Dr Carole Estabrooks to be inducted into the International Nurse Researcher Hall of Fame
Congratulations to Dr Carole Estabrooks for being selected as an inductee into the International Nurse Researcher Hall of Fame. She is being recognized for her lifetime achievements in and contributions to research and for mentoring future nurse researchers. She will be honoured at Sigma Theta Tau International’s International Nursing Research Congress this summer in Melbourne, Australia.
S. Chamberlain, S. Baik and C. Estabrooks.
Can J Aging 2018 Mar;37(1):1-11
Older adults who have reduced decision-making capacity and no family or friends to compensate for these deficiencies are known as unbefriended and require a public guardian. The purpose of this study was to review the peer-reviewed and grey literature to determine the scope of available research on unbefriended older adults in Canada and the United States. We found limited research examining unbefriended older adults. No Canadian studies or reports were located. Unbefriended older adults were childless or had fewer children, were more cognitively impaired, and were older than older adults who were not unbefriended. These findings demonstrate a stark scarcity of studies on unbefriended older adults. Research is urgently needed using standardized data collection of guardianship status in order to enable studies of the prevalence of public guardianship in Canada.
A. M. Bostrom, D. K. Sommerfeld, A. W. Stenhols and A. Kiessling.
PLoS One 2018 Feb 14;13(2):e0192017
Implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) is a complex task. This study, conducted in an acute geriatric setting, aims to compare self-reported capability beliefs on EBP between health professionals and students, and to compare the use of EBP between health professional groups. Occupational therapists, physicians, physiotherapists and registered nurses with three or more months’ employment, and all students from the occupational therapy, medical, physiotherapy and nursing programs, who had conducted workplace learning at the department, were invited. Data on capability beliefs and use of EBP were collected using the Evidence-based Practice Capabilities Beliefs Scale assessing six activities of EBP: formulate questions; search databases; search other sources; appraise research reports; participate in implementation in practice; and participate in evaluation. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Capability beliefs on EBP: The health professionals (n = 101; response rate 80%) reported high on search other sources but less on appraise research reports. The students (n = 124; response rate 73%) reported high on all EBP activities. The health professionals reported significantly higher on search other sources than the students. The students reported significantly higher on formulate questions and appraise research reports than the health professionals. No significant differences were identified between the health professional groups or between the student groups. Use of EBP: Health professionals reported wide-ranging use from several times each month to once every six months. The physicians reported significantly more frequent use than registered nurses and occupational therapists. Health professionals supervising students reported more frequent use of appraise research reports than the non-supervising group. There is a need for improving the use of EBP, particularly among registered nurses and occupational therapists. Supervision of students might enhance the motivation among staff to increase the use of EBP and students’ high EBP capability beliefs might inspire staff in this matter.
H. H. Keller, C. Lengyel, N. Carrier, et al.
Br J Nutr 2018 Feb 15:1-10
This study determines the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes consumed by long-term care (LTC) residents. This cross-sectional study was completed in thirty-two LTC homes in four Canadian provinces. Weighed and estimated food and beverage intake were collected over 3 non-consecutive days from 632 randomly selected residents. Nutrient intakes were adjusted for intra-individual variation and compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes. Proportion of participants, stratified by sex and use of modified (MTF) or regular texture foods, with intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI), were identified. Numbers of participants that met these adequacy values with use of micronutrient supplements was determined. Mean age of males (n 197) was 85·2 (sd 7·6) years and females (n 435) was 87·4 (sd 7·8) years. In all, 33 % consumed MTF; 78·2 % (males) and 76·1 % (females) took at least one micronutrient pill. Participants on a MTF had lower intake for some nutrients (males=4; females=8), but also consumed a few nutrients in larger amounts than regular texture consumers (males=4; females =1). More than 50 % of participants in both sexes and texture groups consumed inadequate amounts of folate, vitamins B6, Ca, Mg and Zn (males only), with >90 % consuming amounts below the EAR/AI for vitamin D, E, K, Mg (males only) and K. Vitamin D supplements resolved inadequate intakes for 50-70 % of participants. High proportions of LTC residents have intakes for nine of twenty nutrients examined below the EAR or AI. Strategies to improve intake specific to these nutrients are needed.
R. Feo, T. Conroy, E. Jangland, et al.
J Clin Nurs 2017 Dec 26
To generate a standardised definition for fundamental care and identify the discrete elements that constitute such care. BACKGROUND: There is poor conceptual clarity surrounding fundamental care. The Fundamentals of Care Framework aims to overcome this problem by outlining three core dimensions underpinning such care. Implementing the Framework requires a standardised definition for fundamental care that reflects the Framework’s conceptual understanding, as well as agreement on the elements that comprise such care (i.e., patient needs, such as nutrition, and nurse actions, such as empathy). This study sought to achieve this consensus. DESIGN: Modified Delphi study. METHODS: Three phases: (i) engaging stakeholders via an interactive workshop; (ii) using workshop findings to develop a preliminary definition for, and identify the discrete elements that constitute, fundamental care; and (iii) gaining consensus on the definition and elements via a two-round Delphi approach (Round 1 n = 38; Round 2 n = 28). RESULTS: Delphi participants perceived both the definition and elements generated from the workshop as comprehensive, but beyond the scope of fundamental care. Participants questioned whether the definition should focus on patient needs and nurse actions, or more broadly on how fundamental care should be delivered (e.g., through a trusting nurse-patient relationship), and the outcomes of this care delivery. There were also mixed opinions whether the definition should be nursing specific. CONCLUSIONS: This study has initiated crucial dialogue around how fundamental care is conceptualised and defined. Future work should focus on further refinements of the definition and elements with a larger, international group of practising nurses and service users. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The definition and elements, through ongoing refinement, will contribute to a robust evidence base that will underpin policy development and the systematic and effective teaching, delivery, measurement and evaluation of fundamental care.
Yibo Li, Jenelle L. Pederson, Thomas A. Churchill, et al.
Can Med Assoc J 2018 02/20;190(7):E184
Frailty is a state of vulnerability to diverse stressors. We assessed the impact of frailty on outcomes after discharge in older surgical patients.METHODS: We prospectively followed patients 65 years of age or older who underwent emergency abdominal surgery at either of 2 tertiary care centres and who needed assistance with fewer than 3 activities of daily living. Preadmission frailty was defined according to the Canadian Study of Health and Aging Clinical Frailty Scale as â€œwellâ€ (score 1 or 2), â€œvulnerableâ€ (score 3 or 4) or â€œfrailâ€ (score 5 or 6). We assessed composite end points of 30-day and 6-month all-cause readmission or death by multivariable logistic regression.RESULTS: Of 308 patients (median age 75 range 65â€“94] yr, median Clinical Frailty Score 3 range 1â€“6]), 168 (54.5%) were classified as vulnerable and 68 (22.1%) as frail. Ten (4.2%) of those classified as vulnerable or frail received a geriatric consultation. At 30 days after discharge, the proportions of patients who were readmitted or had died were greater among vulnerable patients (n = 27 16.1%]; adjusted odds ratio OR] 4.60, 95% confidence interval CI] 1.29â€“16.45) and frail patients (n = 12 17.6%]; adjusted OR 4.51, 95% CI 1.13â€“17.94) than among patients who were well (n = 3 4.2%]). By 6 months, the degree of frailty independently and dose-dependently predicted readmission or death: 56 (33.3%) of the vulnerable patients (adjusted OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.01â€“4.55) and 37 (54.4%) of the frail patients (adjusted OR 3.27, 95% CI 1.32â€“8.12) were readmitted or had died, compared with 11 (15.3%) of the patients who were well.INTERPRETATION: Vulnerability and frailty were prevalent in older patients undergoing surgery and unlikely to trigger specialized geriatric assessment, yet remained independently associated with greater risk of readmission for as long as 6 months after discharge. Therefore, the degree of frailty has important prognostic value for readmission.
22-24 October Melbourne Australia
DEADLINE: 29 April
The Global Evidence and Implementation Summit 2018 (GEIS) will bring together experts from across the world to talk about their experiences in generating and implementing evidence for better policy and practice. The summit will explore the evidence for designing, implementing and reviewing effective programs and policies. Expected to reach 700 delegates from 30 countries, GEIS 2018 will share the latest evidence synthesis and implementation science research and practice strategies for improving the lives of individuals, families and communities worldwide.
ARIMA is offering a 12-month postdoctoral fellowship of $38,000 to promote and support the postdoctoral project of a young researcher who has completed, or will soon complete his or her doctoral studies in a field related to the social sciences. During tenure of the fellowship, the selected candidate will be expected to carry out a postdoctoral research project that contributes ARIMA’S research theme.
S. Morton, S. Wilson, S. Inglis, K. Ritchie and A. Wales.
BMC Health Serv Res 2018 Feb 21;18(1):133-018-2930-3
There are many challenges in delivering and evaluating knowledge for healthcare, but the lack of clear routes from knowledge to practice is a root cause of failures in safety within healthcare. Various types and sources of knowledge are relevant at different levels within the healthcare system. These need to be delivered in a timely way that is useful and actionable for those providing services or developing policies. How knowledge is taken up and used through networks and relationships, and the difficulties in attributing change to knowledge-based interventions, present challenges to understanding how knowledge into action (K2A) work influences healthcare outcomes. This makes it difficult to demonstrate the importance of K2A work, and harness support for its development and resourcing. This paper presents the results from a project commissioned by NHS Education for Scotland (NES) and Healthcare Improvement Scotland (HIS) to create an evaluation framework to help understand the NHS Scotland Knowledge into Action model. METHODS: The team took a developmental approach to creating an evaluation framework that would be useful and practical. This included a literature review to ensure the evaluation was evidence-based; adaptation of contribution analysis for K2A project; action research with K2A project leads to refine the work and develop suitable measures. RESULTS: Principles for evaluation and an evaluation framework based on contribution analysis were developed and implemented on a trial project. An outcomes chain was developed for the K2A programme and specific projects. This was used to design, collect and collate evidence of the K2A intervention. Data collected routinely by the intervention was supplemented with specific feedback measures from K2A project users. CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation approach allowed for scrutiny of both processes and outcomes and was adaptable to projects on different scales. This framework has proved useful as a planning, reflecting and evaluation tool for K2A, and could be more widely used to evidence the ways in which knowledge to action work helps improve healthcare outcomes.
L. Geerligs, N. M. Rankin, H. L. Shepherd and P. Butow.
Implement Sci 2018 Feb 23;13(1):36-018-0726-9
Translation of evidence-based interventions into hospital systems can provide immediate and substantial benefits to patient care and outcomes, but successful implementation is often not achieved. Existing literature describes a range of barriers and facilitators to the implementation process. This systematic review identifies and explores relationships between these barriers and facilitators to highlight key domains that need to be addressed by researchers and clinicians seeking to implement hospital-based, patient-focused interventions. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, PsychInfo, Embase, Web of Science, and CINAHL using search terms focused specifically on barriers and facilitators to the implementation of patient-focused interventions in hospital settings. To be eligible, papers needed to have collected formal data (qualitative or quantitative) that specifically assessed the implementation process, as experienced by the staff involved. RESULTS: Of 4239 papers initially retrieved, 43 papers met inclusion criteria. Staff-identified barriers and facilitators to implementation were grouped into three main domains: system, staff, and intervention. Bi-directional associations were evident between these domains, with the strongest links evident between staff and intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Researchers and health professionals engaged in designing patient-focused interventions need to consider barriers and facilitators across all three identified domains to increase the likelihood of implementation success. The interrelationships between domains are also crucial, as resources in one area can be leveraged to address barriers in others. These findings emphasize the importance of careful intervention design and pre-implementation planning in response to the specific system and staff context in order to increase likelihood of effective and sustainable implementation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This review was registered on the PROSPERO database: CRD42017057554 in February 2017.
X. Xiang, S. G. Robinson-Lane, W. Rosenberg and R. Alvarez.
J Gerontol Soc Work 2018 Feb 28:1-15
This qualitative study analyzed the experience of community-based organizations (CBOs) implementing and sustaining the Bridge Model of Transitional Care, a social work-based health service intervention for reducing hospital readmissions. We conducted semi-structured interviews with clinical supervisors from 13 CBOs that received Bridge Model training between 2012 and 2015. CBOs faced significant challenges implementing and sustaining transitional care programs, particularly related to building effective and sustainable partnerships with hospitals. Additional barriers to program implementation and sustainability included financial barriers and staff turnover. Facilitators to implementation and sustainability included organizational champions, organizational culture, and value of evidence. Recommendations for CBOs to implement health service interventions include gaining early buy-in from hospital partners, creating a contractual arrangement with the hospital partner, understanding changes in health-care payment models, diversifying funding sources, developing an evaluation plan, and nurturing organizational champions.
Haynes A, Butow P, Brennan S, Williamson A, Redman S, Carter S, et al.
Evidence & Policy: A Journal of Research, Debate and Practice 2018 -02-14T00:00:00;14(1):7-34
This paper explores the enormous variation in views, championing behaviours and impacts of liaison people: staff nominated to facilitate, tailor and promote SPIRIT (a research utilisation intervention trial in six Australian health policy agencies). Liaison people made cost/benefit analyses: they weighed the value of participation against its risks and demands in the context of organisational goals, knowledge utilisation norms, epistemology and leadership support. There was a degree of self-fulfilment (organisations got what they put in), but SPIRIT could not always be tailored to address local knowledge needs. We present nine propositions for identifying and supporting liaison people in similar interventions.
Bøllingtoft Knudsen, Søren
Evidence & Policy: A Journal of Research, Debate and Practice 2018 -02-14T00:00:00;14(1):63-80
Focus on evidence-based policymaking is greater than ever, and public spending on evaluations is rising. A primary merit of these expenditures is that politicians actually use new knowledge instrumentally – to influence and inform decision making. Nevertheless, we know surprisingly little about whether and how research-based knowledge is utilised. This paper presents a new way of documenting Degrees of Knowledge Utilisation: The DoKU-scale. The scale is tested empirically in a five-year meta-evaluation covering 54 evaluations and 334 legal sources. Through robust method triangulation, the DoKU-scale enables comparison of knowledge utilisation across large numbers of knowledge sources and over time.
S. Eltaybani, M. Noguchi-Watanabe, A. Igarashi, Y. Saito and N. Yamamoto-Mitani.
Int J Nurs Stud 2018 Feb 2;80:118-127
Keeping long-term care nurses employed is necessary to sustain the current and future demand for high-quality long-term care services. Understanding the factors relating to intention to stay among long-term care nurses is limited by the scarcity of studies in long-term care settings, lack of investigation of multiple factors, and the weakness of existing explanatory models. OBJECTIVE: To identify the factors associated with long-term care nurses’ intention to stay in their current workplace. DESIGN: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey. SETTING: Two hundred and fifty-seven hospitals with long-term care wards across Japan. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 3128 staff nurses and 257 nurse managers from the long-term care wards of the participating hospitals. METHOD: The questionnaire assessed nurses’ intention to continue working in the current workplace as well as potential related factors, including individual factors (demographic data, reason for choosing current workplace, burnout, work engagement, somatic symptom burden) and unit factors (unit size, nurse-manager-related data, patients’ medical acuity, average number of overtime hours, recreational activities, social support, perceived quality of care process, educational opportunities, feeling of loneliness, and ability to request days off). Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to determine which variables best explained nurses’ intention to stay in their workplace. RESULTS: Only 40.1% of the respondents reported wanting to continue working at their current workplace. The regression analysis revealed that long-term care nurses’ intention to stay was positively associated with nurses’ age (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.02 [1.01-1.03]), work engagement (1.24 [1.14-1.35]), getting appropriate support from nurse managers (2.78 [1.60-4.82]), perceived quality of care process (1.04 [1.01-1.06]), educational opportunities (1.06 [1.0-1.13]), and various specific reasons for choosing their workplace (e.g., a good workplace atmosphere, being interested in gerontological nursing, and a high salary). By contrast, intention to stay was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion (0.93 [0.91-0.95]) and depersonalization (0.91 [0.89-0.93]). Intention to stay was associated with neither nurses’ qualifications nor patient medical acuity. CONCLUSION: Reason for choosing the workplace, work engagement, getting support from the nurse manager, and perceived quality of care process are significant predictors of long-term care nurses’ intention to stay in the workplace. Promoting such nurses’ work engagement, provision of high-quality care, and access to educational opportunities might augment long-term care nurses’ intention to stay.
M. Bender, L. Spiva, W. Su and L. Hites.
J Nurs Manag 2018 Feb 9
To determine the power of a conceptual clinical nurse leader practice model to explain the care model’s enactment and trajectory in real world settings. BACKGROUND: How nursing, organised into specific models of care, functions as an organisational strategy for quality is not well specified. Clinical nurse leader integrated care delivery is one emerging model with growing adoption. A recently validated clinical nurse leader practice model conceptualizes the care model’s characteristics and hypothesizes their mechanisms of action. METHODS: Pattern matching case study design and mixed methods were used to determine how the care model’s constructs were operationalized in one regional United States health system that integrated clinical nurse leaders into their care delivery system in 2010. RESULTS: The findings confirmed the empirical presence of all clinical nurse leader practice model constructs and provided a rich description of how the health system operationalized the constructs in practice. The findings support the hypothesized model pathway from Clinical Nurse Leader structuring to Clinical Nurse Leader practice and outcomes. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate analytic generalizability of the clinical nurse leader practice model. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Nursing practice organised to focus on microsystem care processes can catalyse multidisciplinary engagement with, and consistent enactment of, quality practices. The model has great potential for transferability across diverse health systems.
R. Ramaswamy, J. Reed, N. Livesley, et al.
Int J Qual Health Care 2018 Feb 15
During the Salzburg Global Seminar Session 565-‘Better Health Care: How do we learn about improvement?’, participants discussed the need to unpack the ‘black box’ of improvement. The ‘black box’ refers to the fact that when quality improvement interventions are described or evaluated, there is a tendency to assume a simple, linear path between the intervention and the outcomes it yields. It is also assumed that it is enough to evaluate the results without understanding the process of by which the improvement took place. However, quality improvement interventions are complex, nonlinear and evolve in response to local settings. To accurately assess the effectiveness of quality improvement and disseminate the learning, there must be a greater understanding of the complexity of quality improvement work. To remain consistent with the language used in Salzburg, we refer to this as ‘unpacking the black box’ of improvement. To illustrate the complexity of improvement, this article introduces four quality improvement case studies. In unpacking the black box, we present and demonstrate how Cynefin framework from complexity theory can be used to categorize and evaluate quality improvement interventions. Many quality improvement projects are implemented in complex contexts, necessitating an approach defined as ‘probe-sense-respond’. In this approach, teams experiment, learn and adapt their changes to their local setting. Quality improvement professionals intuitively use the probe-sense-respond approach in their work but document and evaluate their projects using language for ‘simple’ or ‘complicated’ contexts, rather than the ‘complex’ contexts in which they work. As a result, evaluations tend to ask ‘How can we attribute outcomes to the intervention?’, rather than ‘What were the adaptations that took place?’. By unpacking the black box of improvement, improvers can more accurately document and describe their interventions, allowing evaluators to ask the right questions and more adequately evaluate quality improvement interventions.
C. A. Surr, A. W. Griffiths and R. Kelley.
Clin Interv Aging 2018 Jan 26;13:165-177
Dementia Care Mapping (DCM) is an observational tool set within a practice development process. Following training in the method, DCM is implemented via a cyclic process of briefing staff, conducting mapping observations, data analysis and report preparation, feedback to staff and action planning. Recent controlled studies of DCM’s efficacy have found heterogeneous results, and variability in DCM implementation has been indicated as a potential contributing factor. This review aimed to examine the primary research evidence on the processes and the barriers and facilitators to implementing DCM as a practice development method within formal dementia care settings. PUBMED, PsycINFO, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library-Cochrane reviews, HMIC (Ovid), Web of Science and Social Care Online were searched using the term “Dementia Care Mapping”. Inclusion criterion was primary research studies in any formal dementia care settings where DCM was used as a practice development tool and which included discussion/critique of the implementation processes. Assessment of study quality was conducted using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Twelve papers were included in the review, representing nine research studies. The papers included discussion of various components of the DCM process, including mapper selection and preparation; mapping observations; data analysis, report writing and feedback; and action planning. However, robust evidence on requirements for successful implementation of these components was limited. Barriers and facilitators to mapping were also discussed. The review found some consensus that DCM is more likely to be successfully implemented if the right people are selected to be trained as mappers, with appropriate mapper preparation and ongoing support and with effective leadership for DCM within the implementing organization/unit and in organizations that already have a person-centered culture or ethos. Future development of the DCM tool should consider ways to save on time taken to conduct DCM cycles. More research to understand the ingredients for effective DCM implementation is needed.
J. Gilissen, L. Pivodic, C. Gastmans, et al.
BMC Geriatr 2018 Feb 14;18(1):47-018-0723-5
Advance care planning (ACP) has been identified as particularly relevant for nursing home residents, but it remains unclear how or under what circumstances ACP works and can best be implemented in such settings. We aimed to develop a theory that outlines the hypothetical causal pathway of ACP in nursing homes, i.e. what changes are expected, by means of which processes and under what circumstances. METHODS: The Theory of Change approach is a participatory method of programme design and evaluation whose underlying intention is to improve understanding of how and why a programme works. It results in a Theory of Change map that visually represents how, why and under what circumstances ACP is expected to work in nursing home settings in Belgium. Using this approach, we integrated the results of two workshops with stakeholders (n = 27) with the results of a contextual analysis and a systematic literature review. RESULTS: We identified two long-term outcomes that ACP can achieve: to improve the correspondence between residents’ wishes and the care/treatment they receive and to make sure residents and their family feel involved in planning their future care and are confident their care will be according to their wishes. Besides willingness on the part of nursing home management to implement ACP and act accordingly, other necessary preconditions are identified and put in chronological order. These preconditions serve as precursors to, or requirements for, accomplishing successful ACP. Nine original key intervention components with specific rationales are identified at several levels (resident/family, staff or nursing home) to target the preconditions: selection of a trainer, ensuring engagement by management, training ACP reference persons, in-service education for healthcare staff, information for staff, general practitioners, residents and their family, ACP conversations and documentation, regular reflection sessions, multidisciplinary meetings, and formal monitoring. ONCLUSIONS: The Theory of Change map presented here illustrates a theory of how ACP is expected to work in order to achieve its desired long-term outcomes while highlighting organisational factors that potentially facilitate the implementation and sustainability of ACP. We provide the first comprehensive rationale of how ACP is expected to work in nursing homes, something that has been called for repeatedly.
J. Woiceshyn, K. Blades and S. R. Pendharkar.
Health Care Manage Rev 2017 Jan/Mar;42(1):76-86
BACKGROUND: Increased demand and escalating costs necessitate innovation in health care. The challenge is to implement complex innovations-those that require coordinated use across the adopting organization to have the intended benefits. PURPOSE: We wanted to understand why and how two of five similar hospitals associated with the same health care authority made more progress with implementing a complex inpatient discharge innovation whereas the other three experienced more difficulties in doing so. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a qualitative comparative case study of the implementation process at five comparable urban hospitals adopting the same inpatient discharge innovation mandated by their health care authority. We analyzed documents and conducted 39 interviews of the health care authority and hospital executives and frontline managers across the five sites over a 1-year period while the implementation was ongoing. FINDINGS: In two and a half years, two of the participating hospitals had made significant progress with implementing the innovation and had begun to realize benefits; they exemplified an integrated implementation mode. Three sites had made minimal progress, following a fragmented implementation mode. In the former mode, a semiautonomous health care organization developed a clear overall purpose and chose one umbrella initiative to implement it. The integrative initiative subsumed the rest and guided resource allocation and the practices of hospital executives, frontline managers, and staff who had bought into it. In contrast, in the fragmented implementation mode, the health care authority had several overlapping, competing innovations that overwhelmed the sites and impeded their implementation. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Implementing a complex innovation across hospital sites required (a) early prioritization of one initiative as integrative, (b) the commitment of additional (traded off or new) human resources.
D. L. Palms, E. Mungai, T. Eure, et al.
Am J Infect Control 2018 Feb 22
In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched the Long-term Care Facility (LTCF) Component of the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) designed for LTCFs to monitor Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs), urinary tract infections (UTIs), infections due to multidrug-resistant organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and infection prevention process measures. METHODS: We describe characteristics and reporting patterns of facilities enrolled in the first 3 years of the surveillance system and rate estimates for CDI, UTI, and MRSA data submitted between 2013 and 2015. RESULTS: From 2013-2015, 279 LTCFs were enrolled and eligible to report to the NHSN with variability in reporting from year to year. Crude rate estimates pooled over these 3 years from reporting facilities were 0.98 incident LTCF-onset CDI cases per 10,000 resident days, 0.59 UTI cases per 1,000 resident days, and 0.10 LTCF-onset MRSA cases per 1,000 resident days. CONCLUSIONS: These initial data demonstrate the capability of the NHSN LTCF Component as a national surveillance system for monitoring infections in LTCFs. Further investigation is needed to understand factors associated with successful enrollment and reporting. As participation increases, data from a larger group of LTCFs will be used to establish national baselines and track prevention goals.
Economic theory suggests that competition and information can both be important for product quality, and yet evidence on how they may interact to affect quality is sparse. This paper estimates the impact of competition between nursing homes on their quality, and how this impact varies when consumers have better access to information. The effect of competition is identified using exogenous variation in the geographical proximity of nursing homes to their potential consumers. The change in information transparency is captured by the launch of the Five-Star Quality Rating System in 2009, which improved access to the quality information of nursing homes. We find that while the effect of competition on nursing home quality is generally rather limited, this effect becomes significantly stronger with increased information transparency. The results suggest that regulations on public quality reporting and on market structure are policy complements, and should be considered jointly to best improve quality.
S. Pask, C. Pinto, K. Bristowe, et al.
Palliat Med 2018 Feb 1:269216318757622
BACKGROUND: Palliative care patients are often described as complex but evidence on complexity is limited. We need to understand complexity, including at individual patient-level, to define specialist palliative care, characterise palliative care populations and meaningfully compare interventions/outcomes. AIM: To explore palliative care stakeholders’ views on what makes a patient more or less complex and insights on capturing complexity at patient-level. DESIGN: In-depth qualitative interviews, analysed using Framework analysis. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Semi-structured interviews across six UK centres with patients, family, professionals, managers and senior leads, purposively sampled by experience, background, location and setting (hospital, hospice and community). RESULTS: 65 participants provided an understanding of complexity, which extended far beyond the commonly used physical, psychological, social and spiritual domains. Complexity included how patients interact with family/professionals, how services’ respond to needs and societal perspectives on care. ‘Pre-existing’, ‘cumulative’ and ‘invisible’ complexity are further important dimensions to delivering effective palliative and end-of-life care. The dynamic nature of illness and needs over time was also profoundly influential. Adapting Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory, we categorised findings into the microsystem (person, needs and characteristics), chronosystem (dynamic influences of time), mesosystem (interactions with family/health professionals), exosystem (palliative care services/systems) and macrosystem (societal influences). Stakeholders found it acceptable to capture complexity at the patient-level, with perceived benefits for improving palliative care resource allocation. CONCLUSION: Our conceptual framework encompasses additional elements beyond physical, psychological, social and spiritual domains and advances systematic understanding of complexity within the context of palliative care. This framework helps capture patient-level complexity and target resource provision in specialist palliative care.
D. M. Guthrie, J. G. S. Davidson, N. Williams, et al.
PLoS One 2018 Feb 15;13(2):e0192971
The objective of the current study was to understand the added effects of having a sensory impairment (vision and/or hearing impairment) in combination with cognitive impairment with respect to health-related outcomes among older adults (65+ years old) receiving home care or residing in a long-term care (LTC) facility in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using existing data collected with one of two interRAI assessments, one for home care (n = 291,824) and one for LTC (n = 110,578). Items in the assessments were used to identify clients with single sensory impairments (e.g., vision only [VI], hearing only [HI]), dual sensory impairment (DSI; i.e., vision and hearing) and those with cognitive impairment (CI). We defined seven mutually exclusive groups based on the presence of single or combined impairments. RESULTS: The rate of people having all three impairments (i.e., CI+DSI) was 21.3% in home care and 29.2% in LTC. Across the seven groups, individuals with all three impairments were the most likely to report loneliness, to have a reduction in social engagement, and to experience reduced independence in their activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental ADLs (IADLs). Communication challenges were highly prevalent in this group, at 38.0% in home care and 49.2% in LTC. In both care settings, communication difficulties were more common in the CI+DSI group versus the CI-alone group. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of combined sensory and cognitive impairments is high among older adults in these two care settings and having all three impairments is associated with higher rates of negative outcomes than the rates for those having CI alone. There is a rising imperative for all health care professionals to recognize the potential presence of hearing, vision and cognitive impairments in those for whom they provide care, to ensure that basic screening occurs and to use those results to inform care plans.
Jessica A. Ogarek, Ellen M. McCreedy, Kali S. Thomas, Joan M. Teno and Pedro L. Gozalo.
J Am Geriatr Soc
Objectives: To revise the Minimum Data Set (MDS) Changes in Health, End-stage disease and Symptoms and Signs (CHESS) scale, an MDS 2.0-based measure widely used to predict mortality in institutional settings, in response to the release of MDS 3.0. Design: Development of a predictive scale using observational data from the MDS and Medicare Master Beneficiary Summary File. Setting: All Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)-certified nursing homes in the United States. Participants: Development cohort of 1.3 million Medicare beneficiaries newly admitted to a CMS-certified nursing home during 2012. Primary validation cohort of 1.2 million Medicare recipients who were newly admitted to a CMS-certified nursing home during 2013. Measurements: Items from the MDS 3.0 assessments identified as likely to predict mortality. Death information was obtained from the Medicare Master Beneficiary Summary File. Results: MDS-CHESS 3.0 scores ranges from 0 (most stable) to 5 (least stable). Ninety-two percent of the primary validation sample with a CHESS scale score of 5 and 15% with a CHESS scale of 0 died within 1 year. The risk of dying was 1.63 times as great (95% CI=1.628â€“1.638) for each unit increase in CHESS scale score. The MDS-CHESS 3.0 is also strongly related to hospitalization within 30 days and successful discharge to the community. The scale predicted death in long-stay residents at 30 days (C=0.759, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.756â€“0.761), 60 days (C=0.716, 95% CI=0.714â€“0.718) and 1 year (C=0.655, 95% CI=0.654â€“0.657). Conclusion: The MDS-CHESS 3.0 predicts mortality in newly admitted and long-stay nursing home populations. The additional relationship to hospitalizations and successful discharges to community increases the utility of this scale as a potential risk adjustment tool.
This guide provides advice to lead large-scale changes in complex health systems. Among the topics addressed, we find a presentation of tools and approaches to succeed in achieving large-scale changes.
L. A. Curry, M. A. Brault, E. L. Linnander, et al.
BMJ Qual Saf 2018 Mar;27(3):207-217
BACKGROUND: Hospital organisational culture affects patient outcomes including mortality rates for patients with acute myocardial infarction; however, little is known about whether and how culture can be positively influenced. METHODS: This is a 2-year, mixed-methods interventional study in 10 US hospitals to foster improvements in five domains of organisational culture: (1) learning environment, (2) senior management support, (3) psychological safety, (4) commitment to the organisation and (5) time for improvement. Outcomes were change in culture, uptake of five strategies associated with lower risk-standardised mortality rates (RSMR) and RSMR. Measures included a validated survey at baseline and at 12 and 24 months (n=223; average response rate 88%); in-depth interviews (n=393 interviews with 197 staff); and RSMR data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. RESULTS: We observed significant changes (p<0.05) in culture between baseline and 24 months in the full sample, particularly in learning environment (p<0.001) and senior management support (p<0.001). Qualitative data indicated substantial shifts in these domains as well as psychological safety. Six of the 10 hospitals achieved substantial improvements in culture, and four made less progress. The use of evidence-based strategies also increased significantly (per hospital average of 2.4 strategies at baseline to 3.9 strategies at 24 months; p<0.05). The six hospitals that demonstrated substantial shifts in culture also experienced significantly greater reductions in RSMR than the four hospitals that did not shift culture (reduced RSMR by 1.07 percentage points vs 0.23 percentage points; p=0.03) between 2011-2014 and 2012-2015. CONCLUSIONS: Investing in strategies to foster an organisational culture that supports high performance may help hospitals in their efforts to improve clinical outcomes.
A. C. Almblad, P. Siltberg, G. Engvall and M. Malqvist.
J Pediatr Nurs 2018 Jan – Feb;38:33-39
PURPOSE: To describe data of Pediatric Early Warning Score (PEWS) registrations and to evaluate the implementation of PEWS by examining adherence to clinical guidelines based on measured PEWS, and to relate findings to work context. DESIGN AND METHODS: PEWS, as a part of a concept called Early Detection and Treatment-Children (EDT-C) was implemented at three wards at a Children’s Hospital in Sweden. Data were collected from the Electronic Patient Record (EPR) retrospectively to assess adherence to guidelines. The Alberta Context Tool (ACT) was used to assess work context among healthcare professionals (n=109) before implementation of EDT-C. RESULTS: The majority of PEWS registrations in EPR were low whereas 10% were moderate to high. Adherences to ward-specific guidelines at admission and for saturation in respiratory distress were high whereas adherence to pain assessment was low. There were significant differences in documented recommended actions between wards. Some differences in leadership and evaluation between wards were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of PEWS implementation indicated frequent use of the tool despite most scores being low. High scores (5-9) occurred 28 times, which may indicate that patients with a high risk of clinical deterioration were identified. Documentation of the consequent recommended actions was however incomplete and there was a large variation in adherence to guidelines. Contextual factors may have an impact on adherence. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: EDT-C can lead to increased knowledge about early detection of deterioration, strengthen nurses as professionals, optimize treatment and teamwork and thereby increase patient safety for children treated in hospitals.
M. Bertram, N. Loncarevic, C. Radl-Karimi, M. Thogersen, T. Skovgaard and A. R. Aro.
Health Res Policy Syst 2018 Feb 21;16(1):14-018-0290-4
The present study aims to test out contextually tailored interventions to increase evidence-informed health-enhancing physical activity policy-making in two Danish municipalities. METHODS: The study was performed as experiments in natural settings. Based on results from a pre-intervention study defining the needs and contexts of the two settings, the interventions were developed based on logical models. The interventions aimed at increasing the use of knowledge in policy-making, primarily via strengthening intersectoral collaboration. The interventions were evaluated via pre-, post- and 12-month follow-up questionnaires and qualitative interviews were carried out prior to the intervention start. RESULTS: The use of knowledge changed in several ways. In one municipality, the use of stakeholder and target group knowledge increased whereas, in the other municipality, the use of research knowledge increased. In both municipalities, the ability to translate knowledge to local context, the political request and the organisational procedures for use of knowledge increased during the interventions. There was some variation between the two settings, which shows the importance of tailoring to context. Most of the changes were diminished at the 12-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: Contextually tailored interventions have the potential to increase evidence-informed policy-making on health-enhancing physical activity. However, this finding needs to be tested in larger samples and its sustainability must be strengthened.
H. O. Witteman, S. Chipenda Dansokho, H. Colquhoun, et al.
J Gen Intern Med 2018 Jan 4
Research increasingly means that patients, caregivers, health professionals, other stakeholders, and academic investigators work in partnership. This requires effective collaboration rooted in mutual respect, involvement of all participants, and good communication. Having conducted such partnered research over multiple projects, and having recently completed a project together funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute, we collaboratively developed a list of 12 lessons we have learned about how to ensure effective research partnerships. To foster a culture of mutual respect, hold early in-person meetings, with introductions focused on motivation, offer appropriate orientation for everyone, and maintain awareness of individual and project goals. To actively involve all team members, it is important to ensure sufficient funding for everyone’s participation, to ask for and recognize diverse contributions, and to seek the input of quiet members. To facilitate good communication, teams should carefully consider labels, avoid jargon and acronyms, judiciously use homogeneous and heterogeneous subgroups, and keep progress visible. In offering pragmatic, actionable lessons we have learned through our separate and shared experiences, we hope to help foster more patient-centered research via productive and enjoyable research collaborations.
Z. Munn, C. Stern, E. Aromataris, C. Lockwood and Z. Jordan.
BMC Med Res Methodol 2018 Jan 10;18(1):5-017-0468-4
Systematic reviews have been considered as the pillar on which evidence-based healthcare rests. Systematic review methodology has evolved and been modified over the years to accommodate the range of questions that may arise in the health and medical sciences. This paper explores a concept still rarely considered by novice authors and in the literature: determining the type of systematic review to undertake based on a research question or priority. RESULTS: Within the framework of the evidence-based healthcare paradigm, defining the question and type of systematic review to conduct is a pivotal first step that will guide the rest of the process and has the potential to impact on other aspects of the evidence-based healthcare cycle (evidence generation, transfer and implementation). It is something that novice reviewers (and others not familiar with the range of review types available) need to take account of but frequently overlook. Our aim is to provide a typology of review types and describe key elements that need to be addressed during question development for each type. CONCLUSIONS: In this paper a typology is proposed of various systematic review methodologies. The review types are defined and situated with regard to establishing corresponding questions and inclusion criteria. The ultimate objective is to provide clarified guidance for both novice and experienced reviewers and a unified typology with respect to review types.
Rosario Benavides Del and Marcus Antonius Ynalvez.
Scientometrics 2018 02/17
Although academics (academic scientists) are the vanguards in mentoring doctoral science students, emergent science policies increasingly push academics to venture into industrial science work with industrial scientists. This puts academics in a situation of heightened role strain given that academic life is already exacting in terms of teaching, research, and service. Now, academics have to balance between intrinsic and extrinsic demands. In this paper, we examine how academicsâ€™ involvement in academic and in industrial science activities impacts how academic scientists mentor doctoral students. We introduce the idea of academicsâ€™ â€œambidextrous behaviorâ€ and apply it in three scientific activities, namely: (1) formally collaborating in academic and in industrial research projects, (2) informally networking with academic and with industrial scientists, and (3) producing patents and publications. We test the hypothesis that academics, who exhibit ambidextrous behavior, manifest mentoring practices that differ from colleagues who do not exhibit such behavior. We adduce evidence from a face-to-face survey of 104 East Asian chemical science professors, and analyze data using principal component and regression analyses. Our results provide insights on how academicsâ€™ involvement in both academic and industrial science activities shapes the way doctoral students are mentored. Our work also exemplifies how the concept of ambidextrous behavior can be applied in examining aspects of scientific apprenticeship in academia at a time when knowledge production increasingly takes place at the intersecting sectors of Triple Helix science (i.e., academia, government, and industry).
H. Hunt, A. Pollock, P. Campbell, L. Estcourt and G. Brunton.
Syst Rev 2018 Mar 1;7(1):39-018-0695-8
Overviews of systematic reviews are a relatively new approach to synthesising evidence, and research methods and associated guidance are developing. Within this paper we aim to help readers understand key issues which are essential to consider when taking the first steps in planning an overview. These issues relate to the development of clear, relevant research questions and objectives prior to the development of an overview protocol. METHODS: Initial discussions and key concepts for this paper were formed during a workshop on overview methods at the 2016 UK Cochrane Symposium, at which all members of this author group presented work and contributed to wider discussions. Detailed descriptions of the various key features of overviews and their different objectives were created by the author group based upon current evidence and author experiences conducting overviews. RESULTS: Within this paper we introduce different types of overviews and suggest common research questions addressed by these overviews. We briefly reflect on the key features and objectives of the example overviews discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Clear decisions relating to the research questions and objectives are a fundamental first step during the initial planning stages for an overview. Key stakeholders should be involved at the earliest opportunity to ensure that the planned overview is relevant and meaningful to the potential end users of the overview. Following best practice in common with other forms of systematic evidence synthesis, an overview protocol should be published, ensuring transparency and reducing opportunities for introduction of bias in the conduct of the overview.
Q. N. Hong, A. Gonzalez-Reyes and P. Pluye.
J Eval Clin Pract 2018 Feb 21
Systematic reviews combining qualitative, quantitative, and/or mixed methods studies are increasingly popular because of their potential for addressing complex interventions and phenomena, specifically for assessing and improving clinical practice. A major challenge encountered with this type of review is the appraisal of the quality of individual studies given the heterogeneity of the study designs. The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) was developed to help overcome this challenge. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of the MMAT by seeking the views and experiences of researchers who have used it. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative descriptive study using semistructured interviews with MMAT users. A purposeful sample was drawn from the researchers who had previously contacted the developer of the MMAT, and those who have published a systematic review for which they had used the MMAT. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by 2 coders using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Twenty participants from 8 countries were interviewed. Thirteen themes were identified and grouped into the 2 dimensions of usefulness, ie, utility and usability. The themes related to utility concerned the coverage, completeness, flexibility, and other utilities of the tool. Those regarding usability were related to the learnability, efficiency, satisfaction, and errors that could be made due to difficulties understanding or selecting the items to appraise. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of the results of this study, we make several recommendations for improving the MMAT. This will contribute to greater usefulness of the MMAT.
S. Treweek, S. Bevan, P. Bower, et al.
Trials 2018 Feb 23;19(1):139-018-2535-5
Randomised trials are a central component of all evidence-informed health care systems and the evidence coming from them helps to support health care users, health professionals and others to make more informed decisions about treatment. The evidence available to trialists to support decisions on design, conduct and reporting of randomised trials is, however, sparse. Trial Forge is an initiative that aims to increase the evidence base for trial decision-making and in doing so, to improve trial efficiency.One way to fill gaps in evidence is to run Studies Within A Trial, or SWATs. This guidance document provides a brief definition of SWATs, an explanation of why they are important and some practical ‘top tips’ that come from existing experience of doing SWATs. We hope the guidance will be useful to trialists, methodologists, funders, approvals agencies and others in making clear what a SWAT is, as well as what is involved in doing one.
J. N. Morris, A. Declercq, J. P. Hirdes, et al.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2018 Mar;19(3):207-215
OBJECTIVES: interRAI launched this study to introduce a set of standardized self-report measures through which residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs) could describe their quality of life and services. This article reports on the international development effort, describing measures relative to privacy, food, security, comfort, autonomy, respect, staff responsiveness, relationships with staff, friendships, and activities. First, we evaluated these items individually and then combined them in summary scales. Second, we examined how the summary scales related to whether the residents did or did not say that the LTCFs in which they lived felt like home. DESIGN: Cross-sectional self-report surveys by residents of LTCFs regarding their quality of life and services. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Resident self-report data came from 16,017 individuals who resided in 355 LTCFs. Of this total, 7113 were from the Flanders region of Belgium, 5143 residents were from Canada, and 3358 residents were from the eastern and mid-western United States. Smaller data sets were collected from facilities in Australia (20), the Czech Republic (72), Estonia (103), Poland (118), and South Africa (87). MEASUREMENTS: The interRAI Self-Report Quality of Life Survey for LTCFs was used to assess residents’ quality of life and services. It includes 49 items. Each area of inquiry (eg, autonomy) is represented by multiple items; the item sets have been designed to elicit resident responses that could range from highly positive to highly negative. Each item has a 5-item response set that ranges from “never” to “always.” RESULTS: Typically, we scored individual items scored based on the 2 most positive categories: “sometimes” and “always.” When these 2 categories were aggregated, among the more positive items were: being alone when wished (83%); decide what clothes to wear (85%); get needed services (87%); and treated with dignity by staff (88%). Areas with a less positive response included: staff knows resident’s life story (30%); resident has enjoyable things to do on weekends (32%); resident has people to do things with (33%); and resident has friendly conversation with staff (45%). We identified 5 reliable scales; these scales were positively associated with the resident statement that the LTCF felt like home. Finally, international score standards were established for the items and scales. CONCLUSIONS: This study establishes a set of standardized, self-report items and scales with which to assess the quality of life and services for residents in LTCFs. The study also demonstrates that these scales are significantly related to resident perception of the home-like quality of the facilities.
N. J. Cordato, M. Kearns, P. Smerdely, K. M. Seeher, M. D. Gardiner and H. Brodaty.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2018 Mar;19(3):276.e11-276.e19
Rehospitalization of nursing home (NH) residents is frequent, costly, potentially avoidable and associated with diminished quality of life and poor survival. This study aims to evaluate the impact and cost-effectiveness of the Regular Early Assessment Post-Discharge (REAP) protocol of coordinated specialist geriatrician and nurse practitioner visits on rates of rehospitalization, hospital length of stay, and emergency department presentations for NH residents recently discharged from hospital. DESIGN: Prospective randomized controlled study of recently hospitalized NH residents. SETTING: Twenty-one of 24 eligible NHs within the geographical catchment area of St George Hospital, a 650-bed university hospital in Sydney, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: NH residents from eligible facilities admitted to St George Hospital’s geriatric service were enrolled prior to hospital discharge. INTERVENTION: REAP intervention of monthly coordinated specialist geriatrician and nurse practitioner assessments within participants’ NHs for 6 months following hospital discharge. MEASUREMENTS: Impact of the REAP intervention on hospital readmissions, hospital inpatient days, emergency department utilization, general practitioner visits, investigations and associated costs during the study intervention period. RESULTS: Forty-three NH residents were randomly allocated to REAP intervention (n = 22) or control (n = 21) groups. The REAP intervention group had almost two-thirds fewer hospital readmissions (P = .03; Cohen’s d = 0.73) and half as many emergency department visits than controls. Total costs were 50% lower in the REAP intervention group, with lower total hospital inpatient (P = .04; Cohen’s d = 0.63) and total emergency department (P = .04; Cohen’s d = 0.65) costs. CONCLUSION: Cost-effective reductions in the utilization of hospital-related services were demonstrated following implementation of the REAP intervention for NH residents recently discharged from hospital.
E. N. M. Cheung, S. Benjamin, G. Heckman, et al.
BMC Geriatr 2018 Feb 2;18(1):39-018-0733-3
Nursing home residents are frail, have multiple medical comorbidities, and are at high risk for delirium. Most of the existing evidence base on delirium is derived from studies in the acute in-patient population. We examine the association between clinical characteristics and medication use with the incidence of delirium during the nursing home stay. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of 1571 residents from 12 nursing homes operated by a single care provider in Ontario, Canada. Residents were over the age of 55 and admitted between February 2010 and December 2015 with no baseline delirium and a minimum stay of 180 days. Residents with moderate or worse cognitive impairment at baseline were excluded. The baseline and follow-up characteristics of residents were collected from the Resident Assessment Instrument-Minimal Data Set 2.0 completed at admission and repeated quarterly until death or discharge. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify characteristics and medication use associated with the onset of delirium. RESULTS: The incidence of delirium was 40.4% over the nursing home stay (mean LOS: 32 months). A diagnosis of dementia (OR: 2.54, p < .001), the presence of pain (OR: 1.64, p < .001), and the use of antipsychotics (OR: 1.87, p < .001) were significantly associated with the onset of delirium. Compared to residents who did not develop delirium, residents who developed a delirium had a greater increase in the use of antipsychotics and antidepressants over the nursing home stay. CONCLUSIONS: Dementia, the presence of pain, and the use of antipsychotics were associated with the onset of delirium. Pain monitoring and treatment may be important to decrease delirium in nursing homes. Future studies are necessary to examine the prescribing patterns in nursing homes and their association with delirium.
Noortje Kloos, Hester R. Trompetter, Ernst T. Bohlmeijer and Gerben J. Westerhof.
Background and ObjectivesAs proposed by the self-determination theory, satisfying nursing home residentsâ€™ needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence may improve their well-being. This is the first study to test the longitudinal relations of the satisfaction of these three basic psychological needs to the subjective well-being of nursing home residents and to determine whether a balance among the satisfaction of the three needs is important for well-being.Research Design and MethodsParticipants in this longitudinal survey study included 128 physically frail residents (mean age 85 years) at four Dutch nursing homes. Satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs was measured at baseline, and depressive feelings and life satisfaction 5â€“8 months later. Absolute differences between the three basic need satisfaction scores were summed to create a score of need satisfaction balance.ResultsAll three needs were related to both well-being measures over time, although autonomy had the strongest relationships. Only autonomy and competence were uniquely associated with depressive feelings, and only autonomy was uniquely associated with life satisfaction. The need satisfaction balance score was related to well-being independent of the autonomy and relatedness scores.Discussion and ImplicationsThese results confirm that all three basic psychological needs are important for nursing home residentsâ€™ well-being, with autonomy having the strongest and most consistent relationship to their well-being. Additionally, high satisfaction of one need does not compensate for low satisfaction of another. Supporting residentsâ€™ needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence should, therefore, have a central role in nursing home culture-change interventions.
J. S. Kok, M. M. A. Nielen and E. J. A. Scherder.
Health Qual Life Outcomes 2018 Feb 27;16(1):38-018-0853-7
Quality of life is a clinical highly relevant outcome for residents with dementia. The question arises whether small scaled homelike facilities are associated with better quality of life than regular larger scale nursing homes do. METHODS: A sample of 145 residents living in a large scale care facility were followed over 8 months. Half of the sample (N = 77) subsequently moved to a small scaled facility. Quality of life aspects were measured with the QUALIDEM and GIP before and after relocation. RESULTS: We found a significant Group x Time interaction on measures of anxiety meaning that residents who moved to small scale units became less anxious than residents who stayed on the regular care large-scale units. No significant differences were found on other aspects of quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that residents who move from a large scale facility to a small scale environment can improve an aspect of quality of life by showing a reduction in anxiety. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN11151241 . registration date: 21-06-2017. Retrospectively registered.
A. McAnulla, B. Reid and M. Zieba.
Nurs Older People 2018 Feb 26;30(2):25-28
Public health is the responsibility of every nurse and nursing practice should adopt a life course approach to the promotion of health and well-being. This approach requires a renewed focus on health promotion interventions aimed at older people, including those resident in nursing homes. The oral health status of older people in nursing homes has been reported as suboptimal, predisposing them to poorer health-related quality of life. Interventions focusing on knowledge and behaviours related to oral health management for nurses, other caregivers and older people have the potential to improve the provision of oral care. This article discusses a project undertaken by a team of preregistration nursing students to plan and develop an integrated oral health promotion resource for older people in nursing homes. Healthy Smile, Healthy Me comprises a poster called five steps for oral hygiene and an oral health box. Initial feedback from a pilot of the resource in a nursing home is encouraging and research is planned to explore the feasibility, acceptability and efficacy of the resource.
S. L. Harrison, C. Bradley, R. Milte, et al.
BMC Geriatr 2018 Feb 26;18(1):60-018-0752-0
Psychotropic medications have been associated with many adverse outcomes in older people living in residential care. Home-like models of residential care may be preferable to traditional models of care and we hypothesized that this model may impact on the prevalence of psychotropic medications. The objectives were to: 1) examine associations between psychotropic medications and quality of life in older adults living in residential care facilities with a high prevalence of cognitive impairment and dementia and 2) determine if there was a difference in prevalence of psychotropic medications in facilities which provide a small group home-like model of residential care compared to a ‘standard model’ of care. METHODS: Participants included 541 residents from 17 residential aged care facilities in the Investigating Services Provided in the Residential Environment for Dementia (INSPIRED) study. Cross-sectional analyses were completed to examine the above objectives. Quality of life was measured with the dementia quality of life questionnaire (DEMQOL) and the EQ-5D-5L completed by the resident or a proxy. RESULTS: Overall, 70.8% (n = 380) of the population had been prescribed/dispensed at least one psychotropic medication in the 100 days prior to recruitment. An increased number of psychotropic medications was associated with lower quality of life according to DEMQOL-Proxy-Utility scores (beta (SE): – 0.012 (0.006), p = 0.04) and EQ-5D-5L scores (- 0.024 (0.011), p = 0.03) after adjustment for resident-level and facility-level characteristics. Analysis of the individual classes of psychotropic medications showed antipsychotics were associated with lower DEMQOL-Proxy-Utility scores (- 0.030 (0.014), p = 0.03) and benzodiazepines were associated with lower EQ-5D-5L scores (- 0.059 (0.024), p = 0.01). Participants residing in facilities which had a home-like model of residential care were less likely to be prescribed psychotropic medications (OR (95% CI): 0.24 (0.12, 0.46), p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: An increased number of psychotropic medications were associated with lower quality of life scores. These medications have many associated adverse effects and the use of these medications should be re-examined when investigating approaches to improve quality of life for older people in residential care. Home-like models of residential care may help to reduce the need for psychotropic medications, but further research is needed to validate these findings.
A. van der Zon, R. B. Wetzels, H. Bor, S. U. Zuidema, R. T. C. M. Koopmans and D. L. Gerritsen.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2018 Feb 2
OBJECTIVE: To assess the course of quality of life (QoL) in nursing home residents with dementia and to study its predictors. METHODS: This longitudinal, multicenter, observational cohort study with a 2-year follow-up looked at 290 residents with dementia, who lived in 14 dementia special care units in nine nursing homes in the Netherlands. QoL was assessed with the Qualidem, providing a total score and QoL profile with nine subscales. Residents were assessed at five assessments: every 6 months during 2 years. A linear mixed model was used for data analysis. RESULTS: No change was found in the Qualidem total score (range: 0-111) over 2 years. However, a significant increase of QoL over time was seen in the subscales “Care relationship,” “Negative affect,” “Restless tense behavior,” “Positive self-image,” “Social isolation,” and “Feeling at home.” A significant decrease of QoL was seen in the subscales “Positive affect,” “Social relations,” and “Having something to do.” Most predictors of the course of Qol were found for the subscales “Positive self-image” (sex, Global Deterioration Scale, Severe Impairment Battery, Activities of Daily Living, and Neuropsychiatric Inventory) and “Having something to do” (Global Deterioration Scale, Severe Impairment Battery, and Activities of Daily Living). Sex and Neuropsychiatric Inventory at baseline were the predictors found most frequently. CONCLUSION: The total QoL score was stable over a 2-year period. However, QoL subscales showed multidirectional changes. The largest QoL decline in the subscale “Having something to do” suggests that more attention should be given to useful activities in nursing home care.
C. Galambos, J. Starr, M. J. Rantz and G. F. Petroski.
Health Soc Work 2016 Nov 20;41(4):228-234
As part of an intervention to improve health care in nursing homes with the goal of reducing potentially avoidable hospital admissions, 1,877 resident records were reviewed for advance directive (AD) documentation. At the initial phases of the intervention, 50 percent of the records contained an AD. Of the ADs in the resident records, 55 percent designated a durable power of attorney for health care, most often a child (62 percent), other relative (14 percent), or spouse (13 percent). Financial power of attorney documents were sometimes found within the AD, even though these documents focused on financial decision making rather than health care decision making. Code status was the most prevalent health preference documented in the record at 97 percent of the records reviewed. The intervention used these initial findings and the philosophical framework of respect for autonomy to develop education programs and services on advance care planning. The role of the social worker within an interdisciplinary team is discussed.
A. P. Rajkumar, C. Ballard, J. Fossey, et al.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2017 May 1;18(5):453.e1-453.e6
INTRODUCTION: Knowledge regarding the longitudinal course, impact, or treatment implications of pain in people with dementia living in care homes is very limited. METHODS: We investigated the people with dementia living in 67 care homes in London and Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom. Pain, dementia severity, neuropsychiatric symptoms, depression, agitation, and quality-of-life were measured using appropriate instruments at baseline (N = 967) and after 9 months (n = 629). RESULTS: Baseline prevalence of pain was 35.3% (95% CI 32.3-38.3). Pain severity was significantly correlated with dementia severity, neuropsychiatric symptoms, depression, agitation, and quality of life at both time points. Regular treatment with analgesics significantly reduced pain severity. Pain was significantly associated with more antipsychotic prescriptions. Pain was significantly associated (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.18-1.85) with all-cause mortality during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Pain is an important determinant of neuropsychiatric symptoms, mortality, quality-of-life, and antipsychotic prescriptions. Improved identification, monitoring, and treatment of pain are urgent priorities to improve the health and quality-of-life for people with dementia
S. Robertson, C. Cooper, J. Hoe, O. Hamilton, A. Stringer and G. Livingston.
Int Psychogeriatr 2017 Apr;29(4):569-581
BACKGROUND: Quality of life (QoL) is an important outcome for people with dementia living in care homes but usually needs to be rated by a proxy. We do not know if relative or paid carer proxy reports differ. We conducted the first systematic review and meta-analysis of data investigating whether and how these proxy reports of QoL differ. METHODS: We searched four databases: Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, and CINAHL in October 2015 with the terms: dementia, QoL, proxy, and care home. Included studies either compared proxy QoL ratings or investigated the factors associated with them. We meta-analyzed data comparing staff and family proxy rated QoL. RESULTS: We included 17/105 papers identified. We found no difference between global proxy ratings of QoL (n = 1,290; pooled effect size 0.06 (95% CI = -0.08 to 0.19)). Studies investigating factors associated with ratings (n = 3,537) found family and staff ratings correlated with the resident’s physical and mental health. Staff who were more distressed rated resident QoL lower. Relatives rated it lower when the resident had lived in the care home for longer, when they observed more restraint, or contributed more to fees. CONCLUSIONS: Relatives and staff proxy QoL ratings share a clear relationship to resident health and overall ratings were similar. Rater-specific factors were, however, also associated with scores. Understanding why different raters consider the QoL of the same person differently is an important consideration when evaluating the meaning of proxy rated QoL. Proxy raters’ backgrounds may affect their rating of QoL.
S. M. Loi and N. T. Lautenschlager.
Int Psychogeriatr 2017 May;29(5):855-858
Up to 90% of people with dementia living in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) display behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), and these are associated with poorer quality of life and increased morbidity and mortality. In order to implement appropriate interventions, it is important to understand the symptoms in more detail. Despite the availability of BPSD assessment tools, it is unknown what the current practice of monitoring of BPSD in RACFs. We sought to investigate the current BPSD assessment tools being used in RACFs and explore different stakeholders’ views on current practices. A cross-sectional convenience sample of 21 clinicians were identified and administered a questionnaire. Old age psychiatrists, aged psychiatry clinicians, behavior management teams and RACF staff completed the questionnaires. Clinicians reported that objective consistent information about BPSD were important for recommending and implementing pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies for BPSD; however, the use of validated BPSD assessments in RACFs was not a usual part of clinical practice. RACF staff stated the major barrier to assessment of BPSD was lack of time. Alternate methods of assessing BPSD which consider preferences from clinicians and RACF staff should be further investigated. Modern technology which can allow “real time” assessment may be a solution.
S. Toot, T. Swinson, M. Devine, D. Challis and M. Orrell.
Int Psychogeriatr 2017 Feb;29(2):195-208
BACKGROUND: Up to half of people with dementia in high income countries live in nursing homes and more than two-thirds of care home residents have dementia. Fewer than half of these residents report good quality of life and most older people are anxious about the prospect of moving into a nursing home. Robust evidence is needed as to the causes of admission to nursing homes, particularly where these risk factors are modifiable. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search to identify controlled comparison studies in which the primary outcome was admission to nursing home of older adults with dementia. Identified studies were assessed for validity and 26 (17 cohort and 9 case-control) were included. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted, including meta-analysis of 15 studies. RESULTS: Poorer cognition and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) were consistently associated with an increased risk of nursing home admission and most of our meta-analyses demonstrated impairments in activities of daily living as a significant risk. The effects of community support services were unclear, with both high and low levels of service use leading to nursing home placement. There was an association between caregiver burden and risk of institutionalization, but findings with regard to caregiver depression varied, as did physical health associations, with some studies showing an increased risk of nursing home placement following hip fracture, reduced mobility, and multiple comorbidities. CONCLUSION: We recommend focusing on cognitive enhancement strategies, assessment and management of BPSD, and carer education and support to delay nursing home placement.
A. Simning and K. V. Simons.
Int Psychogeriatr 2017 Feb;29(2):209-226
BACKGROUND: Depression in nursing facilities is widespread and has been historically under-recognized and inadequately treated. Many interventions have targeted depression among residents with dementia in these settings. Less is known about depression treatment in residents without dementia who may be more likely to return to community living. Our study aimed to systematically evaluate randomized control trials (RCTs) in nursing facilities that targeted depression within samples largely comprised of residents without dementia. METHODS: The following databases were evaluated with searches covering January 1991 to December 2015 (PubMed, PsycINFO) and March 2016 (CINAHL). We also examined national and international clinical trial registries including ClinicalTrials.gov. RCTs were included if they were published in English, evaluated depression or depressive symptoms as primary or secondary outcomes, and included a sample with a mean age of 65 years and over for which most had no or only mild cognitive impairment. RESULTS: A total of 32 RCTs met our criteria including those testing psychotherapeutic interventions (n=13), psychosocial and recreation interventions (n=9), and pharmacologic or other biologic interventions (n=10). Seven psychotherapeutic, six psychosocial and recreation, and four pharmacologic or other biologic interventions demonstrated a treatment benefit. CONCLUSIONS: Many studies had small samples, were of poor methodological quality, and did not select for depressed residents. There is limited evidence suggesting that cognitive behavioral therapies, reminiscence, interventions to reduce social isolation, and exercise-based interventions have some promise for decreasing depression in cognitively intact nursing home residents; little can be concluded from the pharmacologic or other biologic RCTs.
E. L. Parsons, R. J. Stratton, A. L. Cawood, T. R. Smith and M. Elia.
Clin Nutr 2017 Feb;36(1):134-142
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Few trials have explored the effect of nutrition support on quality of life (QoL). This study examined the effects of oral nutritional supplements (ONS) vs dietary advice on QoL in malnourished care home residents. METHODS: 104 malnourished, care home residents (medium + high risk), identified using the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (‘MUST’), (mean age 88.5 +/- 7.9y) were randomised to receive either oral nutritional supplements (ONS) (n = 53) or dietary advice (n = 51) for 12 weeks. Dietary intake was measured using 24 h dietary recall, and QoL assessed using EuroQol (EQ-5D), including time trade off (TTO) (range -0.59 to 1) and visual analogue scale (VAS) (score 0 to 100) for self-perceived health. RESULTS: QoL (adjusted for baseline QOL, malnutrition risk, type of care received (nursing or residential)) was significantly higher in the ONS than the dietary advice group (intention to treat analysis at week 12; n = 104 ). EQ-5D TTO scores (mean +/- SE) were 0.50 +/- 0.04 vs 0.36 +/- 0.05 (P = 0.005), VAS rescaled scores were 0.54 + 0.03 vs 0.046 + 0.03 (P = 0.006) and VAS scores were 61.3 +/- 4.5 vs 54.6 +/- 6.3 (P = 0.533) for ONS vs dietary advice respectively. Total energy, protein and the majority of micronutrient intakes were significantly greater in the ONS group, with energy intake being 423 kcal greater in the ONS than the dietary advice group at week 12. CONCLUSIONS: This study in malnourished care home residents indicates that ONS can improve QoL and nutritional intake more effectively than dietary advice alone. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: This trial was registered with clinicaltrials.gov on 10th August 2007
Wednesday 28 March 10:00-11:00 MT
Presenter: Dr. Jeremy Grimshaw
This second interactive webinar in the series will draw upon Dr. Ian Graham’s Knowledge to Action cycle and focus specifically on the central role of developing and synthesising evidence of what to implement and which knowledge translation and implementation strategies are most effective for promoting implementation, and developing the knowledge infrastructure to make best use of evidence. This webinar builds on the first session and would especially suit participants wanting to further consider approaches for robustly developing and synthesising evidence to inform the implementation of patient safety initiatives.
Thursday 22 March 11:00 MT
Presenter: Dr. Gordon Guyatt
The GRADE framework (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) applies a rating of quality (i.e. confidence, certainty) of evidence and a grading of strength of recommendations for systematic reviews and clinical practice guidelines. The GRADE system classifies the quality of evidence and gives an overall rating of very low quality of evidence, low quality of evidence, moderate quality of evidence or high quality of evidence. The quality of evidence rating depends on a summary of many different factors.
How can GRADE help you?
The GRADE approach is useful when answering questions about interventions and when evidence-informed decision making is needed and recommendations are being produced. Originally developed for clinical interventions, the GRADE approach is designed to assess the quality of evidence for both randomized controlled trials and observational studies. A standard appraisal tool can be used to determine the risk of bias present in individual studies gathered from a systematic review, however GRADE addresses the quality of a body of evidence rather than individual studies.
Friday 20 April 11:00 MT
Presenters: Matthew Chinman & Jamie L. Keith
The Getting to Outcomes (GTO) approach is based on traditional evaluation methods, empowerment evaluation, results-based accountability and continuous quality improvement. While traditional evaluation methods typically use external evaluators, working at an arm’s length from practitioners, empowerment evaluation supports collaborative relationships between evaluators and practitioners. Empowerment evaluation is based on the notion that program success is more likely when evaluators collaborate with practitioners and provide them with the tools and opportunities to plan, implement, evaluate and develop a continuous quality improvement system themselves.
Researchers and physicians often go on to become authors, peer reviewers, or scientific editors. The literature suggests they are often unprepared for these roles. This 2-day, intensive, interactive course will introduce participants to the principles and practice of publication science (Journalology). Participants will gain an understanding of the myriad of factors that can influence and impact the integrity of the scientific record and access strategies and resources to deal with them.
Over the past few weeks, we have seen impassioned dialogue around elder care and the strategy for seniors’ care projects under development by the Alberta government. The Health Quality Council of Alberta is encouraged that these critical conversations are taking place, and we propose that the quality of continuing care services is critical to these discussions.
Team 20, from the Canadian Consortium on Neurodegeneration in Aging, is examining how use of the Canadian Indigenous Cognitive Assessment tool could further mutual learning between Western academics and First Nations people
The announcement of the winners of the federal government’s supercluster initiative competition on February 15 received relatively little attention outside of innovation policy circles and surprised no one inside it.
One small step towards improving the system would be for academics to start charging publishers for their peer reviews. A flat fee per review – say $500 – could then be put back into the researcher’s own research fund, administered by the universities they work for. A percentage of the fee could be held back to compensate those reviewing for non-profit, reputable open access journals.
It’s called The Village. Comprised of six, single-storey cottage-style homes and a community centre, The Village will be home to 78 people with dementia, an umbrella term that includes people suffering from Alzheimer’s and other degenerative brain diseases associated with aging. Care will be provided by 72 specially trained staff.
The technology that drives science forward is forever accelerating, but the same can’t be said for science communication. The basic process still holds many vestiges from its early days — that is the 17th century.
Despite the essential work PSWs perform, there’s a lack of data about them. What percentage are formally trained? How many work in institutions versus the community? Questions such as these were meant to be addressed by a provincial registry that was created in 2012, when Healthy Debate first wrote about the PSW sector in Ontario.