharmacists viewing the environment in which they worked as having a higher frequency of aspects related to patient contact and safety than others. Since these aspects are important for providing high healthcare standards, it is likely that differences in OC may be linked to different healthcare outcomes. Originality/value This newly developed and validated instrument to measure OC in community pharmacy can be used to benchmark existing OC across different pharmacies and design interventions for triggering change to improve outcomes for community pharmacists and patients.
People dying with dementia have significant healthcare needs, and palliative care, with its focus on comfort and quality of life, should be made available to these patients. The aim of this study was to explore and increase knowledge of healthcare professionals’ experiences with palliative care to people with severe dementia in nursing homes. METHODS: To describe the phenomenon under investigation, we used a phenomenological research approach grounded in the philosophy of Husserl. Data were collected using in-depth interviews with 20 healthcare professionals from four Norwegian nursing homes. RESULTS: The general meaning structure of the healthcare professionals’ experiences with providing palliative care to people with severe dementia is painfulness, due to their limited understanding of patients’ individual modes of expression. The painfulness is illustrated by the following themes: challenges related to “reading” the patients’ suffering, coming up short despite occasional success, handing the patients over to strangers, and disagreeing on the patients’ best interests. The healthcare professionals struggled to understand patients by “reading” their suffering. Occasionally, they succeeded and were able to calm the patients, but they often had the feeling of coming up short in situations related to pain relief and coping with behavioural symptoms, such as aggression and rejection of care. They also found it painful when the weakest patients were moved from the sheltered unit to a somatic long-term unit and were handed over to strangers who did not know the patients’ ways of expression. Although the healthcare professionals emphasized the importance of good collaboration with the patients’ relatives to ensure the best possible palliative care, they frequently found themselves in difficult situations when they disagreed with the family on the patients’ best interests. CONCLUSIONS: We found healthcare professionals’ experiences of providing palliative care to people with severe dementia to be painful. To be able to understand the patients better, long-term familiarity and knowledge of how to “read” and observe patients with severe dementia are necessary. Openness in cooperation with the patients’ relatives and with the professional team may increase healthcare professionals’ understanding of the patients’ situations and hence improve the quality of care.
To document and explore the experience of migrant care workers providing health and social care to the elderly in institutional care settings and in the homes of the elderly in the community in New Zealand with a particular focus on the affective components of care work. DESIGN: This qualitative study involved conducting face-to-face, open-ended, semi-structured interviews with 29 migrant care workers in the eldercare sector in the cities of Auckland and Wellington, New Zealand. Participants were recruited through various agencies focusing on aged care and engaged with migrant eldercare workers and snowballing through participant referral. Sample size was determined when saturation was reached. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, themes were identified and then analysed drawing on a body of theoretical work in the fields of emotional anthropology and moral geography and the international empirical literature addressing migrant eldercare workers. RESULTS: As with the international research in this field we found that these workers were vulnerable to exploitation, the workforce is largely feminised and stereotypical understandings of racial groups and national characteristics informed recruitment and the workplace experience. Here attributing gradients of affect to particular migrant groups in the workforce was the main mechanism employed to establish worker worth and difference. Identifying with these gradients of affect enabled these eldercare workers to demonstrate that they met the moral and ethical requirements of permanent residency and ultimately citizenship. Eldercare workers in the home were vulnerable to ‘blurred emotional boundaries’ and care recipient demand for greater emotional commitment. The migrant eldercare workers in this study all shared vulnerable residential status and many feared they would never obtain permanent residency or citizenship. All had family who remained in the Philippines and towards whom they had an obligation to substitute care support. CONCLUSION: Central to understanding how this labour force issue is experienced by both caregivers and the elderly is the notion of subjective proximity and how emotional and moral trajectories serve to mediate the connection between the eldercare worker and workplace, the Filipino migrant eldercare relationship with employers, agencies and institutions; and, the transnational nature of this mobility and social and actual citizenship.
Health Care Innovation and Quality Assurance
Fall-related injuries among the elderly, specifically hip fractures, cause significant morbidity and mortality as well as imposing a substantial financial cost on the health care system. Impact-absorbing flooring has been advocated as an effective method for preventing hip fractures resulting from falls. This study identifies the cost-effectiveness of impact-absorbing flooring compared to standard flooring in residential care facilities for the elderly in a Swedish setting. METHOD: An incremental cost-effectiveness analysis was performed comparing impact-absorbing flooring to standard flooring using a Markov decision model. A societal perspective was adopted and incremental costs were compared to incremental gains in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Data on costs, probability transitions and health-related quality of life measures were retrieved from the published literature and from Swedish register data. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed through a Monte Carlo simulation. RESULTS: The base-case analysis indicates that the impact-absorbing flooring reduces costs and increases QALYs. When allowing for uncertainty we find that 60% of the simulations indicate that impact-absorbing flooring is cost-saving compared to standard flooring and an additional 20% that it has a cost per QALY below a commonly used threshold value CONCLUSIONS: : Using a modelling approach, we find that impact-absorbing flooring is a dominant strategy at the societal level considering that it can save resources and improve health in a vulnerable population.
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures are of interest because they can be used to describe health of populations and represent a broader health outcome for population health analyses than mortality rates or life expectancy. The most widely used measure of HRQoL for deriving estimates of health-adjusted life expectancy is the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3). The HUI3 is available in most national surveys administered by Statistics Canada, and has been used as part of a microsimulation model to examine the impact of neurological conditions over the life course. Persons receiving home care and nursing home services are often not well-represented in these surveys; however, interRAI assessment instruments are now used as part of normal clinical practice in these settings for nine Canadian provinces/territories. Building on previous research that developed a HUI2 crosswalk for the interRAI assessments, the present study examined a new interRAI HRQoL index crosswalked to the HUI3. METHODS: interRAI and survey data were used to examine the distributional properties of global and domain-specific interRAI HRQoL and HUI3 index scores, respectively. Three populations were considered: well-elderly persons not receiving home care, home care clients and nursing home residents. RESULTS: The mean HUI3 and interRAI HRQoL index global scores declined from independent healthy older persons to home care clients, followed by nursing home residents. For the home care and nursing home populations, the interRAI HRQoL global estimates tended to be lower than HUI3 global scores obtained from survey respondents. While there were some statistically significant age, sex and diagnostic group differences in global scores and within attributes, the most notable differences were between populations from different care settings. DISCUSSION: The present study provides strong evidence for the validity of the interRAI HRQoL based on comparisons of distributional properties with those obtained with survey data based on the HUI3. The results demonstrate the importance of admission criteria for home care and nursing home settings, where function plays a more important role than demographic or diagnostic criteria. The interRAI HRQoL has a distinct advantage because it is gathered as part of normal clinical practice in care settings where interRAI instruments are mandatory and are used to assess all eligible persons in those sectors. In particular, those with severe cognitive and functional impairments (who tend to be under-represented in survey data) will be evaluated using the interRAI tools. Future research should build on this work by providing direct, person-level comparisons of interRAI HRQoL index and HUI3 scores, as well as longitudinal analyses to examine responsiveness to change.
Staff engagement and input are crucial to project success.
The complex nature of many health care interventions poses challenges for successful replication. This article presents insights on tackling these challenges primarily drawn from recent research and programs in the UK. These insights include the need to codify complex interventions in ways that reflect their social, context-sensitive, and dynamic nature; to capture learning as the intervention is implemented in new contexts; and to design programs in ways that respect adopters’ role in the spread process. We argue that program leaders should have familiarity with theoretical approaches for conceptualizing complex interventions, that a discrete testing-and-revision phase should be recognized as part of the spread process, and that programs should be designed in ways that build and sustain adopter commitment. These perspectives complement the traditional focus on the innovator in models of spread by highlighting the role adopters play in adapting interventions and generating learning, and they have implications for the design of programs to spread innovation.
It is challenging to interpret the results of multifaceted interventions due to complex program theories that are difficult to measure in a quantifiable manner. The aims of this paper were, first, to develop a model for a comprehensive quantitative implementation evaluation and, second, to operationalize it in the process evaluation of the stepped-wedge cluster randomized controlled trial: “Prevention of low back pain and its consequences among nurses’ aides in elderly care” to investigate if implementation differed across intervention components, steps, and settings (workplaces). METHODS: Operationalization of a quantifiable measure of implementation requires three steps: (1) development of a program logic and intervention protocol, (2) description of a complete and acceptable delivery of the intervention, and (3) description of what determines the receipt of the intervention. Program logic from a previously developed multifaceted stepped-wedge intervention was used. The optimal delivery of the intervention was defined as the deliverers’ full understanding and following of the intervention protocol and that they performed their best and contributed to the participants’ attention and motivation (fidelity). The optimal receipt of the intervention was defined as participants being fully present at all intervention activities (participation), being motivated and satisfied, and having a good social support (responsiveness). Measurements of the fidelity, participation, and responsiveness were obtained from logbooks and questionnaires. Fidelity was multiplied by participation to measure exposure of the intervention to the individual. The implementation was determined from optimal delivery and optimal receipt on a scale from 0 (no implementation) to 100 (full implementation) on individual and organizational level. RESULTS: Out of 753 sessions, 95% were delivered. The sessions were delivered with 91% success (fidelity) across the organization. Average participation, fidelity, exposure, and responsiveness were 50, 93, 48, and 89% across all participants. The implementation of the intervention was uniform across steps (p = 0.252) and workplaces (p = 0.125) but not for intervention components (p = 0.000). However, participation, fidelity, exposure, and responsiveness varied between workplaces. CONCLUSIONS: This study developed a quantifiable implementation evaluation measuring participation, fidelity, exposure, and responsiveness. The quantifiable implementation evaluation was suitable for comparing implementation across steps, components, and settings and can be applied in the analyses on the impact of implementation of complex interventions.
Quality improvement collaboratives (QIC) have proliferated internationally, but there is little empirical evidence for their effectiveness. METHOD: We searched Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library databases from January 1995 to December 2014. Studies were included if they met the criteria for a QIC intervention and the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) minimum study design characteristics for inclusion in a review. We assessed study bias using the EPOC checklist and the quality of the reported intervention using a subset of SQUIRE 1.0 standards. RESULTS: Of the 220 studies meeting QIC criteria, 64 met EPOC study design standards for inclusion. There were 10 cluster randomised controlled trials, 24 controlled before-after studies and 30 interrupted time series studies. QICs encompassed a broad range of clinical settings, topics and populations ranging from neonates to the elderly. Few reports fully described QIC implementation and methods, intensity of activities, degree of site engagement and important contextual factors. By care setting, an improvement was reported for one or more of the study’s primary effect measures in 83% of the studies (32/39 (82%) hospital based, 17/20 (85%) ambulatory care, 3/4 nursing home and a sole ambulance QIC). Eight studies described persistence of the intervention effect 6 months to 2 years after the end of the collaborative. Collaboratives reporting success generally addressed relatively straightforward aspects of care, had a strong evidence base and noted a clear evidence-practice gap in an accepted clinical pathway or guideline. CONCLUSIONS: QICs have been adopted widely as an approach to shared learning and improvement in healthcare. Overall, the QICs included in this review reported significant improvements in targeted clinical processes and patient outcomes. These reports are encouraging, but most be interpreted cautiously since fewer than a third met established quality and reporting criteria, and publication bias is likely.
Delivering Enhanced Health to Care Home residents requires consistency, coordination and a multidisciplinary team [MDT] approach with rapid access to specialist advice for shared decision making. The foundations of this model are evidence based and focus on frailty with comprehensive geriatric assessment at its core, the creation of shared personalised care plans and access to a specialist MDT for complex decision making. This guide is intended for local service providers and clinical commissioning groups (CCGs) who are considering establishing an Enhanced Health in Care Home model (EHCH). It serves to give a background to the service, as well as an explanation of the model, what is required to set it up and what benefits it can provide. It also shares potential problems and solutions, successes and dangers.
Organizational change is inevitable in any workplace. Previous research has shown that leadership and a number of organizational climate and contextual variables can affect the adoption of change initiatives. The effect of these workplace variables is particularly important in stressful work sectors such as aged care where employees work with challenging older clients who frequently exhibit dementia and depression. METHODS: This study sought to examine the effect of organizational climate and leadership variables on organizational readiness for change across 21 residential aged care facilities. Staff from each facility (N = 255) completed a self-report measure assessing organizational factors including organizational climate, leadership and readiness for change. RESULTS: A hierarchical regression model revealed that the organizational climate variables of work pressure, innovation, and transformational leadership were predictive of employee perceptions of organizational readiness for change. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that within aged care facilities an organization’s capacity to change their organizational climate and leadership practices may enhance an organization’s readiness for change.
An increasing number of hospitals react to recent demographic, epidemiological and managerial challenges moving from a traditional organizational model to a Patient-Centered (PC) hospital model. Although the theoretical managerial literature on the PC hospital model is vast, quantitative evaluations of the performance of hospitals that moved from the traditional to the PC organizational structure is scarce. However, quantitative analysis of effects of managerial changes is important and can provide additional argument in support of innovation. METHODS: We take advantage of a quasi-experimental setting and of a unique administrative data set on the population of hospital discharge charts (HDCs) over a period of 9 years of Lombardy, the richest and one of the most populated region of Italy. During this period three important hospitals switched to the PC model in 2010, whereas all the others remained with the functional organizational model. This allowed us to develop a difference-in-difference analysis of some selected measures of efficiency and effectiveness for PC hospitals focusing on the “between-variability” of the 25 major diagnostic categories (MDCs) in each hospital and estimating a difference-in-difference model. RESULTS: We contribute to the literature that addresses the evaluation of healthcare and hospital change by providing a quantitative estimation of efficiency and effectiveness changes following to the implementation of the PC hospital model. Results show that both efficiency and effectiveness have significantly increased in the average MDC of PC hospitals, thus confirming the need for policy makers to invest in new organizational models close to the principles of PC hospital structures. CONCLUSIONS: Although an organizational change towards the PC model can be a costly process, implying a rebalancing of responsibilities and power among hospital personnel (e.g. medical and nursing staff), our results suggest that changing towards a PC model can be worthwhile in terms of both efficacy and efficiency. This evidence can be used to inform and sustain hospital managers and policy makers in their hospital design efforts and to communicate the innovation advantages within the hospital organizations, among the personnel and in the public debate.
Research Practice and Methodology
Decision-makers are increasingly using qualitative evidence to understand various socioeconomic contexts, health systems and communities. This type of evidence is useful to assess the needs, values, perceptions and experiences of stakeholders, including policymakers, providers, communities and patients, and is thus crucial for complex health decision-making.
Resident self-reports are considered the primary source of quality of care information, but proxy reports by family or staff can also be used to supplement or substitute resident reports. This study analyses how the results of proxy reports vary according to residents’ cognition level. The data set used covers proxy reports of family ( n = 558) and staff ( n = 801), divided by the availability of resident self-reports (family yes n = 289, no n = 269; staff yes 393, no = 408). Family and staff proxies assessed residents’ quality of care as better when resident self-reports were also available, and quality of care tended to be assessed as poorer among those with higher cognitive decline. The results of this methodological study indicate the importance of using several proxy evaluations; however, these can only supplement resident self-reports, not replace them. The interpretation rules acknowledging dependency between residents’ cognition and proxy assessments could be used as a basis for future comparisons of quality improvement in long-term care and for painting a more comprehensive picture of service quality.
The Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist and guide was developed by an international team of experts to promote full and accurate description of trial interventions. It is now widely used in health research. The aim of this paper is to describe the experience of using TIDieR outside of trials, in a range of applied health research contexts, and make recommendations on its usefulness in such settings. MAIN BODY: We used the TIDieR template for intervention description in six applied health research projects. The six cases comprise a diverse sample in terms of clinical problems, population, settings, stage of intervention development and whether the intervention was led by researchers or the service deliverers. There was also variation in how the TIDieR description was produced in terms of contributors and time point in the project. Researchers involved in the six cases met in two workshops to identify issues and themes arising from their experience of using TIDieR. We identified four themes which capture the difficulties or complexities of using TIDieR in applied health research: (i) fidelity and adaptation: all aspects of an intervention can change over time; (ii) voice: the importance of clarity on whose voice the TIDieR description represents; (iii) communication beyond the immediate context: the usefulness of TIDieR for wider dissemination and sharing; (iv) the use of TIDieR as a research tool. CONCLUSION: We found TIDieR to be a useful tool for applied research outside the context of clinical trials and we suggest four revisions or additions to the original TIDieR which would enable it to better capture these complexities in applied health research: An additional item, ‘voice’ conveys who was involved in preparing the TIDieR template, such as researchers, service users or service deliverers. An additional item, ‘stage of implementation’ conveys what stage the intervention has reached, using a continuum of implementation research suggested by the World Health Organisation. A new column, ‘modification’ reminds authors to describe modifications to any item in the checklist. An extension of the ‘how well’ item encourages researchers to describe how contextual factors affected intervention delivery.
Despite growing interest in public engagement with research, there are many challenges to evaluating engagement. Evaluation findings are rarely shared or lead to demonstrable improvements in engagement practice. This has led to calls for a common ‘evaluation standard’ to provide tools and guidance for evaluating public engagement and driving good practice. This paper proposes just such a standard. A conceptual framework summarizes the three main ways in which evaluation can provide judgements about, and enhance the effectiveness of, public engagement with research. A methodological framework is then proposed to operationalize the conceptual framework. The standard is developed via a literature review, semi-structured interviews at Queen Mary University of London and an online survey. It is tested and refined in situ in a large public engagement event and applied post hoc to a range of public engagement impact case studies from the Research Excellence Framework. The goal is to standardize good practice in the evaluation of public engagement, rather than to use standard evaluation methods and indicators, given concerns from interviewees and the literature about the validity of using standard methods or indicators to cover such a wide range of engagement methods, designs, purposes and contexts. Adoption of the proposed standard by funders of public engagement activities could promote more widespread, high-quality evaluation, and facilitate longitudinal studies to draw our lessons for the funding and practice of public engagement across the higher education sector.
It is unclear how to engage a wide range of knowledge users in research. We aimed to map the evidence on engaging knowledge users with an emphasis on policy-makers, health system managers, and policy analysts in the knowledge synthesis process through a scoping review.
To compare assessments of health-related quality of life outcomes of care home residents reported by residents and care staff acting as proxies. DESIGN: Linear regression and bivariate modelling of paired assessments from care home residents and care staff. SETTING: 78 care homes in 2 regions in England. PARTICIPANTS: 556 care home residents aged 65 years or older and care staff. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: EQ-5D utility scores and responses to individual EQ-5D dimensions. RESULTS: The depression status, cognitive function, physical function, activities of daily living, social engagement, pain and dementia diagnosis of care home residents all predicted discrepancies in EQ-5D reporting. For residents with no depressive symptoms, care staff underestimated residents’ mean EQ-5D utility score by 0.134 (95% CI 0.097 to 0.171) and for those with severe depressive symptoms they overstated mean utility scores by 0.222 (95% CI 0.104 to 0.339). With increasing levels of pain in residents the care staff progressively estimated EQ-5D utilities above self-reported values; by 0.236 (95% CI 0.003 to 0.469) in those with the second highest pain scores. For those with no cognitive impairment, proxies overstated mean utility scores by 0.097 (95% CI 0.049 to 0.146), while for those with severe cognitive impairment they underestimated mean utility scores by 0.192 (95% CI 0.143 to 0.241). CONCLUSIONS: Care home residents and staff appear to differ fundamentally in their assessment of the health-related quality of life, as measured by the EQ-5D, of residents with different levels of depression, pain and/or cognitive impairment. This could lead to interventions evaluated using proxy-based quality-adjusted life year estimates being wrongly rejected on cost-effectiveness grounds and may also make it difficult for carers to act as advocates with health and social care professionals for certain groups of residents. A more resident-focussed approach to assessment of health-related quality of life is needed.
Person-centered care involves consideration of long-term care residents’ lived experience, including social relationships. The current cross-sectional study investigated co-resident social networks in three units of a 94-bed Australian nursing home, including an 18-bed dementia-specific unit (DSU). Six care staff were interviewed. Chart, self-reported social isolation, and staff-reported social engagement data were collected for 36 residents ages 63 to 94 who consented to full participation. Fifty-five additional residents were included in observations. Median positive-to-negative network size ratios within units were 1.5:1 (Unit 1), 0.7:1 (Unit 3), and 0:1 (DSU). Moderate positive correlations existed between: perceived social support and total positive relationships [rho(25) = 0.44, p = 0.03]; social withdrawal and total negative relationships [rho(36) = 0.51, p = 0.002]; and objective social isolation and total negative relationships [rho(22) = -0.44, p = 0.042]. Number and quality of relationships were associated with resident social withdrawal, perceived support, and isolation. High prevalence of isolation and negative relationships demonstrate the need for interventions.
There is growing awareness that the subjective experience of people with dementia is important for understanding behavior and improving quality of life. This paper reviews and reflects on the currently available theories on subjective experience in dementia and it explores the possibility of a knowledge gap on the influence of neurological deficits on experience in late stage dementia. METHODS: A literature review on current commonly used theories on experience in dementia was supplemented with a systematic review in PubMed and Psychinfo. For the systematic review, the terms used were Perception and Dementia and Behavior; and Awareness and Dementia and Long term care. RESULTS: Current models emphasize the psychosocial factors that influence subjective experience, but the consequences of neurological deficits are not elaborated upon. The systematic literature search on the neuropsychological functioning in dementia resulted in 631 papers, of which 94 were selected for review. The current knowledge is limited to the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease. Next to memory impairments, perception of the direct environment, interpretation of the environment, and inhibition of own responses to the environment seem to be altered in people with dementia. CONCLUSIONS: Without knowledge on how perception, interpretation and the ability for response control are altered, the behavior of people with dementia can easily be misinterpreted. Research into neuropsychological functioning of people in more severe stages and different forms of dementia is needed to be able to develop a model that is truly biopsychosocial. The proposed model can be used in such research as a starting point for developing tests and theories.
Long-term care (LTC) involves a range of support and services for people with chronic illness and disabilities who can not perform activities of daily living independently. Poor sleep increases the risk of LTC placement, and sleep disturbance is extremely common among LTC residents. The identification and management of sleep disturbance in LTC residents is a vital, but perhaps underappreciated, aspect of offering high-quality care for this already compromised population. This review describes the nature and consequences of sleep disturbances in LTC, clinical assessment and management of sleep disturbances in LTC, and implications for future research and clinical practice.
Frail and disabled individuals such as assisted living residents are embedded in “care convoys” comprised of paid and unpaid caregivers. We sought to learn how care convoys are configured and function in assisted living and understand how and why they vary and with what resident and caregiver outcomes. Method: We analyzed data from a qualitative study involving formal in-depth interviews, participant observation and informal interviewing, and record review. We prospectively studied 28 residents and 114 care convoy members drawn from four diverse assisted living communities over 2 years. Results: Care convoys involved family and friends who operated individually or shared responsibility, assisted living staff, and multiple external care workers. Residents and convoy members engaged in processes of “maneuvering together, apart, and at odds” as they negotiated the care landscape routinely and during health crises. Based on consensus levels, and the quality of collaboration and communication, we identified three main convoy types: cohesive, fragmented, and discordant. Discussion: Care convoys clearly shape care experiences and outcomes. Identifying strategies for establishing effective communication and collaboration practices and promoting convoy member consensus, particularly over time, is essential to the creation and maintenance of successful and supportive care partnerships.
Rehospitalization of nursing home (NH) residents is frequent, costly, potentially avoidable and associated with diminished quality of life and poor survival. This study aims to evaluate the impact and cost-effectiveness of the Regular Early Assessment Post-Discharge (REAP) protocol of coordinated specialist geriatrician and nurse practitioner visits on rates of rehospitalization, hospital length of stay, and emergency department presentations for NH residents recently discharged from hospital. DESIGN: Prospective randomized controlled study of recently hospitalized NH residents. SETTING: Twenty-one of 24 eligible NHs within the geographical catchment area of St George Hospital, a 650-bed university hospital in Sydney, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: NH residents from eligible facilities admitted to St George Hospital’s geriatric service were enrolled prior to hospital discharge. INTERVENTION: REAP intervention of monthly coordinated specialist geriatrician and nurse practitioner assessments within participants’ NHs for 6 months following hospital discharge. MEASUREMENTS: Impact of the REAP intervention on hospital readmissions, hospital inpatient days, emergency department utilization, general practitioner visits, investigations and associated costs during the study intervention period. RESULTS: Forty-three NH residents were randomly allocated to REAP intervention (n = 22) or control (n = 21) groups. The REAP intervention group had almost two-thirds fewer hospital readmissions (P = .03; Cohen’s d = 0.73) and half as many emergency department visits than controls. Total costs were 50% lower in the REAP intervention group, with lower total hospital inpatient (P = .04; Cohen’s d = 0.63) and total emergency department (P = .04; Cohen’s d = 0.65) costs. CONCLUSION: Cost-effective reductions in the utilization of hospital-related services were demonstrated following implementation of the REAP intervention for NH residents recently discharged from hospital.
Over the past decade, hearing loss has emerged as a key issue for aging and health. We describe why hearing loss may be especially disabling in nursing home settings and provide an estimate of prevalence using the Minimum Data Set (MDS v.3.0). We outline steps to mitigate hearing loss. Many solutions are inexpensive and low-tech, but require significant awareness and institutional commitment.
Original studies published over the last decade regarding time trends in dementia report mixed results. The aims of the present study were to use linked administrative health data for the province of Saskatchewan for the period 2005/2006 to 2012/2013 to: (1) examine simultaneous temporal trends in annual age- and sex-specific dementia incidence and prevalence among individuals aged 45 and older, and (2) stratify the changes in incidence over time by database of identification. METHODS: Using a population-based retrospective cohort study design, data were extracted from seven provincial administrative health databases linked by a unique anonymized identification number. Individuals 45 years and older at first identification of dementia between April 1, 2005 and March 31, 2013 were included, based on case definition criteria met within any one of four administrative health databases (hospital, physician, prescription drug, and long-term care). RESULTS: Between 2005/2006 and 2012/2013, the 12-month age-standardized incidence rate of dementia declined significantly by 11.07% and the 12-month age-standardized prevalence increased significantly by 30.54%. The number of incident cases decreased from 3,389 to 3,270 and the number of prevalent cases increased from 8,795 to 13,012. Incidence rate reductions were observed in every database of identification. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a simultaneous trend of decreasing incidence and increasing prevalence of dementia over a relatively short 8-year time period from 2005/2006 to 2012/2013. These trends indicate that the average survival time of dementia is lengthening. Continued observation of these time trends is warranted given the short study period.
To conduct a feasibility study on investigating the effectiveness of an alcohol-free essential oil mouthwash (AF-EOMW) to reduce plaque accumulation and oral pathogen levels in institutionalised elders receiving long-term care and to obtain preliminary results. BACKGROUND: Although simple, cost-effective strategies to improve oral hygiene in seniors such as the use of mouthwashes have been shown to reduce the risks of respiratory diseases, little information is available on the feasibility of implementing these measures. METHODS: Twenty-five elderly participants with significant loss of autonomy were initially recruited and divided into two groups. A test group rinsed with an AF-EOMW twice a day, and a control group rinsed with tap water. Data on demographic characteristics, dental history and tobacco use were collected from a questionnaire. Problems encountered during recruitment and data collection were documented. Plaque index, denture cleanliness and salivary levels of several pathogens were measured at three time points: baseline (T0 ), day 22 (T1 ) and day 45 (T2 ). RESULTS: Eighteen participants completed the study. Several problems were encountered during recruitment and execution of the study protocol. No significant differences in clinical or microbiological measures were found between the test group and controls at three time points (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: This pilot study shows that, if sufficient logistical and financial resources are available, it is feasible to conduct randomised clinical trials in a seniors’ facility. The use of an AF-EOMW to improve oral hygiene in seniors was not found to be superior to tap water. However, larger controlled clinical studies are needed to confirm these results.
Identifying how persons with dementia experience lived space is important for enabling supportive living environments and creating communities that compensate for the fading capabilities of these persons. Several single studies have explored this topic; however, few studies have attempted to explicitly review and synthesize this research literature. The aim of this systematic meta-synthesis was therefore to interpret and synthesize knowledge regarding persons with dementia’s experience of space. METHODS: A systematic, computerized search of AgeLine, CINAHL Complete, Embase, Medline and PsycINFO was conducted using a search strategy that combined MeSH terms and text words for different types of dementia with different descriptions of experience. Studies with 1) a sample of persons with dementia, 2) qualitative interviews as a research method and 3) a description of experiences of lived space were included. The search resulted in 1386 articles, of which 136 were identified as eligible and were read and assessed using the CASP criteria. The analysis was inspired by qualitative content analyses. RESULTS: This interpretative qualitative meta-synthesis included 45 articles encompassing interviews with 672 persons with dementia. The analysis showed that living in one’s own home and living in long-term care established different settings and posed diverse challenges for the experience of lived space in persons with dementia. The material revealed four main categories that described the experience of lived space: (1) belonging; (2) meaningfulness; (3) safety and security; and (4) autonomy. It showed how persons with dementia experienced a reduction in their lived space due to the progression of dementia. A comprehensive understanding of the categories led to the latent theme: “Living with dementia is like living in a space where the walls keep closing in”. CONCLUSION: This meta-synthesis reveals a process whereby lived space gradually becomes smaller for persons with dementia. This underscores the importance of being aware of the experiences of persons with dementia and the spatial dimensions of their life-world. To sustain person-centred care and support the preservation of continuity and identity, one must acknowledge not only the physical and social environment but also space as an existential experience for persons with dementia.
Earlier studies show that the main reasons for admission to long-term nursing home care are cognitive impairment and functional impairments of activities of daily life. However, descriptive evidence of mobility is scant. The aims of this study were to describe mobility at admission to nursing homes and to assess the association between mobility and degree of dementia. METHODS: We included 696 residents at admission to 47 nursing homes in Norway. Inclusion criteria were expected stay for more than 4 weeks and 65 years or older. In addition, younger residents with dementia were included. Residents with life expectancy shorter than six weeks were excluded. Mobility was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and the Nursing Home Life Space Diameter (NHLSD). The Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR) was used to describe the degree of dementia. The associations between mobility and degree of dementia was analysed using the Chi-square and the Kruskal-Wallis test (KW-test). When the KW-test indicated a statistical significant difference, we proceeded with planned group comparisons with the Mann-Whitney U-test. In addition, we performed multiple linear regression analyses to control for potential confounders. RESULTS: Forty-three percent of the residents were not able to perform the balance test in SPPB. Twenty-four percent of the residents were not able to walk four meters, while only 17.6% had a walking speed of 0.83 m/s or higher. Sixty-two percent of the residents were not able to rise from a chair or spent more than 60 s doing it. The median score on NHLSD area was 22 (IQR 17) and the median score on NHLSD dependency was 36 (IQR 26). Residents with severe dementia had significantly lower levels of mobility than residents with moderate dementia. Cognitive function was associated with SPPB and NHLSD dependency in the adjusted models. CONCLUSION: Nursing home residents form a frail, but heterogeneous group both in terms of cognition and mobility at admission. Mobility was negatively associated with cognitive function, and residents with severe dementia had significantly lower levels of mobility than residents with moderate dementia.
People with dementia who are being cared for in long-term care settings are often not engaged in meaningful activities. Offering them activities which are tailored to their individual interests and preferences might improve their quality of life and reduce challenging behaviour. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of personally tailored activities on psychosocial outcomes for people with dementia living in long-term care facilities. To describe the components of the interventions. To describe conditions which enhance the effectiveness of personally tailored activities in this setting. SEARCH METHODS: We searched ALOIS, the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group’s Specialized Register, on 16 June 2017 using the terms: personally tailored OR individualized OR individualised OR individual OR person-centred OR meaningful OR personhood OR involvement OR engagement OR engaging OR identity. We also performed additional searches in MEDLINE (Ovid SP), Embase (Ovid SP), PsycINFO (Ovid SP), CINAHL (EBSCOhost), Web of Science (ISI Web of Science), ClinicalTrials.gov, and the World Health Organization (WHO) ICTRP, to ensure that the search for the review was as up to date and as comprehensive as possible. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials offering personally tailored activities. All interventions included an assessment of the participants’ present or past preferences for, or interests in, particular activities as a basis for an individual activity plan. Control groups received either usual care or an active control intervention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently checked the articles for inclusion, extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of included studies. For all studies, we assessed the risk of selection bias, performance bias, attrition bias and detection bias. In case of missing information, we contacted the study authors. MAIN RESULTS: We included eight studies with 957 participants. The mean age of participants in the studies ranged from 78 to 88 years and in seven studies the mean MMSE score was 12 or lower. Seven studies were randomised controlled trials (three individually randomised, parallel group studies, one individually randomised cross-over study and three cluster-randomised trials) and one study was a non-randomised clinical trial. Five studies included a control group receiving usual care, two studies an active control intervention (activities which were not personally tailored) and one study included both an active control and usual care. Personally tailored activities were mainly delivered directly to the participants; in one study the nursing staff were trained to deliver the activities. The selection of activities was based on different theoretical models but the activities did not vary substantially.We found low-quality evidence indicating that personally tailored activities may slightly improve challenging behaviour (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.49 to 0.08; I(2) = 50%; 6 studies; 439 participants). We also found low-quality evidence from one study that was not included in the meta-analysis, indicating that personally tailored activities may make little or no difference to general restlessness, aggression, uncooperative behaviour, very negative and negative verbal behaviour (180 participants). There was very little evidence related to our other primary outcome of quality of life, which was assessed in only one study. From this study, we found that quality of life rated by proxies was slightly worse in the group receiving personally tailored activities (moderate-quality evidence, mean difference (MD) -1.93, 95% CI -3.63 to -0.23; 139 participants). Self-rated quality of life was only available for a small number of participants, and there was little or no difference between personally tailored activities and usual care on this outcome (low-quality evidence, MD 0.26, 95% CI -3.04 to 3.56; 42 participants). We found low-quality evidence that personally tailored activities may make little or no difference to negative affect (SMD -0.02, 95% CI -0.19 to 0.14; I(2) = 0%; 6 studies; 589 participants). We found very low quality evidence and are therefore very uncertain whether personally tailored activities have any effect on positive affect (SMD 0.88, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.32; I(2) = 80%; 6 studies; 498 participants); or mood (SMD -0.02, 95% CI -0.27 to 0.23; I(2) = 0%; 3 studies; 247 participants). We were not able to undertake a meta-analysis for engagement and the sleep-related outcomes. We found very low quality evidence and are therefore very uncertain whether personally tailored activities improve engagement or sleep-related outcomes (176 and 139 participants, respectively). Two studies that investigated the duration of the effects of personally tailored activities indicated that the intervention effects persisted only during the delivery of the activities. Two studies reported information about adverse effects and no adverse effects were observed. AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS: Offering personally tailored activities to people with dementia in long-term care may slightly improve challenging behaviour. Evidence from one study suggested that it was probably associated with a slight reduction in the quality of life rated by proxies, but may have little or no effect on self-rated quality of life. We acknowledge concerns about the validity of proxy ratings of quality of life in severe dementia. Personally tailored activities may have little or no effect on negative affect and we are uncertain whether they improve positive affect or mood. There was no evidence that interventions were more likely to be effective if based on one specific theoretical model rather than another. Our findings leave us unable to make recommendations about specific activities or the frequency and duration of delivery. Further research should focus on methods for selecting appropriate and meaningful activities for people in different stages of dementia.
To describe the relationship between nursing facility resident risk conditions and signs and symptoms at time of acute transfer and diagnosis of conditions associated with potentially avoidable acute transfers (pneumonia, urinary tract infection, congestive heart failure (CHF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma, dehydration, pressure sores). DESIGN: As part of a demonstration project to reduce potentially avoidable hospital transfers, Optimizing Patient Transfers, Impacting Medical Quality, Improving Symptoms: Transforming Institutional Care (OPTIMISTIC) project clinical staff collected data on residents who transferred to the emergency department (ED) or hospital. Cross-tabulations were used to identify associations between risk conditions or symptoms and hospital diagnoses or death. Mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to describe the significance of risk conditions, signs, or symptoms as predictors of potentially avoidable hospital diagnoses or death. SETTING: Indiana nursing facilities (N=19). PARTICIPANTS: Long-stay nursing facility residents (N=1,174), who experienced 1,931 acute transfers from November 2014 to July 2016. MEASUREMENTS: Participant symptoms, transfers, risk factors, and hospital diagnoses. RESULTS: We found that 44% of acute transfers were associated with 1 of 6 potentially avoidable diagnoses. Symptoms before transfer did not discriminate well among hospital diagnoses. Symptoms mapped into multiple diagnoses and most hospital diagnoses had multiple associated symptoms. For example, more than two-thirds of acute transfers of residents with a history of CHF and COPD were for reasons other than exacerbations of those two conditions. CONCLUSION: Although it is widely recognized that many transfers of nursing facility residents are potentially avoidable, determining “avoidability” at time of transfer is complex. Symptoms and risk conditions were only weakly predictive of hospital diagnoses.
The effect of reminiscence therapy on quality of life, attitudes to ageing, and depressive symptoms in institutionalized elderly adults with cognitive impairment: A quasi-experimental study.
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The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of group narrative reminiscence therapy on cognition, quality of life, attitudes towards ageing, and depressive symptoms in a group of older adults with cognitive impairment in institutional care. A quasi-experimental pretest/post-test control group design was employed. Interventions involving reminiscence therapy with a narrative approach were included in the care plan and implemented in groups of between five and ten respondents once a week for 8 weeks (total 59 participants). The members of the control group (n = 57) received standard care. A study questionnaire was designed to measure demographic characteristics, quality of life (WOHQOL-BREF, WHOQOL-OLD), depressive symptoms (GDS), cognition (MMSE), and attitudes towards ageing (AAQ). Reminiscence therapy positively affected older adults’ quality of life (mostly the areas of mental health and social participation), and also their attitudes to ageing and old age. It reduced symptoms of depression, but had no discernible effect on cognitive function. Reminiscence therapy can positively affect selected aspects of quality of life, attitudes towards old age, and symptoms of depression in the elderly in long-term healthcare facilities. Group reminiscence therapy can be used as a nursing intervention.
As people become increasingly physically dependent as they make the transition into older age, they may lose the ability to control bodily functions. Problems with eating, voiding and washing can be linked with feelings of disgust and, given the necessity for some of being assisted with intimate care activities, it has been suggested that self-focused disgust and concerns over the disgust of others may become important preoccupations in older people, with the potential to further impair their quality of life. METHOD: In a mixed-methods study, feelings of disgust in 54 physically dependent older adults living in residential homes were investigated. Participants completed measures of disgust sensitivity, mood, and two new scales assessing feelings of self-disgust and perceived other-disgust related to intimate care activities. Six of the residents who reported high levels of self-disgust also participated in semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: Results indicated that disgust was uncommon. Where present, self-disgust was related to perceptions of others’ feelings of disgust and general disgust sensitivity. These results were benchmarked against 21 community-dwelling older adults, who reported believing they would feel significantly more disgusting if they were to start receiving assistance. A thematic analysis identified the importance of underlying protective factors, the use of strategies and carer characteristics in ameliorating feelings of disgust. CONCLUSION: The results are discussed with reference to the disgust literature, with recommendations being made for ways in which self-disgust can be minimised in those making the transition to residential homes.
To compare resource use during the last 6 months of life of individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but for whom AD was not formally identified as the underlying cause of death (dying with AD) with that of those who had AD as underlying cause of death (dying of AD). DESIGN: Full-population retrospective analysis. SETTING: Belgium. PARTICIPANTS: All Belgian decedents in 2012. MEASUREMENTS: We linked participants’ healthcare, population, and death certificate data. Those who died of AD were selected based on underlying cause of death. Those who died with AD were selected using a validated algorithm. RESULTS: Individuals who died of AD had less hospital use than those who died with AD; were less often admitted to a palliative care unit but received palliative home care services slightly more often; and had use of physiotherapy, noninvasive ventilation, medical imaging, sedatives, oxygen, and opioids comparable with that of those who died with AD. CONCLUSION: During the last 6 months of life, individuals dying of AD used fewer intensive resources such as intensive care unit, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and invasive ventilation than those dying with AD, which suggests the effect of recognition of an end-of-life phase. Overall, individuals with AD rarely used palliative care services, suggesting a need for more efforts to encourage use of palliative care in individuals with AD.
An Age UK report investigates a variety of interventions which may be of assistance in the support of people with dementia and their families / carers. Case studies of services and projects designed to support wellbeing / living well for people with dementia are provided, complete with appendices of contact details and references.
Fuse 2018 will focus on how best to produce, integrate and communicate research evidence to help develop and evaluate policies in public health. Together, we will explore the use of research evidence in public health policymaking from around the world to discover what’s working, what’s not, and what are the trends, issues, and policy-related challenges across jurisdiction and sectors.
This is the first in a series of interactive webinars designed to build capacity in the basic principles of knowledge translation and implementation science. The webinar series is designed as a suite, with each session building on the last and thus would be ideally suited to those who are able to participate in all six. Familiarize yourself with the historical roots and rationale for knowledge translation and implementation science and to provide an overview of models, theories and frameworks used in the field and how these may be leveraged for implementing and evaluating patient safety initiatives.
This webinar will bring you inside the frontline health care experience through the use of preliminary research findings that describe the range of KT involvement by health professionals. Challenges that exist and the supports that are required to facilitate KT in clinical settings will be discussed.
To register contact Meghan Storey firstname.lastname@example.org by Wednesday, March 7th.
In this presentation Dr. Charles Cunningham will describe the use of Discrete Choice Conjoint Experiments, methods from marketing research and health economics that are used to model the design of knowledge translation and implementation strategies. Many of these studies have been conducted in collaboration with members of the Knowledge Translation and Exchange Community of Practice (Melanie Barwick and Don Buchanan). Dr. Cunningham will present the use of “latent class” and “multi-level latent class” approaches to model the preferences of different knowledge users, as well as the implications of these approaches.
This webinar builds on a foundation of work on wicked problems by presenting practical tools and approaches for working more effectively to address them. Because of these problems’ complexity and intractability, it is folly to suggest that any one or two tools can be used to eradicate them. However, there are some elements that are promising for initiating work on wicked problems. These include collaboration, dialogue and shared understanding.
According to the latest data from the federal Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, known as CMS, the percentage of long-term nursing home residents being given antipsychotic drugs dropped from about 24 percent in late 2011 to under 16 percent last year. Decreases were reported in all 50 states, with the biggest in Tennessee, California and Arkansas.
Staff-on-resident abuse reports more than tripled in eastern Ontario from 2011 to 2016
Chatting to care-home residents about their interests boosts their quality of life, according to trial.
A study published Monday by Human Rights Watch finds that about 179,000 nursing home residents are being given antipsychotic drugs, even though they don’t have schizophrenia or other serious mental illnesses that those drugs are designed to treat.
This blog post from ScienceMetrics synthesizes the major lines of a recent discussion from the panel of three chief scientist advisors in Canada (federal, and provincial for Ontario and Quebec).
Times Higher Education’s first major global survey of university staff views on work-life balance finds academics feeling stressed and underpaid, and struggling to fit in time for personal relationships and family around their ever-growing workloads.
Canadian seniors are less satisfied with the quality of the health care they receive than those age 65 and older in 10 similar countries, a key international survey shows.
David Kent takes a closer look at some of the journal’s peer reviewers – and the results are distressing.
Quebec unveiled new rules governing the use of surveillance cameras in the province’s long-term care facilities and an advocate for Ontario’s elderly says the Ontario government should consider doing the same.
These tools cover a variety of KT topics including how to: set up a research partnership or collaboration, plan a KT event such as a conference or stakeholder consultation, create your own KT products (e.g. clear language summaries, infographics, other graphics for sharing your messages via social media), evaluate the impact of your KT event or product, plan your KT strategy (e.g. for KT section of funding applications, for developing a social media campaign).
Critical Care Nurse seeks an Associate Editor to facilitate essential editorial tasks and to assist with editorial duties in close collaboration with the journal’s current Editor. This is a unique opportunity for the right individual to assume full Editor duties after an agreed-upon trial period.