With long-term data from our TREC Measurement System (TMS) platform, we measure staff job satisfaction, work engagement, empowerment, burnout, physical and mental health, tasks left undone or rushed for lack of time, and use of best practices in healthcare. By monitoring over time how these and other indicators change, we develop a picture of the health and well-being of the long-term care workforce.
D. Aluwihare-Samaranayake, I. Gellatly, G. Cummings and L. Ogilvie.
J Adv Nurs 2018 May 17
To present a discussion and model depicting most effecting work life experience contextual factors that influence commitment and turnover intentions for nurses in Sri Lanka. BACKGROUND: Increasing demand for nurses has made the retention of experienced, qualified nursing staff a priority for health care organizations and highlights the need to capture contextual work-life experiences that influence nurses’ turnover decisions. DESIGN: Discussion paper. DATA SOURCES: This discussion paper and model is based on our experiences and knowledge of Sri Lanka and represents an integration of classic turnover research and commitment theory and others published between 1958 – 2017, contextualized to reflect the reality faced by Sri Lanka nurses. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: The model presents a high-level view of intrinsic, extrinsic, personal and professional antecedents to nurse turnover where relevance can be used by researchers, policy makers, clinicians and educators to establish focused and limited scope models and examine comprehensive contexts. CONCLUSION: This model emphasizes the role that work-life experiences play to fortify (or weaken) nurses’ motivation to remain committed to their organization, profession, family, and country. Understanding of contextual work-life influences on nurses’ intent to stay should lead to evidence-based strategies that result in a higher number of nurses wanting to remain in the nursing profession and work in the health sector in Sri Lanka. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
H. Saltaji, S. Armijo-Olivo, G. G. Cummings, M. Amin, B. R. da Costa and C. Flores-Mir.
BMC Med Res Methodol 2018 May 18;18(1):42-018-0491-0
Recent methodologic evidence suggests that lack of blinding in randomized trials can result in under- or overestimation of the treatment effect size. The objective of this study is to quantify the extent of bias associated with blinding in randomized controlled trials of oral health interventions. METHODS: We selected all oral health meta-analyses that included a minimum of five randomized controlled trials. We extracted data, in duplicate, related to nine blinding-related criteria, namely: patient blinding, assessor blinding, care-provider blinding, investigator blinding, statistician blinding, blinding of both patients and assessors, study described as “double blind”, blinding of patients, assessors, and care providers concurrently, and the appropriateness of blinding. We quantified the impact of bias associated with blinding on the magnitude of effect size using a two-level meta-meta-analytic approach with a random effects model to allow for intra- and inter-meta-analysis heterogeneity. RESULTS: We identified 540 randomized controlled trials, included in 64 meta-analyses, analyzing data from 137,957 patients. We identified significantly larger treatment effect size estimates in trials that had inadequate patient blinding (difference in treatment effect size = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.00 to 0.23), lack of blinding of both patients and assessors (difference = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.32), and lack of blinding of patients, assessors, and care-providers concurrently (difference = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.25). In contrast, assessor blinding (difference = 0.06; 95% CI: -0.06 to 0.18), caregiver blinding (difference = 0.02; 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.09), principal-investigator blinding (difference = – 0.02; 95% CI: -0.10 to 0.06), describing a trial as “double-blind” (difference = 0.09; 95% CI: -0.05 to 0.22), and lack of an appropriate method of blinding (difference = 0.06; 95% CI: -0.06 to 0.18) were not associated with over- or underestimated treatment effect size. CONCLUSIONS: We found significant differences in treatment effect size estimates between oral health trials based on lack of patient and assessor blinding. Treatment effect size estimates were 0.19 and 0.14 larger in trials with lack of blinding of both patients and assessors and blinding of patients, assessors, and care-providers concurrently. No significant differences were identified in other blinding criteria. Investigators of oral health systematic reviews should perform sensitivity analyses based on the adequacy of blinding in included trials.
G. Harvey, S. Llewellyn, G. Maniatopoulos, A. Boyd and R. Procter.
BMC Health Serv Res 2018 May 10;18(1):347-018-3176-9
Accelerating the implementation of new technology in healthcare is typically complex and multi-faceted. One strategy is to charge a national agency with the responsibility for facilitating implementation. This study examines the role of such an agency in the English National Health Service. In particular, it compares two different facilitation strategies employed by the agency to support the implementation of insulin pump therapy. METHODS: The research involved an empirical case study of four healthcare organisations receiving different levels of facilitation from the national agency: two received active hands-on facilitation; one was the intended recipient of a more passive, web-based facilitation strategy; the other implemented the technology without any external facilitation. The primary method of data collection was semi-structured qualitative interviews with key individuals involved in implementation. The integrated-PARIHS framework was applied as a conceptual lens to analyse the data. RESULTS: The two sites that received active facilitation from an Implementation Manager in the national agency made positive progress in implementing the technology. In both sites there was a high level of initial receptiveness to implementation. This was similar to a site that had successfully introduced insulin pump therapy without facilitation support from the national agency. By contrast, a site that did not have direct contact with the national agency made little progress with implementation, despite the availability of a web-based implementation resource. Clinicians expressed differences of opinion around the value and effectiveness of the technology and contextual barriers related to funding for implementation persisted. The national agency’s intended roll out strategy using passive web-based facilitation appeared to have little impact. CONCLUSIONS: When favourable conditions exist, in terms of agreement around the value of the technology, clinician receptiveness and motivation to change, active facilitation via an external agency can help to structure the implementation process and address contextual barriers. Passive facilitation using web-based implementation resources appears less effective. Moving from initial implementation to wider scale-up presents challenges and is an issue that warrants further attention.
A. Dadich and N. Doloswala.
BMC Health Serv Res 2018 May 10;18(1):351-018-3121-y
Despite the relative abundance of frameworks and models to guide implementation science, the explicit use of theory is limited. Bringing together two seemingly disparate fields of research, this article asks, what can organisational theory offer implementation science? This is examined by applying a theoretical lens that incorporates agency, institutional, and situated change theories to understand the implementation of healthcare knowledge into practice. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with 20 general practitioners (GPs) before and after using a resource to facilitate evidence-based sexual healthcare. Research material was analysed using two approaches – researcher-driven thematic coding and lexical analysis, which was relatively less researcher-driven. RESULTS: The theoretical lens elucidated the complex pathways of knowledge translation. More specifically, agency theory revealed tensions between the GP as agent and their organisations and patients as principals. Institutional theory highlighted the importance of GP-embeddedness within their chosen specialty of general practice; their medical profession; and the practice in which they worked. Situated change theory exposed the role of localised adaptations over time – a metamorphosis. CONCLUSIONS: This study has theoretical, methodological, and practical implications. Theoretically, it is the first to examine knowledge translation using a lens premised on agency, institutional, and situated change theories. Methodologically, the study highlights the complementary value of researcher-driven and researcher-guided analysis of qualitative research material. Practically, this study signposts opportunities to facilitate knowledge translation – more specifically, it suggests that efforts to shape clinician practices should accommodate the interrelated influence of the agent and the institution, and recognise that change can be ever so subtle.
Jing Han and Renske Pashouwers.
Knowledge Management Research & Practice 2018 01/02;16(1):42-50
A growing number of studies have been conducted to study the antecedents of employees? knowledge-sharing behaviours. However, the literature is limited regarding the influence of relational characteristics on knowledge sharing. We conducted a field study in two Dutch health care organisations, and examined employees? willingness to share knowledge in 488 dyadic relationships. The results showed that an individual?s perceived reciprocity and positivity of a dyadic tie was positively related to that person?s willingness to share knowledge. Moreover, perceived competition was negatively related to willingness to share knowledge. Based on these findings, we discuss how to change organisational culture to encourage knowledge sharing. Suggestions for future research and practical implications are also offered.
S. Wills and D. Ross.
Nurs Older People 2018 May 16
The community matron care homes team (CHT) was set up in Sandwell, West Midlands in 2011 to support care home staff to manage residents’ care safely and reduce unplanned and/or avoidable use of acute health services. The service was reviewed in 2015 and attention focused on care homes with the highest levels of hospital use and emergency 999 services. Working with these care home staff and health professionals, a training and education opportunity to aid staff to manage residents in crisis was sourced, organised and implemented. The outcome of this training was positive: it demonstrated a reduction in hospital attendances and admissions and an increase in the confidence and morale of care home staff. The community matron CHT won the Nursing Older People category of the RCNi Nurse Awards in May 2017. This award has resulted in the team’s profile being raised, and the team being asked to participate in further initiatives to provide enhanced support for care homes.
D. P. Burdsall, S. E. Gardner, T. Cox, et al.
Am J Infect Control 2017 Sep 1;45(9):940-945
Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs) frequently wear gloves when they care for patients in standard precautions. If CNAs use gloves inappropriately, they may spread pathogens to patients and the environment, potentially leading to health care-associated infections (HAIs). METHODS: Using a descriptive structured observational design, we examined the degree of inappropriate health care personnel glove use in a random sample of 74 CNAs performing toileting and perineal care at 1 long-term care facility. RESULTS: During the 74 patient care events, CNAs wore gloves for 80.2% (1,774/2,213) of the touch points, failing to change gloves at 66.4% (225/339) of glove change points. CNAs changed gloves a median of 2.0 times per patient care event. A median of 1.0 change occurred at a change point. CNAs failed to change their gloves at a glove change point a median of 2.5 times per patient care event. Most (61/74; 82.4%) patient care events had >1 contaminated touch point. Over 44% (782/1,774) of the gloved touch points were defined as contaminated for a median of 8.0 contaminated glove touch points per patient care event. All contaminated touches were with gloved hands (P <.001). CONCLUSIONS: Inappropriate glove use was frequently observed in this study. Contaminated gloves may be a significant cause of cross-contamination of pathogens in health care environments. Future research studies should evaluate strategies to improve glove use to reduce HAIs.
J. Kaur, P. W. Stone, J. L. Travers, C. C. Cohen and C. T. A. Herzig.
Am J Infect Control 2017 Sep 1;45(9):1035-1040
Health care-associated infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in US nursing home residents. Ongoing training of nursing home staff is vital to the implementation of infection prevention and control processes. Our aim was to describe associations between methods, frequency, and timing of staff infection prevention and control training and infection-related quality measures. In this national survey of nursing homes, timing of staff infection prevention and control training was associated with reduced indwelling urinary catheter use.
R. C. Abrams, M. Nathanson, S. Silver, M. Ramirez, J. A. Toner and J. A. Teresi.
Gerontol Geriatr Educ 2017 Jul-Sep;38(3):325-345
Low levels of symptom recognition by staff have been “gateway” barriers to the management of depression in long-term care. The study aims were to refine a depression training program for front-line staff in long-term care and provide evaluative knowledge outcome data. Three primary training modules provide an overview of depression symptoms; a review of causes and situational and environmental contributing factors; and communication strategies, medications, and clinical treatment strategies. McNemar’s chi-square tests and paired t-tests were used to examine change in knowledge. Data were analyzed for up to 143 staff members, the majority from nursing. Significant changes (p < .001) in knowledge were observed for all modules, with an average change of between 2 and 3 points. Evidence was provided that participants acquired desired information in the recognition, detection, and differential diagnosis and treatment strategies for those persons at significant risk for a depressive disorder.
A. Kurowski, G. Pransky and L. Punnett.
J Occup Rehabil 2018 May 21
This study examined the impact of a Safe Resident Handling Program (SRHP) on length of disability and re-injury, following work-related injuries of nursing home workers. Resident handling-related injuries and back injuries were of particular interest. Methods A large national nursing home corporation introduced a SRHP followed by three years of training for 136 centers. Lost-time workers’ compensation claims (3 years pre-SRHP and 6 years post-SRHP) were evaluated. For each claim, length of first episode of disability and recurrence of disabling injury were evaluated over time. Differences were assessed using Chi square analyses and a generalized linear model, and “avoided” costs were projected. Results The SRHP had no impact on length of disability, but did appear to significantly reduce the rate of recurrence among resident handling-related injuries. As indemnity and medical costs were three times higher for claimants with recurrent disabling injuries, the SRHP resulted in significant “avoided” costs due to “avoided” recurrence. Conclusions In addition to reducing overall injury rates, SRHPs appear to improve long-term return-to-work success by reducing the rate of recurrent disabling injuries resulting in work disability. In this study, the impact was sustained over years, even after a formal training and implementation program ended. Since back pain is inherently a recurrent condition, results suggest that SRHPs help workers remain at work and return-to-work.
V. M. Boscart, G. Heckman, M. Davey, M. Heyer and J. P. Hirdes.
Pilot Feasibility Stud 2018 May 14;4:77-018-0272-x. eCollection 2018
Increasing importance is being placed on optimizing the role of Nursing Aides (NAs) in improving quality of care for nursing home (NH) residents. One approach to do so is to have NAs participate in assessments embedded within the Minimum Data Set (MDS). This pilot study aimed to design and evaluate the Applied Simulated and Integrated Learning Approach (ASILA) program, a novel innovative training program for NAs employed in NHs to enhance their ability to assess residents within an inter-professional framework. Methods: A mixed quantitative and qualitative repeated measures design was used to assess changes in NAs’ knowledge and perception of assessments and resident clinical outcomes. Additionally, focus groups were conducted with NAs upon completion of the ASILA program. A total of 23 NAs and nurses in NHs in two Canadian provinces participated. The ASILA pilot program consisted of three selected modules; each module including an evidence-informed case-scenario, assessments, the use of appropriate MDS tools and documentation, care planing and reporting systems. ASILA was delivered over the course of two days per home. The primary outcome measure focused on the impact of ASILA on NA knowledge and confidence in assessing residents and understanding the relevance and use of elements if the MDS tools. Secondary outcomes included NAs’ satisfaction with ASILA and the impact of ASILA on resident clinical outcomes. Data were collected one week prior, immediately after, and three months after the ASILA program. Results: Following ASILA, NAs reported increased knowledge test scores and confidence in assessing residents by using MDS tools, although this did not reach significance after multiple testing (p = 0.0256 and p = 0.1541 respectively). NAs reported more confidence in providing care to residents (77.8%) and felt that the care provided was more resident-centered (83.3%) than before the ASILA program. There were no significant trends in improved resident outcomes following ASILA. Conclusion: Pilot findings indicate that the ASILA program could be a successful approach to support NAs to enhance their ability to assess residents in an inter-professional framework.
M. N. Dichter, D. Trutschel, C. G. G. Schwab, B. Haastert, T. Quasdorf and M. Halek.
Int Psychogeriatr 2017 Dec;29(12):1993-2006
The Dementia Care Mapping (DCM) method is an internationally recognized complex intervention in dementia research and care for implementing person-centered care. The Leben-QD II trial aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of DCM with regard to caregivers. METHODS: The nine participating nursing home units were allocated to three groups: (1) DCM method experienced >/= 1 year, (2) DCM newly introduced during this trial, and (3) regular rating of residents’ quality of life (control group). Linear mixed models were fit to cluster-aggregated data after 0, 6, and 18 months, adjusting for repeated measurements and confounders. The primary outcome was the Approaches to Dementia Questionnaire (ADQ) score; the secondary outcomes were the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) and the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI). RESULTS: The analysis included 201 caregivers with 290 completed questionnaires (all three data collection time points). The ADQ showed a significant time and time*intervention effect. At baseline, the estimated least-square means for the ADQ were 71.98 (group A), 72.46 (group B), and 71.15 (group C). The non-linear follow-up of group A indicated an estimated-least square means of 69.71 (T 1) and 68.97 (T 2); for group B, 72.80 (T 1) and 72.29 (T 2); and for group C, 66.43 (T 1) and 70.62 (T 2). CONCLUSIONS: The DCM method showed a tendency toward negatively affecting the primary and secondary outcomes; this finding could be explained by the substantial deviation in adherence to the intervention protocol.
K. Sjogren Forss, J. Nilsson and G. Borglin.
BMC Nurs 2018 May 10;17:19-018-0289-8. eCollection 2018
The evaluation and treatment of older people’s nutritional care is generally viewed as a low priority by nurses. However, given that eating and drinking are fundamental human activities, the support and enhancement of an optimal nutritional status should be regarded as a vital part of nursing. Registered nurses must therefore be viewed as having an important role in assessing and evaluating the nutritional needs of older people as well as the ability to intervene in cases of malnutrition. This study aimed to illuminate the experience of participating in nutritional care from the perspectives of older people and registered nurses. A further aim is to illuminate the latter’s experience of nutritional care per se. Methods: A qualitative, descriptive design was adopted. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews (n = 12) with eight registered nurses and four older persons (mean age 85.7 years) in a city in the southern part of Sweden. The subsequent analysis was conducted by content analysis. Result: The analysis reflected three themes: ‘participation in nutritional care equals information’, ‘nutritional care out of remit and competence’ and ‘nutritional care more than just choosing a flavour’. They were interpreted to illuminate the experience of participation in nutritional care from the perspective of older people and RNs, and the latter’s experience of nutritional care in particular per se. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that a paternalistic attitude in care as well as asymmetry in the nurse-patient relationship are still common characteristics of modern clinical nursing practice for older people. Considering that participation should be central to nursing care, and despite the RN’s awareness of the importance of involving the older persons in their nutritional care this was not reflected in reality. Strategies to involve older persons in their nutritional care in a nursing home context need to take into account that for this population participation might not always be experienced as an important part of nursing care.
J. L. Westbury, P. Gee, T. Ling, et al.
Med J Aust 2018 May 21;208(9):398-403
To assess the impact of a multi-strategic, interdisciplinary intervention on antipsychotic and benzodiazepine prescribing in residential aged care facilities (RACFs). Design, setting: Prospective, longitudinal intervention in Australian RACFs, April 2014 – March 2016. PARTICIPANTS: 150 RACFs (with 12 157 residents) comprised the main participant group; two further groups were consultant pharmacists (staff education) and community pharmacies (prescribing data). Data for all RACF residents, excluding residents receiving respite or end-stage palliative care, were included. INTERVENTION: A multi-strategic program comprising psychotropic medication audit and feedback, staff education, and interdisciplinary case review at baseline and 3 months; final audit at 6 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Mean prevalence of regular antipsychotic and benzodiazepine prescribing at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months. Secondary measures: chlorpromazine and diazepam equivalent doses/day/resident; proportions of residents for whom drug was ceased or the dose reduced; prevalence of antidepressant and prn (as required) psychotropic prescribing (to detect any substitution practice). RESULTS: During the 6-month intervention, the proportion of residents prescribed antipsychotics declined by 13% (from 21.6% [95% CI, 20.4-22.9%] to 18.9% [95% CI, 17.7-20.1%]), and that of residents regularly prescribed benzodiazepines by 21% (from 22.2% [95% CI, 21.0-23.5%] to 17.6% [95% CI, 16.5-18.7]; each, P < 0.001). Mean chlorpromazine equivalent dose declined from 22.9 mg/resident/day (95% CI, 19.8-26.0) to 20.2 mg/resident/day (95% CI, 17.5-22.9; P < 0.001); mean diazepam equivalent dose declined from 1.4 mg/resident/day (95% CI, 1.3-1.5) to 1.1 mg/resident/day (95% CI, 0.9-1.2; P < 0.001). For 39% of residents prescribed antipsychotics and benzodiazepines at baseline, these agents had been ceased or their doses reduced by 6 months. There was no substitution by sedating antidepressants or prn prescribing of other psychotropic agents. CONCLUSIONS: The RedUSe program achieved significant reductions in the proportions of RACF residents prescribed antipsychotics and benzodiazepines. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials, ACTRN12617001257358.
M. Henskens, I. M. Nauta, E. J. A. Scherder, F. G. J. Oosterveld and S. Vrijkotte.
BMC Geriatr 2017 Oct 23;17(1):243-017-0642-x
The prevalence of dementia is expected to increase rapidly, and institutionalization is a common consequence of the disease. Dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) is a predictor for institutionalization and a determinant for the quality of life (QoL). A promising method to increase functional independence in nursing homes is a restorative care or function focused care (FFC) approach. Movement-oriented restorative care (MRC) is derived from the concept of FFC and restorative care and focuses on the integration of physical activity in the daily lives of nursing home residents with dementia using a multidisciplinary approach. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of MRC in preservation of ADL independence and QoL in nursing home residents with dementia. METHODS: In this quasi-experimental 12-month study, the effects of MRC were compared to care as usual in 61 nursing home residents with moderate to severe dementia. The outcome measures were ADL independence and QoL. These outcomes were measured five times (i.e. at baseline, and after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months). Additionally, data was collected regarding the degree of implementation, and the barriers to the implementation process. The effect of the intervention was analyzed using linear mixed model analyses. RESULTS: There was no significant overall intervention effect on ADL independence and QoL. A significant group-by-time interaction was found for the QoL subscale positive self-image: after a 12 month intervention period, the MRC group scored significantly better than the control group on positive self-image. Regarding the other subscales and the total score of the QoL, as well as ADL, no significant group-by-time interactions were found. CONCLUSIONS: MRC did not demonstrate significant improvements in ADL or QoL. After a 12-month intervention period, residents who received MRC showed higher scores on positive self-image compared to the control group. This study contributes to the limited research regarding the effect of MRC on resident outcomes. Further large-scale studies are recommended. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was retrospectively registered in http://clinicaltrials.gov on February 2, 2017: NCT03001232 .
K. N. Williams, Y. Perkhounkova, R. Herman and A. Bossen.
Gerontologist 2017 Aug 1;57(4):707-718
Nursing home (NH) residents with dementia exhibit challenging behaviors or resistiveness to care (RTC) that increase staff time, stress, and NH costs. RTC is linked to elderspeak communication. Communication training (Changing Talk [CHAT]) was provided to staff to reduce their use of elderspeak. We hypothesized that CHAT would improve staff communication and subsequently reduce RTC. Methods: Thirteen NHs were randomized to intervention and control groups. Dyads (n = 42) including 29 staff and 27 persons with dementia were videorecorded during care before and/or after the intervention and at a 3-month follow-up. Videos were behaviorally coded for (a) staff communication (normal, elderspeak, or silence) and (b) resident behaviors (cooperative or RTC). Linear mixed modeling was used to evaluate training effects. Results: On average, elderspeak declined from 34.6% (SD = 18.7) at baseline by 13.6% points (SD = 20.00) post intervention and 12.2% points (SD = 22.0) at 3-month follow-up. RTC declined from 35.7% (SD = 23.2) by 15.3% points (SD = 32.4) post intervention and 13.4% points (SD = 33.7) at 3 months. Linear mixed modeling determined that change in elderspeak was predicted by the intervention (b = -12.20, p = .028) and baseline elderspeak (b = -0.65, p < .001), whereas RTC change was predicted by elderspeak change (b = 0.43, p < .001); baseline RTC (b = -0.58, p < .001); and covariates. Implications: A brief intervention can improve communication and reduce RTC, providing an effective nonpharmacological intervention to manage behavior and improve the quality of dementia care. No adverse events occurred.
J. A. Lucas and J. R. Bowblis.
Health Aff (Millwood) 2017 Jul 1;36(7):1299-1308
The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services initiated three strategies (in March and July 2012 and in May 2013) to reduce the use of unnecessary antipsychotic medications in nursing homes, especially their widespread use to control behavioral symptoms of dementia. We examined 86,163 state recertification surveys conducted at 15,055 facilities in the period January 1, 2009-March 31, 2015. We found that these strategies were associated with increases in citations for only one of two targeted deficiencies (unnecessary drug use) and only after the third strategy (revisions to the federal guidelines for the citations) was implemented. Each strategy was associated with a modest but significant reduction in antipsychotic prevalence in the general nursing home population. Initial reductions were greater in the ten states with the highest prevalence of antipsychotic use in nursing homes, compared to the ten states with the lowest prevalence. Use of other psychoactive medications, some of which are potential substitutes for antipsychotics, varied with each strategy and by state. Continuous monitoring and consistent enforcement are needed to ensure the continued decline in unnecessary use of antipsychotics and psychoactive medications in nursing homes.
M. J. Rantz, L. Popejoy, A. Vogelsmeier, et al.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2018 Jun;19(6):541-550
The purpose of this article is to review the impact of advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) on the quality measure (QM) scores of the 16 participating nursing homes of the Missouri Quality Initiative (MOQI) intervention. The MOQI was one of 7 program sites in the US, with specific interventions unique to each site tested for the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services Innovations Center. While the goals of the MOQI for long-stay nursing home residents did not specifically include improvement of the QM scores, it was anticipated that improvement most likely would occur. Primary goals of the MOQI were to reduce the frequency of avoidable hospital admissions and readmissions; improve resident health outcomes; improve the process of transitioning between inpatient hospitals and nursing facilities; and reduce overall healthcare spending without restricting access to care or choice of providers. METHODS: A 2-group comparison analysis was conducted using statewide QMs; a matched comparison group was selected from facilities in the same counties as the intervention homes, similar baseline QM scores, similar size and ownership. MOQI nursing homes each had an APRN embedded full-time to improve care and help the facility achieve MOQI goals. Part of their clinical work with residents and staff was to focus on quality improvement strategies with potential to influence healthcare outcomes. Trajectories of QM scores for the MOQI intervention nursing homes and matched comparison group homes were tested with nonparametric tests to examine for change in the desired direction between the 2 groups from baseline to 36 months. A composite QM score for each facility was constructed, and baseline to 36-month average change scores were examined using nonparametric tests. Then, adjusting for baseline, a repeated measures analysis using analysis of covariance as conducted. RESULTS: Composite QM scores of the APRN intervention group were significantly better (P = .025) than the comparison group. The repeated measures analysis identified statistically significant group by time interaction (P = .012). Then group comparisons were made at each of the 6-month intervals and statistically significant differences were found at 24 months (P = .042) and 36 months (P = .002), and nearly significant at 30 months (P = .11). IMPLICATIONS: APRNs working full time in nursing homes can positively influence quality of care, and their impact can be measured on improving QMs. As more emphasis is placed on quality and outcomes for nursing home services, providers need to find successful strategies to improve their QMs. Results of these analyses reveal the positive impact on QM outcomes for the majority of the MOQI nursing homes, indicating budgeting for APRN services can be a successful strategy.
G. C. Gannod, K. M. Abbott, K. Van Haitsma, N. Martindale and A. Heppner.
Gerontologist 2018 May 21
Nursing homes (NHs) using the Preferences for Everyday Living Inventory (PELI-NH) to assess important preferences and provide person-centered care find the number of items (72) to be a barrier to using the assessment. Research Design and Methods: Using a sample of n = 255 NH resident responses to the PELI-NH, we used the 16 preference items from the MDS 3.0 Section F to develop a machine learning recommender system to identify additional PELI-NH items that may be important to specific residents. Much like the Netflix recommender system, our system is based on the concept of collaborative filtering whereby insights and predictions (e.g., filters) are created using the interests and preferences of many users. The algorithm identifies multiple sets of “you might also like” patterns called association rules, based upon responses to the 16 MDS preferences that recommends an additional set of preferences with a high likelihood of being important to a specific resident. Results: In the evaluation of the combined apriori and logistic regression approach, we obtained a high recall performance (i.e., the ratio of correctly predicted preferences compared with all predicted preferences and nonpreferences) and high precision (i.e., the ratio of correctly predicted rules with respect to the rules predicted to be true) of 80.2% and 79.2%, respectively. Discussion and Implications: The recommender system successfully provides guidance on how to best tailor the preference items asked of residents and can support preference capture in busy clinical environments, contributing to the feasibility of delivering person-centered care.
J. Ovretveit, L. Dolan-Branton, M. Marx, A. Reid, J. Reed and B. Agins.
Int J Qual Health Care 2018 May 11.
There is evidence that practitioners applying quality improvements often adapt the improvement method or the change they are implementing, either unknowingly, or intentionally to fit their service or situation. This has been observed especially in programs seeking to spread or ‘scale up’ an improvement change to other services. Sometimes their adaptations result in improved outcomes, sometimes they do not, and sometimes they do not have data make this assessment or to describe the adaptation. The purpose of this paper is to summarize key points about adaptation and context discussed at the Salzburg Global Seminar in order to help improvers judge when and how to adapt an improvement change. It aims also to encourage more research into such adaptations to develop our understanding of the when, why and how of effective adaptation and to provide more research informed guidance to improvers. The paper gives examples to illustrate key issues in adaptation and to consider more systematic and purposeful adaptation of improvements so as to increase the chances of achieving improvements in different settings for different participants. We describe methods for assessing whether adaptation is necessary or likely to reduce the effectiveness of an improvement intervention, which adaptations might be required, and methods for collecting data to assess whether the adaptations are successful. We also note areas where research is most needed in order to enable more effective scale up of quality improvements changes and wider take up and use of the methods.
M. A. Handley, C. R. Lyles, C. McCulloch and A. Cattamanchi.
Annu Rev Public Health 2018 Apr 1;39:5-25
Interventional researchers face many design challenges when assessing intervention implementation in real-world settings. Intervention implementation requires holding fast on internal validity needs while incorporating external validity considerations (such as uptake by diverse subpopulations, acceptability, cost, and sustainability). Quasi-experimental designs (QEDs) are increasingly employed to achieve a balance between internal and external validity. Although these designs are often referred to and summarized in terms of logistical benefits, there is still uncertainty about (a) selecting from among various QEDs and (b) developing strategies to strengthen the internal and external validity of QEDs. We focus here on commonly used QEDs (prepost designs with nonequivalent control groups, interrupted time series, and stepped-wedge designs) and discuss several variants that maximize internal and external validity at the design, execution and implementation, and analysis stages.
T. S. M. Roelofs, K. G. Luijkx and P. J. C. M. Embregts.
The person-centered perspective of residential care facility (RCF) residents with dementia with regard to their intimate and sexual lives is largely neglected in research. OBJECTIVE: We aim to provide methodological considerations and reflections on a performed qualitative study. Recommendations and a guide to study design are provided to inform and encourage future research on the inclusion of people with dementia as participants. METHODS: Methodological recommendations and reflections are described in chronological order of the procedure. Fragments of interviews are included for further illustration and clarification. RESULTS: Considering preparation, close involvement of clinical practice, and extensive deliberation regarding study design tended to be important. Considering procedure, investment in contacts with clinical practice and authorized representatives; an introduction meeting; person-centered inclusion and consent; profound skills in interviewing participants with dementia; and flexibility in data collection were proven of importance. Considering data analysis and study quality, including field notes and aiming at a balance between study quality and practicability to enhance study ‘rigor’ were found important. CONCLUSION: Including the person-centered perspective in research on intimacy and sexuality of RCF residents with dementia, is challenging and takes a flexible and creative approach. It is, however, worthwhile to close the gap in literature.
N. Jayasinghe, B. Isabel Moallem, M. Kakoullis, et al.
Gerontologist 2018 May 11
This mixed-methods study explored the feasibility and acceptability of using a tablet-based research consent process with adults aged >/=65 years. Design and Methods: In the first phase, focus group participants reported on their perceptions of a tablet-based consent process. In the second phase, older adults were randomized to view either a tablet-based or paper-based consent for a mock clinical trial. Measurements included: time to complete, adverse/unexpected events, user-friendliness, immediate comprehension, and retention at a 1-week delay. Results: Focus group participants (N = 15) expressed interest in the novel format, cautioning that peers would need comprehensive orientation to use the technology. In the randomized pilot (N = 20), retention was 100% and all participants completed the protocol without the occurrence of adverse/unexpected events. Although the participants took longer to complete the tablet-based consent than the paper-based version, user-friendliness, immediate comprehension, and retention of the tablet-based consent were similar to the paper-based consent. Discussion and Implications: The findings suggest that a tablet-based consent process is feasible to implement with older adults and acceptable to this population, but we would underscore that efforts to optimize design of tablet-based consent forms for older adults are warranted.
T. Garg, K. Anzuoni, V. Landyn, et al.
Health Res Policy Syst 2018 May 18;16(1):41-018-0324-y
Team science, defined as collaborative research efforts that leverage the expertise of diverse disciplines, is recognised as a critical means to address complex healthcare challenges, but the practical implementation of team science can be difficult. Our objective is to describe the barriers, solutions and lessons learned from our team science experience as applied to the complex and growing challenge of multiple chronic conditions (MCC). MCC is the presence of two or more chronic conditions that have a collective adverse effect on health status, function or quality of life, and that require complex healthcare management, decision-making or coordination. Due to the increasing impact on the United States society, MCC research has been identified as a high priority research area by multiple federal agencies. In response to this need, two national research entities, the Healthcare Systems Research Network (HCSRN) and the Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Centers (OAIC), formed the Advancing Geriatrics Infrastructure and Network Growth (AGING) Initiative to build nationwide capacity for MCC team science. This article describes the structure, lessons learned and initial outcomes of the AGING Initiative. We call for funding mechanisms to sustain infrastructures that have demonstrated success in fostering team science and innovation in translating findings to policy change necessary to solve complex problems in healthcare.
E. Beller, J. Clark, G. Tsafnat, et al.
Syst Rev 2018 May 19;7(1):77-018-0740-7
Systematic reviews (SR) are vital to health care, but have become complicated and time-consuming, due to the rapid expansion of evidence to be synthesised. Fortunately, many tasks of systematic reviews have the potential to be automated or may be assisted by automation. Recent advances in natural language processing, text mining and machine learning have produced new algorithms that can accurately mimic human endeavour in systematic review activity, faster and more cheaply. Automation tools need to be able to work together, to exchange data and results. Therefore, we initiated the International Collaboration for the Automation of Systematic Reviews (ICASR), to successfully put all the parts of automation of systematic review production together. The first meeting was held in Vienna in October 2015. We established a set of principles to enable tools to be developed and integrated into toolkits.This paper sets out the principles devised at that meeting, which cover the need for improvement in efficiency of SR tasks, automation across the spectrum of SR tasks, continuous improvement, adherence to high quality standards, flexibility of use and combining components, the need for a collaboration and varied skills, the desire for open source, shared code and evaluation, and a requirement for replicability through rigorous and open evaluation.Automation has a great potential to improve the speed of systematic reviews. Considerable work is already being done on many of the steps involved in a review. The ‘Vienna Principles’ set out in this paper aim to guide a more coordinated effort which will allow the integration of work by separate teams and build on the experience, code and evaluations done by the many teams working across the globe.
C. L. Clarke, H. Wilkinson, J. Watson, J. Wilcockson, L. Kinnaird and T. Williamson.
Qual Health Res 2018 May 1:1049732318774768
The involvement of “people with experience” in research has developed considerably in the last decade. However, involvement as co-analysts at the point of data analysis and synthesis has received very little attention-in particular, there is very little work that involves people living with dementia as co-analysts. In this qualitative secondary data analysis project, we (a) analyzed data through two theoretical lenses: Douglas’s cultural theory of risk and Tronto’s Ethic of Care, and (b) analyzed data in workshops with people living with dementia. The design involved cycles of presenting, interpreting, representing and reinterpreting the data, and findings between multiple stakeholders. We explore ways of involving people with experience as co-analysts and explore the role of reflexivity, multiple voicing, literary styling, and performance in participatory data analysis.
D. Brooks, E. Fielding, E. Beattie, H. Edwards and S. Hines.
JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep 2018 May;16(5):1240-1268
To identify, appraise and synthesize existing evidence regarding the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions on the psychological health and emotional well-being of family carers of people with dementia who have moved into residential care. INTRODUCTION: Many carers experience stress, guilt, grief and depression following placement of a relative with dementia into residential care. Psychosocial interventions to support family carers may help to improve psychological health and emotional well-being; however, evidence for such interventions delivered to family carers following placement has yet to be appraised and synthesized. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Participant criteria included any family carers of people with dementia who have moved into residential or nursing or long term care. Interventions were included if they were designed to improve the psychological health and emotional well-being of family carers post-placement. Comparators included no intervention, other non-pharmacological intervention or standard/usual care. Outcomes included carer burden, anxiety, stress, depression, guilt, grief and loss, quality of life, or satisfaction with care of the person with dementia. METHODS: Key databases (PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO) and trials registries (Cochrane, WHO Clinical Trials, UK Clinical Trials) were searched to identify both published and unpublished studies in English from 1990 to 2017. The recommended Joanna Briggs Institute approach to critical appraisal, study selection, data extraction and data synthesis was followed. Data from studies was pooled in statistical meta-analysis where possible, and presented in narrative and tabular form otherwise. RESULTS: Four studies were eligible for inclusion. Two studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of individualized multicomponent interventions, and two were cluster RCTs of group multicomponent interventions. Interventions were mostly underpinned by stress appraisal and coping theories. Outcomes measured, measurement tools and length of follow-up varied between the studies. There was high risk of selection, attrition and detection bias.A total of 302 family carers were included. For the individualized interventions, significant improvements were reported for carer guilt (F = 5.00; p = 0.03), role overload (F = 5.00; p = 0.04) and distress (F = 6.13; p = 0.02), but no significant effect was found for satisfaction with the residential care facility. Meta-analyses indicated there was no overall effect at three to four months post-intervention on carer burden (weighted mean difference 2.38; 95% CI -7.72 to 12.48), and depression (weighted mean difference 2.17; 95% CI -5.07 to 9.40). For the group interventions, no significant effects on carer distress were found; however, significant improvements in carer “heartfelt sadness” at three months post-baseline (F = 5.04; p = 0.027) and guilt at six months (F = 4.93; p = 0.029) were reported in one study. CONCLUSIONS: Individualized multicomponent psychosocial interventions following residential care placement may be beneficial in improving family carers’ role overload, psychological distress and guilt. Group interventions may also improve feelings of guilt and sadness. There is insufficient evidence that individualized or group interventions improve carer depression, burden or satisfaction. However, due to substantial heterogeneity between studies and methodological flaws, the grade of this evidence is very low.Further high quality RCTs that include different groups of carers are recommended. Comparative effects of individualized versus group interventions should be examined as these are likely to have cost implications.
M. Henskens, I. M. Nauta, K. T. Drost and E. J. Scherder.
Clin Interv Aging 2018 Apr 30;13:805-817
Nursing home (NH) residents with dementia experience a reduced quality of life (QoL), in part, due to a dependence in performing activities of daily living (ADL). Stimulating movement is associated with improvements in ADL performance. Therefore, movement stimulating interventions, such as ADL training and exercise, focus on optimizing ADL performance to improve QoL. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three movement stimulating interventions on QoL and ADL performance in NH residents with dementia. Methods: In this 6-month double parallel randomized controlled trial, the effects of ADL training, a multicomponent aerobic and strength exercise training, and a combined ADL and exercise training were analyzed in 87 NH residents with dementia. The Global Deterioration Scale was used to classify the severity of dementia. Participants were screened at baseline using the 6 minute walk test and Mini-Mental State Examination. The Qualidem, and the Care Dependency Scale and Erlangen ADL test were evaluated at baseline, and after 3 and 6 months to measure QoL and ADL, respectively. Multilevel analyses were adjusted for baseline performance, age, and gender. Results: A 6-month ADL training positively affected overall QoL (p = 0.004) and multiple aspects of QoL, including care relationship (p = 0.004), positive self-image (p = 0.002), and feeling at home (p = 0.001), compared to care-as-usual. No benefits were observed of exercise on QoL. No benefits were observed of a combined ADL and exercise intervention on QoL. No effects were found of the three movement interventions on ADL performance. Conclusion: The results indicate that ADL training can improve QoL. The results contribute to the limited knowledge regarding the effect of movement stimulation on resident outcomes. Further large-scale studies are recommended.
L. Groen-van de Ven, C. Smits, K. Oldewarris, et al.
Res Aging 2017 Oct;39(9):1039-1071
This prospective multiperspective study provides insight into the decision trajectories of people with dementia by studying the decisions made and related key events. This study includes three waves of interviews, conducted between July 2010 and July 2012, with 113 purposefully selected respondents (people with beginning to advanced stages of dementia and their informal and professional caregivers) completed in 12 months (285 interviews). Our multilayered qualitative analysis consists of content analysis, timeline methods, and constant comparison. Four decision themes emerged-managing daily life, arranging support, community living, and preparing for the future. Eight key events delineate the decision trajectories of people with dementia. Decisions and key events differ between people with dementia living alone and living with a caregiver. Our study clarifies that decisions relate not only to the disease but to living with the dementia. Individual differences in decision content and sequence may effect shared decision-making and advance care planning.
I. Shahar, G. Mendelson, S. Gerbi and M. Ben Natan.
Pain Manag Nurs 2018 May 14
Pain is a common subjective symptom among older adults in general and among older adult residents in long-term geriatric facilities in particular. Pain diminishes older adults’ quality of life and may impair their ability to recover from various illnesses. Therefore, the Israeli Ministry of Health has issued guidelines on effectively assessing and treating pain in this population. To examine discrepancies between the Ministry of Health’s pain assessment guidelines and documented practice by nursing staff at a long-term geriatric care facility and whether these discrepancies correlate to characteristics of the nurses, the wards, and the patients’ characteristics. A descriptive cross-sectional design study conducted at a large geriatric facility in central Israel. A random sample of 200 computerized patient records of pain assessment and management performed by 69 individual nurses. The study used an original checklist based on Israeli Ministry of Health guidelines to assess nursing documentation regarding 19 aspects of pain assessment and management. There were discrepancies found between the Ministry of Health’s pain assessment guidelines and documented practice by the nursing staff. An average of 13.8 out of 19 aspects of pain assessment and management were documented. As nurses’ knowledge about pain assessment and management increased and as staffing ratios improved, the greater was the adherence to Ministry of Health guidelines, resulting in fewer discrepancies between the guidelines and documented practice. There was less pain assessment and management documentation for mechanically ventilated patients and for male patients.
C. Jones, B. Sung and W. Moyle.
J Adv Nurs 2018 May 17
To develop and psychometrically test the Engagement of a Person with Dementia Scale. BACKGROUND: It is important to study engagement in people with dementia when exploring the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions that can promote meaningful activity, stimulation and wellbeing, through an increase in positive emotions and an improvement in quality of life. The Engagement of a Person with Dementia Scale was developed based on current literature and previous research work on a video coding tool to ascertain the effect of psychosocial interventions on engagement in people with dementia. DESIGN/METHOD: Using the Delphi technique, the content validity of the scale was evaluated by 15 dementia experts and formal/informal dementia carers. Psychometric properties of the scale were evaluated using 131 videos of people with dementia presented with PARO – a therapeutic, interactive, robotic seal – in long-term aged care facilities. RESULTS: A 10-item scale was established following the rewording, combining and elimination of prospective items, with revisions made to the instructions for using and scoring the scale. An overall consensus with agreement for the scale was established among the panel of experts. The scale demonstrated robust internal consistency, inter-rater and test-retest reliability and convergent and discriminant validity. CONCLUSION: This study successfully developed the Engagement of a Person with Dementia Scale, with established content validity and psychometric properties. The scale assesses the behavioural and emotional expressions and responses of engagement by people with dementia when partaking in a psychosocial activity in five areas: affective, visual, verbal, behavioural and social engagement.
T. Luckett, L. Chenoweth, J. Phillips, et al.
Int Psychogeriatr 2017 Oct;29(10):1713-1722
Palliative care for nursing home residents with advanced dementia is often sub-optimal due to poor communication and limited care planning. In a cluster randomized controlled trial, registered nurses (RNs) from 10 nursing homes were trained and funded to work as Palliative Care Planning Coordinators (PCPCs) to organize family case conferences and mentor staff. This qualitative sub-study aimed to explore PCPC and health professional perceptions of the benefits of facilitated case conferencing and identify factors influencing implementation. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the RNs in the PCPC role, other members of nursing home staff, and physicians who participated in case conferences. Analysis was conducted by two researchers using a thematic framework approach. RESULTS: Interviews were conducted with 11 PCPCs, 18 other nurses, eight allied health workers, and three physicians. Perceived benefits of facilitated case conferencing included better communication between staff and families, greater multi-disciplinary involvement in case conferences and care planning, and improved staff attitudes and capabilities for dementia palliative care. Key factors influencing implementation included: staffing levels and time; support from management, staff and physicians; and positive family feedback. CONCLUSION: The facilitated approach explored in this study addressed known barriers to case conferencing. However, current business models in the sector make it difficult for case conferencing to receive the required levels of nursing qualification, training, and time. A collaborative nursing home culture and ongoing relationships with health professionals are also prerequisites for success. Further studies should document resident and family perceptions to harness consumer advocacy.
Statistics Canada, Claudia Sanmartin, Douglas G. Manuel, Peter Tanuseputro, Rochelle Garner
Health Reports (vol. 29, no. 5); 2018
The aging of the Canadian population has increased attention on the future need for nursing home beds. Although current projections rely primarily on age and sex, other factors also contribute to the need for long-term care. This study seeks to identify additional factors to age and sex that contribute to Canadians transitioning from living at home to living in a seniors’ residence or nursing home. The data are from a record linkage project that combined three cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey and the 2011 Census of Population.
Presenters: Dr. Kristen Jacklin & Dr. Melissa Blind
Thursday 31 May 10:00-11:00 MT
This webinar will outline the development of six culturally relevant fact sheets on dementia and dementia care that can be used by Indigenous family caregivers, health care providers, as well as other organizations interested in the promotion of dementia awareness and care in Indigenous communities.
Presenter: Dr. Gillian Einstein
Available on demand
This webinar discusses understandings of sex and gender, sex differences in Alzheimer’s disease, how the higher number of women with AD may be due to both, and a discussion of the role of estrogen in the health of brain regions associated with Alzheimer’s disease.
Wed 30 May 10:00-11:00 MT
Presenters: Dr. Justin Presseau & Dr. Andrea Patey
This webinar focuses on providing concrete approaches for identifying barriers and enablers, emphasising behaviour change approaches. Using the Theoretical Domains Framework and practical examples, participants will consider qualitative and quantitative approaches for barrier/enabler identification, as well as advice on how to get the most out of such approaches. Adaptable tools for designing interview guides and questionnaires will be described, which participants can leverage for their own initiatives.
Tuesday 5 June 10:00-11:00 MT
Presenter: Dr. Gary Naglie & Dr. Mark Rapoport
Decision-making about driving and the transition to non-driving is a challenging and complex issue affecting all drivers with dementia and their families. Healthcare/service providers can play an important role in facilitating and supporting drivers and their families to make this transition. In this webinar, Drs. Gary Naglie and Mark Rapoport who lead a team of CCNA researchers focused on dementia and driving, will discuss how healthcare/service providers can address the issue of driving in persons with dementia, including their current research on the Driving Cessation in Dementia Framework and Toolkit (DCD-FT), which they and their team have been developing to support this group.
The Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) in coordination with a number of National Institutes of Health (NIH) Institutes and Centers and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), are hosting this training institute to provide participants with a thorough grounding in conducting D&I research in health across all areas of health and health care. In 2018, the institute will utilize a combination of a 4-month online course (six modules with related assignments) between August 13 and November 30 , 2018, and a 2-day in-person training to be held December 6-7, 2018, in Bethesda, MD. Faculty and guest lecturers will consist of leading experts in theory, implementation, and evaluation approaches to D&I; creating partnerships and multilevel, transdisciplinary research teams; research design, methods, and analyses appropriate for D&I; and conducting research at different and multiple levels of intervention (e.g., clinical, community, policy).
The ImpRes tool aims to help you successfully apply implementation science concepts, principles and methods to implementation research by providing a step-by-step approach to designing high quality and rigorous implementation projects. ImpRes was developed following a scoping review of the implementation science literature to identify the core principles of implementation science, and following an iterative process of consulting international experts in the field of implementation science.
CHOICE+ is an innovative program that enhances the mealtime experience for residents in long-term care. The program helps team members make the most of mealtimes by applying six key principles: Connecting, Honouring Dignity, Offering Support, Identity, Creating Opportunities, and Enjoyment. New education modules are now available online, and include short videos, interactive checklists and self-reflection questions. Each module takes less than 3 minutes to complete.
Measures for Person Centred Coordinated Care is a gateway to information. It is designed to be a tool for a range of stakeholders – healthcare professionals, commissioners, managers and researchers. The ultimate goal is to help improve the role of the patient’s voice in the delivery of health services. The website is a compendium of Patient Reported Outcomes Measures (PROMs) and Patient Reported Experience Measures (PREMs) that can be utilised within programs that aim to deliver or evaluate person centred and coordinated care (P3C). We have taken a broad approach to the tools that might be of utility, dividing the compendium of measures into:
This practical, interactive guide is suitable for those working at all levels in the NHS, from ward to board, and will show you how to make better use of your data. We encourage analysts and decision-makers to work together to ensure the most relevant data is presented in the most effective way. Our collection of resources will empower you to build your knowledge to be able to construct and interpret statistical process control (SPC) charts. You can practise doing this by using our guide to working through the scenarios and exercises
University of Alberta Edmonton AB
DEADLINE: Open until filled
Applications are invited for a postdoctoral research position within the Translating Research in Elder Care (TREC) research program. Located at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, TREC (trecresearch.ca) is a multi-disciplinary pan-Canadian and international group engaged in a longitudinal program of research addressing quality of care and knowledge translation in a cohort of 94 nursing homes in several Western Canadian provinces. One of the projects within TREC, is a pain scale development study in which we aim to improve and evaluate an observational pain assessment scale for nursing home residents with dementias. Using data from the Resident Assessment Instrument–Minimum Data Set, version 2.0 (RAI-MDS) we will refine and then validate the scale in 300 nursing home residents in Edmonton, Winnipeg and Hamilton. This 3-year project is funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) and will begin June 2018. We are now seeking a post-doctoral fellow to work on this study.