June 25, 2018


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New article by Dr. Anne-Marie Boström
A study protocol of Older Person’s Exercise and Nutrition Study (OPEN) – a sit-to-stand activity combined with oral protein supplement – effects on physical function and independence: a cluster randomized clinical trial.
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H. Gronstedt, S. Vikstrom, T. Cederholm, et al.
BMC Geriatr 2018 Jun 7;18(1):138-018-0824-1
Poor nutrition and age per see add to the development of sarcopenia, i.e. loss of muscle mass and strength, which contributes to increased risk of impaired activities of daily living (ADL) and reduced independence. Protein deficiency plays an important role in the development of sarcopenia. In order to increase the muscle mass protein intake should be combined with physical exercise. A daily physical activity, the sit-to-stand exercise, has been proven to decrease older persons’ dependence in ADL. Our study aims to evaluate the effects of the sit-to-stand exercise in combination with a protein-rich nutritional supplement, on physical function and independence in frail nursing home residents. The resident’s perceptions and experiences of the intervention and the staff’s experiences of supporting the resident to complete the intervention will also be explored. METHODS: The study is a two-arm cluster-randomized controlled trial which will be performed in nursing homes at two municipalities in Sweden. We will recruit 120 residents, age 75 or older and able to stand up from a seated position. Residents (n = 60) randomized to the intervention group will perform the sit-to-stand exercise at four occasions daily and will be offered a protein-rich oral supplement, twice a day. The intervention period will last for 12 weeks and measures of physical function, nutritional status, quality of life and health economy will be performed at baseline and at 12-weeks follow-up. The primary outcome will be the number of chair rises performed in 30 s. The control group will receive standard care. Data will be analysed by intention-to-treat analysis and with mixed effect models. During the last part of the intervention period individual interviews with the residents, on the topic of feasibility with the OPEN concept will be held. Likewise, focus-group-interviews with staff will be performed. DISCUSSION: The residents’ physical and mental health could be expected to improve. Even the work situation for staff could be positively affected. One innovative feature of the OPEN study is the simple intervention consisting of a basic daily activity that can be performed by several nursing home residents with the support of existing staff and available resources. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02702037.

New articles by Dr. Greta Cummings
Long-Term Care Health Care Aides’ Perceptions of Decision-Making Processes in Transferring Residents to Acute Care Services
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K. Tate, J. Spiers, R. El-Bialy and G. Cummings.
J Appl Gerontol 2018 Jun 1:733464818779936
Most transfers of long-term care (LTC) facility residents to the emergency department (ED) via 911 calls are necessary. Avoidable transfers can have adverse effects including increased confusion and dehydration. Around 20% of transfers are perceived to be avoidable or unnecessary, yet decision making around transfers is complex and poorly understood. Using a qualitative-focused ethnographic approach, we examined 20 health care aides’ (HCAs) perceptions of decision processes leading to transfer using experiential interview data. Inductive analysis throughout iterative data collection and analysis illuminated how HCAs’ familiarity with residents make them vital in initiating care processes. Hierarchical reporting structures influenced HCAs’ perceptions of nurse responsiveness to their concerns about resident condition, which influenced communications related to transfers. Communication processes in LTC facilities and the value placed on HCA concerns are inconsistent. There is an urgent need to improve conceptualization of HCA roles and communication structures in LTCs.

Leadership styles and outcome patterns for the nursing workforce and work environment: A systematic review.
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G. G. Cummings, K. Tate, S. Lee, et al.
Int J Nurs Stud 2018 May 3;85:19-60
Leadership is critical in building quality work environments, implementing new models of care, and bringing health and wellbeing to a strained nursing workforce. However, the nature of leadership style, how leadership should be enacted, and its associated outcomes requires further research and understanding. We aimed to examine the relationships between various styles of leadership and outcomes for the nursing workforce and their work environments. METHODS: The search strategy of this systematic review included 10 electronic databases. Published, quantitative studies that examined the correlations between leadership behaviours and nursing outcomes were included. Quality assessments, data extractions and analysis were completed on all included studies by independent reviewers. RESULTS: A total of 50,941 titles and abstracts were screened resulting in 129 included studies. Using content analysis, 121 outcomes were grouped into six categories: 1) staff satisfaction with job factors, 2) staff relationships with work, 3) staff health & wellbeing, 4) relations among staff, 5) organizational environment factors and 6) productivity & effectiveness. Our analysis illuminated patterns between relational and task focused leadership styles and their outcomes for nurses and nursing work environments. For example, 52 studies reported that relational leadership styles were associated with higher nurse job satisfaction, whereas 16 studies found that task-focused leadership styles were associated with lower nurse job satisfaction. Similar trends were found for each category of outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this systematic review provide strong support for the employment of relational leadership styles to promote positive nursing workforce outcomes and related organizational outcomes. Leadership focused solely on task completion is insufficient to achieve optimum outcomes for the nursing workforce. Relational leadership practices need to be encouraged and supported by individuals and organizations to enhance nursing job satisfaction, retention, work environment factors and individual productivity within healthcare settings.

New article by Dr. Matthias Hoben

Barriers and facilitators in providing oral care to nursing home residents, from the perspective of care aides: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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M. Hoben, A. Clarke, K. T. Huynh, et al.
Int J Nurs Stud 2017 Aug;73:34-51
Oral health of nursing home residents is generally poor, with severe consequences for residents’ general health and quality of life and for the health care system. Care aides in nursing homes provide up to 80% of direct care (including oral care) to residents, but providing oral care is often challenging. Interventions to improve oral care must tailor to identified barriers and facilitators to be effective. This review identifies and synthesizes the evidence on barriers and facilitators care aides perceive in providing oral care to nursing home residents. METHODS: We systematically searched the databases MEDLINE, Embase, Evidence Based Reviews-Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, and Web of Science. We also searched by hand the contents of key journals, publications of key authors, and reference lists of all studies included. We included qualitative and quantitative research studies that assess barriers and facilitators, as perceived by care aides, to providing oral care to nursing home residents. We conducted a thematic analysis of barriers and facilitators, extracted prevalence of care aides reporting certain barriers and facilitators from studies reporting quantitative data, and conducted random-effects meta-analyses of prevalence. RESULTS: We included 45 references that represent 41 unique studies: 15 cross-sectional studies, 13 qualitative studies, 7 mixed methods studies, 3 one-group pre-post studies, and 3 randomized controlled trials. Methodological quality was generally weak. We identified barriers and facilitators related to residents, their family members, care providers, organization of care services, and social interactions. Pooled estimates (95% confidence intervals) of barriers were: residents resisting care=45% (15%-77%); care providers’ lack of knowledge, education or training in providing oral care=24% (7%-47%); general difficulties in providing oral care=26% (19%-33%); lack of time=31% (17%-47%); general dislike of oral care=19% (8%-33%); and lack of staff=22% (13%-31%). CONCLUSIONS: We found a lack of robust evidence on barriers and facilitators that care aides perceive in providing oral care to nursing home residents, suggesting a need for robust research studies in this area. Effective strategies to overcome barriers and to increase facilitators in providing oral care are one of the most critical research gaps in the area of improving oral care for nursing home residents. Strategies to prevent or manage residents’ responsive behaviors and to improve care aides’ oral care knowledge are especially needed.

New article by Dr. Kim Fraser
Case Manager Resource Allocation Decision-Making for Adult Home Care Clients: With Comparisons to a High Needs Pediatric Home Care Clients
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Kimberly Fraser, Garland Baird Lisa, Daley Laing, Jonathan Lai and Neelam Saleem Punjani.
Home Health Care Management & Practice 2018 06/04; 2018/06:1084822318779371
Home care programs have become integral parts of the overall health service system in Canada and in many other developed nations. Resource allocation decision-making by home care case managers (CM) is a complex task where CMs are challenged to meet the dual responsibilities for clients, in order that they achieve high quality care, and to the system to contain costs. The purpose of this study was to extend what is known about resource allocation decision-making factors identified in a previous systematic literature review and ethnographic study within a high needs pediatric context conducted by the principal investigator in Western Canada. Spradley?s ethnoscience method was used in this research. The study sample consisted of 17 home care CMs, professional practice leads, and their managers from two separate home care offices. All participating CMs had assigned caseloads and were involved in the assessment and implementation of care planning for clients. Purposive sampling methods were employed. In keeping with Spradley?s ethnoscience approach, data collection occurred in three distinct phases or rounds. The first round of data collection began with a series of one-on-one interviews with card sorts, the second round of data collection was another series of one-on-one interviews with CMs who were not interviewed in the prior round, and the third and final round of data collection was a focus group to accomplish further refinement and verification of our established categories. Participants identified five categories of factors that effected their resource allocation decision-making. The categories were related to one of five main areas: the client, the CM, the home care program, community resources, or the health care system. The findings of this study reinforced the complexity of CM resource allocation decision-making in home care. This study provides new insights into CM resource allocation decision-making based on multidisciplinary, integrated home care teams caring for adults, the majority of whom are 65 years and older. This study also provides the comparison of taxonomy that differs between pediatric and adult home care populations that influence resource allocation decision-making.


New article by Dr. Alison Kitson
How fundamental aspects of nursing care are defined in the literature: A scoping review.
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R. Feo, A. Kitson and T. Conroy.
J Clin Nurs 2018 Jun;27(11-12):2189-2229
To investigate how fundamental aspects of nursing care have been defined in the literature from 2010-2016. BACKGROUND: A 2010 narrative review of nursing texts identified little consensus on what constitutes the fundamental aspects of nursing care. Since then there has been a proliferation of policies, strategic frameworks and research teams dedicated to investigating such care. It is unclear whether this increased activity has led to greater conceptual clarity. DESIGN: Scoping review using the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology. METHODS: A search of published and grey literature was undertaken using CINAHL, Scopus, PubMed and ProQuest. Documents providing a definition for fundamental aspects of nursing care were included for review. Definitions were identified and mapped. RESULTS: Forty-nine documents were included. Two ways of constructing the discourse around fundamental aspects of nursing care were identified: compassionate care (n = 25) and fundamentals of care (n = 24). The literature on compassionate care focused primarily on the moral attributes of nurses and their ability to establish meaningful connections with patients. The literature on fundamentals of care was split between describing such care as a list of nursing activities and describing it as a complex, multidimensional construct. CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be a lack of consensus around how fundamental aspects of nursing care are defined. Compassionate care and fundamentals of care have commonalities in terms of emphasising the nurse-patient relationship; however, only the literature on fundamentals of care addresses patients’ physical care needs. Despite their commonalities, it seems the two bodies of work are being developed largely independent of one another. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: This scoping review identified areas of convergence and divergence around fundamental aspects of nursing care. An agreed definition for such care is needed to enable the development of a robust evidence base to underpin the coherent and consistent development of nursing practice.

New article by Dr. Shannon Scott
Dissemination of evidence in paediatric emergency medicine: a quantitative descriptive evaluation of a 16-week social media promotion.
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A. Gates, R. Featherstone, K. Shave, S. D. Scott and L. Hartling.
BMJ Open 2018 Jun 6;8(6):e022298-2018-022298
TRanslating Emergency Knowledge for Kids (TREKK) and Cochrane Child Health collaborate to develop knowledge products on paediatric emergency medicine topics. Via a targeted social media promotion, we aimed to increase user interaction with the TREKK and Cochrane Child Health Twitter accounts and the uptake of TREKK Bottom Line Recommendations (BLRs) and Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs). DESIGN: Quantitative descriptive evaluation. SETTING: We undertook this study and collected data via the internet. PARTICIPANTS: Our target users included online healthcare providers and health consumers. INTERVENTION: For 16 weeks, we used Twitter accounts (@TREKKca and @Cochrane_Child) and the Cochrane Child Health blog to promote 6 TREKK BLRs and 16 related Cochrane SRs. We published 1 blog post and 98 image-based tweets per week. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was user interaction with @TREKKca and @Cochrane_Child. Secondary outcomes were visits to TREKK’s website and the Cochrane Child Health blog, clicks to and views of the TREKK BLRs, and Altmetric scores and downloads of Cochrane SRs. RESULTS: Followers to @TREKKca and @Cochrane_Child increased by 24% and 15%, respectively. Monthly users of TREKK’s website increased by 29%. Clicks to the TREKK BLRs increased by 22%. The BLRs accrued 59% more views compared with the baseline period. The 16 blog posts accrued 28% more views compared with the 8 previous months when no new posts were published. The Altmetric scores for the Cochrane SRs increased by >/=10 points each. The mean number of full text downloads for the promotion period was higher for nine and lower for seven SRs compared with the 16-week average for the previous year (mean difference (SD), +4.0 (22.0%)). CONCLUSIONS: There was increased traffic to TREKK knowledge products and Cochrane SRs during the social media promotion. Quantitative evidence supports blogging and tweeting as dissemination strategies for evidence-based knowledge products.

Calls for Abstracts

CALL FOR ABSTRACTS:
Annual Conference On The Science Of Dissemination And Implementation In Health

3-5 December Washington DC
DEADLINE 24 July
The theme for this years conference is Scaling up Effective Health and Healthcare: Advancing the Research Agenda and Necessary Infrastructure, focusing on strategies for scaling up effective interventions across communities, health systems, networks and countries, and efforts to build capacity for D&I science, with an emphasis on low-resource settings.

 

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Grants & Awards

CIHR: Transitions in Care multi-Institute Initiative

DEADLINE Fall 2018
Interested applicants are invited to participate in a webinar on July 5, 2018 from 12:00-13:30 pm EDT. Register online. Only registered participants will be sent a WebEx invite prior to the webinar. The webinar will be delivered in English; however slides will be available in English and French.

 

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Publications

KT
Health Care Administration and Organization
Health Care Innovation and Quality Assurance
Organizational Culture and Change
Research Practice and Methodology
Aging

KT

Associations among unit leadership and unit climates for implementation in acute care: a cross-sectional study.
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C. J. Shuman, X. Liu, M. L. Aebersold, D. Tschannen, J. Banaszak-Holl and M. G. Titler.
Implement Sci 2018 Apr 25;13(1):62-018-0753-6
Nurse managers have a pivotal role in fostering unit climates supportive of implementing evidence-based practices (EBPs) in care delivery. EBP leadership behaviors and competencies of nurse managers and their impact on practice climates are widely overlooked in implementation science. The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of nurse manager EBP leadership behaviors and nurse manager EBP competencies in explaining unit climates for EBP implementation in adult medical-surgical units. METHODS: A multi-site, multi-unit cross-sectional research design was used to recruit the sample of 24 nurse managers and 553 randomly selected staff nurses from 24 adult medical-surgical units from 7 acute care hospitals in the Northeast and Midwestern USA. Staff nurse perceptions of nurse manager EBP leadership behaviors and unit climates for EBP implementation were measured using the Implementation Leadership Scale and Implementation Climate Scale, respectively. EBP competencies of nurse managers were measured using the Nurse Manager EBP Competency Scale. Participants were emailed a link to an electronic questionnaire and asked to respond within 1 month. The contributions of nurse manager EBP leadership behaviors and competencies in explaining unit climates for EBP implementation were estimated using mixed-effects models controlling for nurse education and years of experience on current unit and accounting for the variability across hospitals and units. Significance level was set at alpha < .05. RESULTS: Two hundred sixty-four staff nurses and 22 nurse managers were included in the final sample, representing 22 units in 7 hospitals. Nurse manager EBP leadership behaviors (p < .001) and EBP competency (p = .008) explained 52.4% of marginal variance in unit climate for EBP implementation. Leadership behaviors uniquely explained 45.2% variance. The variance accounted for by the random intercepts for hospitals and units (p < .001) and years of nursing experience in current unit (p < .05) were significant but level of nursing education was not. CONCLUSION: Nurse managers are significantly related to unit climates for EBP implementation primarily through their leadership behaviors. Future implementation studies should consider the leadership of nurse managers in creating climates supportive of EBP implementation.

Influences of peer facilitation in general practice – a qualitative study.
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T. D. Due, M. B. Kousgaard, F. B. Waldorff and T. Thorsen.
BMC Fam Pract 2018 May 28;19(1):75-018-0762-1
Practice facilitation is increasingly used to support guideline implementation and practice development in primary care and there is a need to explore how this implementation approach works in real-life settings. We focus on a facilitation intervention from the perspective of the visited practices to gain a more detailed understanding of how peer facilitation influenced practices and how they valued the facilitation. METHODS: The facilitation intervention was conducted in general practice in the Capital Region of Denmark with the purpose of supporting the implementation of chronic disease management programmes. We carried out a qualitative study, where we observed 30 facilitation visits in 13 practice settings and interviewed the visited practices after their first and last visits. We then performed a thematic analysis. RESULTS: Most of the respondents reported that facilitation visits had increased their knowledge and skills as well as their motivation and confidence to change. These positive influences were ascribed to a) the facilitation approach b) the credibility and know-how associated with the facilitators’ being peers c) the recurring visits providing protected time and invoking a sense of commitment. Despite these positive influences, both the facilitation and the change process were impeded by several challenges, e.g. competing priorities, heavy workload, problems with information technology and in some cases inadequate facilitation. CONCLUSION: Practice facilitation is a multifaceted, interactive approach that may affect participants in several ways. It is important to attune the expectations of all the involved actors through elaborate discussions of needs, capabilities, wishes, and approaches, and to adapt facilitation interventions according to an analysis of influential contextual conditions and change opportunities.

Small-scale implementation with pragmatic process evaluation: a model developed in primary health care
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K. Malterud, A. Aamland and K. R. Iden.
BMC Fam Pract 2018 Jun 21;19(1):93-018-0778-6
Research often fails to impose substantial shifts in clinical practice. Evidence-based health care requires implementation of documented interventions, with implementation research as a science-informed strategy to identify core experiences from the process and share preconditions for achievement. Evidence developed in hospital contexts is often neither relevant nor feasible for primary care. Different evidence types may constitute a point of departure, stretching and testing the transferability of the intervention by piloting it in primary care. Comprehensive descriptions of aims, context and procedures can be a more useful outcome than traditional effect studies. MAIN TEXT: We present a model for small-scale implementation of relevant research evidence, monitored by pragmatic evaluation. The model, which is applicable in primary care, is supported by Weiner’s theory about organizational readiness for change and consists of four steps: 1) recognize the problem – identify a workable intervention, 2) assess the context – prepare for inception, 3) pilot the intervention on site, and 4) upscale and accomplish the intervention. The process is evaluated by exploring selected relevant aspects of experiences and outcomes from the first to the last step. Process evaluation is a logical precondition for outcome evaluation – attempting to assess either the efficacy or the effectiveness of a “black box” intervention makes no sense. We argue why evidence beyond effect studies and evaluation beyond randomized controlled trials may be adequate for science-informed evaluation of a small-scale implementation project such as is often conducted by primary health care practitioners. The model is illustrated by an ongoing project, in which a strategy for upgrading the management of depression in nursing homes in Norway is currently being implemented. CONCLUSIONS: A flexible and manageable approach is suggested, in which the inevitable unpredictability of clinical practice is incorporated. Finding the appropriate middle ground between rigour and flexibility, some compromises must be made. Our model recognizes the skills of practical knowing as something other than traditional medical research, while maintaining academic values such as systematic and transparent reflection, using adequate tools. Considering the purpose and context of our model, we argue that these priorities, emphasizing relevance and feasibility, are strengths, not limitations.

A recipe for action: using wider evidence for a healthier UK

The Health Foundation, June 2018
A collection of essays exploring why we need trans-disciplinary approaches to improve the public’s health

 

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Health Care Administration and Organization

Leadership and Registered Nurses (RNs) working after-hours in Residential Aged Care Facilities (RACFs): A structured literature review.
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D. Nhongo, J. Hendricks, J. Bradshaw and K. Bail.
J Clin Nurs 2018 Jun 12
Registered nurses (RNs) working in Residential Aged Care Facilities are required to undertake complex management tasks including leading nursing care teams, supervising non-nursing staff, and allocating workloads according to residents’ care needs, staff skills and experience. Registered nurses plan, assess, manage medication, evaluate each resident’s care, liaise with doctors and allied health professionals and are responsible for evidence-based practice in accordance with the Nursing Standards for Practice (2016). Researchers have commented that effective nurse leadership can improve quality of care, improved resident outcomes and reduce adverse events. AIM: The aim of this literature review is to synthesise and analyse the literature pertinent to the RN’s competence and confidence to undertake the leadership role when working in residential aged care facilities after-hours and to determine any association of leadership with quality resident outcomes. DESIGN: A review of original research papers based on the structured methodology described by Kable, Pich and Maslin-Prothero (2012). METHODS: The review was conducted according to the 12-step structured framework by Kable et al. (2012). The search included peer-reviewed papers published between 2002 and 2017 on RN leadership after-hours, factors contributing to or with relationships to nursing leadership. Nineteen papers were found that researched the impact of leadership in aged care settings. RESULTS: The literature review concluded that nursing leadership has been linked to the quality of care and clinical outcomes in the aged care setting. However, RNs in the aged care setting have limited opportunities to develop key leadership competencies and confidence in order to meet the many challenges found in this environment due to lack of access to aged-care-specific leadership education. Minimal publications address the importance of the leadership of after-hours RNs. Results from this literature review will inform future research in this area. CONCLUSION: Nineteen papers identified the leadership required of RNs in aged care settings. However, limited research investigating the association between nursing leadership and clinical outcomes was found. The findings from this literature review suggest that leadership in the aged care setting may be facilitated through specific educational activities such as RN shadowing shifts, continuing professional development, working with peers and by demonstrating and practising leadership competencies. Based on the literature reviewed, a need for more research in this area is required. Specifically, research into RN leadership, competence and confidence in aged care facilities after-hours is needed. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Registered nurses working in the aged care setting after-hours need access to leadership education. Better quality of care, improved resident outcomes and reduced adverse events are associated with sound leadership. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Obesity and intensive staffing needs of nursing home residents.
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J. A. Harris, J. Engberg and N. G. Castle.
Geriatr Nurs 2018 Jun 5
The objective of this study is to examine how increasing body mass index (BMI) among nursing home residents affects the amount of staffing assistance needed for activities of daily living (ADL). We analyzed 1,627,141 US nursing home residents reported in the 2013 Minimum Data Set in seven BMI categories, from underweight (BMI /=50 kg/m(2)). Logistic regression models estimated the odds of nursing home-reported need for extensive (>/=2 staff member) assistance needed for ADLs. The adjusted odds increased from 1.07 (95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) 1.06-1.08) for Class I, 1.16 (95%CI 1.14-1.17) for Class II, 1.33 (95%CI 1.31-1.35) for Class IIIA, and 1.90 (95%CI 1.86-1.95) for Class IIIB obesity residents compared to residents of normal weight. As a nursing home resident’s BMI increases, especially for BMI >/=40 kg/m(2), the need for extensive staffing assistance with ADLs also increases substantially.

Psychometric Evaluation of the Team Member Perspectives of Person-Centered Care (TM-PCC) Survey for Long-Term Care Homes.
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V. M. Boscart, M. Davey, J. Ploeg, et al.
Healthcare (Basel) 2018 Jun 6;6(2):10.3390/healthcare6020059
Person-centered care (PCC) is fundamental for providing high-quality care in long-term care homes. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of an 11-item Team Member Perspectives of Person-Centered Care (TM-PCC) survey, adapted from White and colleagues (2008). In a cross-sectional study, 461 staff from four long-term care homes in Ontario, Canada, completed the TM-PCC. Construct validity and internal consistency of the TM-PCC were examined with a principal component analysis and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Findings revealed a three-component structure with factor 1, Supporting Social Relationships; factor 2, Familiarity with Residents’ Preferences; and factor 3, Meaningful Resident(-)Staff Relationships. The TM-PCC, as compared to the original survey, presented with less components (i.e., did not address Resident Autonomy, Personhood, Comfort, Work with Residents, Personal Environment, and Management Structure), yet included one new component (Meaningful Resident(-)Staff Relationships). The TM-PCC has a similar internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient 0.82 vs. White et al. 0.74(-)0.91). The TM-PCC can be used to assess PCC from the staff’s perspective in long-term care homes.

The development of the Person-Centred Situational Leadership Framework: Revealing the being of person-centredness in nursing homes.
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B. M. Lynch, T. McCance, B. McCormack and D. Brown.
J Clin Nurs 2018 Jan;27(1-2):427-440
To implement and evaluate the effect of using the Person-Centred Situational Leadership Framework to develop person-centred care within nursing homes. BACKGROUND: Many models of nursing leadership have been developed internationally in recent years but do not fit with the emergent complex philosophy of nursing home care. This study develops the Person-Centred Situational Leadership Framework that supports this philosophy. It forms the theoretical basis of the action research study described in this article. METHODS: This was a complex action research study using the following multiple methods: nonparticipatory observation using the Workplace Culture Critical Analysis Tool (n = 30); critical and reflective dialogues with participants (n = 39) at time 1 (beginning of study), time 2 (end of study) and time 3 (6 months after study had ended); narratives from residents at time 1 and time 2 (n = 8); focus groups with staff at time 2 (n = 12) and reflective field notes. Different approaches to analyse the data were adopted for the different data sources, and the overall results of the thematic analysis were brought together using cognitive mapping. RESULTS: The Person-Centred Situational Leadership Framework captures seven core attributes of the leader that facilitate person-centredness in others: relating to the essence of being; harmonising actions with the vision; balancing concern for compliance with concern for person-centredness; connecting with the other person in the instant; intentionally enthusing the other person to act; listening to the other person with the heart; and unifying through collaboration, appreciation and trust. CONCLUSIONS: This study led to a theoretical contribution in relation to the Person-Centred Practice Framework. It makes an important key contribution internationally to the gap in knowledge about leadership in residential care facilities for older people. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The findings can be seen to have significant applicability internationally, across other care settings and contexts.

Integrated care: organisations, partnerships and systems (UK)

House of Commons Health and Social Care Committee, June 2018
It is one of the greatest triumphs of our age that people are living longer. Many more of us are doing so with complex health and care needs, including multiple long-term conditions. To meet these needs, people rely on a range of health and care services, which are mostly public but also provided by non-statutory services (charities, social enterprises, community services and private providers), as well as dedicated informal support from families and carers. If these services and sources of support don’t join up, don’t share information, are not coordinated and fail to put the individual front and centre then this can not only result in a poor experience, but risks health problems escalating and an inefficient use of increasingly stretched resources.

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Health Care Innovation and Quality Assurance

Change in quality of life after a multidisciplinary intervention for people with dementia: A cluster randomized controlled trial.
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M. S. Klapwijk, M. A. A. Caljouw, M. J. C. Pieper, H. Putter, J. T. van der Steen and W. P. Achterberg.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2018 Jun 11
The objective of this study was to examine whether implementation of a stepwise multicomponent intervention (STA OP!) for challenging behavior and pain affects quality of life (QoL) of nursing home residents with moderate to severe dementia after 3 and 6 months. METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in 12 nursing homes. Both control (n = 140) and intervention group (=148) received training, the intervention group was also treated using the STA OP! INTERVENTION: At baseline, 3 and 6 months QoL was assessed using the 6 QUALIDEM domains applicable to moderate and severe dementia. Linear mixed models were used to compare changes in QoL domains between the 2 groups over time. RESULTS: After both 3 and 6 months, there was no change, and no difference in change, between the 2 groups in the domains Care relationship, Positive affect, Negative affect, and Social relations. Between 0 and 3 months, a positive effect was seen in the domain Restless tense behavior with a regression coefficient of beta: 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36-1.54). Between 3 and 6 months, a negative effect was seen on the domain Restless tense behavior beta: -0.98 (95% CI, -1.60 to -0.36) and a positive effect in the domain Social isolation, beta: 0.64 (95% CI, 0.12-1.17). CONCLUSIONS: The stepwise intervention STA OP! affects the QUALIDEM domains in different ways: there was a lowering of Restless tense behavior in the short term, which reverted back to the initial level in the longer term, and a lowering of Social isolation in the longer term.

Leveraging new information technology to monitor medicine use in 71 residential aged care facilities: variation in polypharmacy and antipsychotic use.
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L. G. Pont, M. Z. Raban, M. L. Jorgensen, A. Georgiou and J. I. Westbrook.
Int J Qual Health Care 2018 Jun 8
The aim of this study was to use routinely collected electronic medicines administration (eMAR) data in residential aged care (RAC) to investigate the quality use of medicines. Design: A cross-sectional analysis of eMAR data. Setting: 71 RAC facilities in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory, Australia. Participants: Permanent residents living in a participating facility on 1 October 2015. Intervention: None. Main Outcome Measures: Variation in polypharmacy (>/=5 medications), hyper-polypharmacy (>/=10 medications) and antipsychotic use across facilities was examined using funnel plot analysis. Results: The study dataset included 4775 long-term residents. The mean resident age was 85.3 years and 70.6% of residents were female. The median facility size was 60 residents and 74.3% were in metropolitan locations. 84.3% of residents had polypharmacy, 41.2% hyper-polypharmacy and 21.0% were using an antipsychotic. The extent of polypharmacy (69.75-100% of residents), hyper-polypharmacy (38.81-76.19%) and use of antipsychotic medicines (0-75.6%) varied considerably across the 71 facilities. Conclusions: Using eMAR data we found substantial variation in polypharmacy, hyper-polypharmacy and antipsychotic medicine use across 71 RAC facilities. Further investigation into the policies and practices of facilities performing above or below expected levels is warranted to understand variation and drive quality improvement.

Cost-Effective Adjustments to Nursing Home Staffing to Improve Quality.
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J. R. Bowblis and A. R. Roberts.
Med Care Res Rev 2018 Jun 1:1077558718778081
Health care providers face fixed reimbursement rates from government sources and need to carefully adjust staffing to achieve the highest quality within a given cost structure. With data from the Certification and Survey Provider Enhanced Reports (1999-2015), this study holistically examined how staffing levels affect two publicly reported measures of quality in the nursing home industry, the number of deficiency citations and the deficiency score. While higher staffing consistently yielded better quality, the largest quality improvements resulted from increasing administrative registered nurses and social service staffing. After adjusting for wages, the most cost-effective investment for improving overall deficiency outcomes was increasing social services. Deficiencies related to quality of care were improved most by increasing administrative nursing and social service staff. Quality of life deficiencies were improved most by increasing social service and activities staff. Approaches to improve quality through staffing adjustments should target specific types of staff to maximize return on investment.

Using comprehensive geriatric assessment for quality improvements in healthcare of older people in UK care homes: protocol for realist review within Proactive Healthcare of Older People in Care Homes (PEACH) study.
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M. Zubair, N. H. Chadborn, J. R. F. Gladman, T. Dening, A. L. Gordon and C. Goodman.
BMJ Open 2017 Oct 10;7(10):e017270-2017-017270
Care home residents are relatively high users of healthcare resources and may have complex needs. Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) may benefit care home residents and improve efficiency of care delivery. This is an approach to care in which there is a thorough multidisciplinary assessment (physical and mental health, functioning and physical and social environments) and a care plan based on this assessment, usually delivered by a multidisciplinary team. The CGA process is known to improve outcomes for community-dwelling older people and those in receipt of hospital care, but less is known about its efficacy in care home residents. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Realist review was selected as the most appropriate method to explore the complex nature of the care home setting and multidisciplinary delivery of care. The aim of the realist review is to identify and characterise a programme theory that underpins the CGA intervention. The realist review will extract data from research articles which describe the causal mechanisms through which the practice of CGA generates outcomes. The focus of the intervention is care homes, and the outcomes of interest are health-related quality of life and satisfaction with services; for both residents and staff. Further outcomes may include appropriate use of National Health Service services and resources of older care home residents. The review will proceed through three stages: (1) identifying the candidate programme theories that underpin CGA through interviews with key stakeholders, systematic search of the peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed evidence, (2) identifying the evidence relevant to CGA in UK care homes and refining the programme theories through refining and iterating the systematic search, lateral searches and seeking further information from study authors and (3) analysis and synthesis of evidence, involving the testing of the programme theories. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The PEACH project was identified as service development following submission to the UK Health Research Authority and subsequent review by the University of Nottingham Research Ethics Committee. The study protocols have been reviewed as part of good governance by the Nottinghamshire Healthcare Foundation Trust. We aim to publish this realist review in a peer-reviewed journal with international readership. We will disseminate findings to public and stakeholders using knowledge mobilisation techniques. Stakeholders will include the Quality Improvement Collaboratives within PEACH study. National networks, such as British Society of Gerontology and National Care Association will be approached for wider dissemination. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: The realist review has been registered on International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO 2017: CRD42017062601).

Applying the consolidated framework for implementation research to identify barriers affecting implementation of an online frailty tool into primary health care: A qualitative study
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G. Warner, B. Lawson, T. Sampalli, F. Burge, R. Gibson and S. Wood.
BMC Health Serv Res 2018 May 31;18(1):395-018-3163-1
Frailty is associated with multi-system deterioration, and typically increases susceptibility to adverse events such as falls. Frailty can be better managed with early screening and intervention, ideally conducted in primary health care (PHC) settings. This study used the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) as an evaluation framework during the second stage piloting of a novel web-based tool called the Frailty Portal, developed to aid in the screening, identification, and care planning of frail patients in community PHC. METHODS: This qualitative study conducted semi-structured key informant interviews with a purposive sample of PHC providers (family physicians, nurse practitioners) and key PHC stakeholders who were administrators, decision makers and staff. The CFIR was used to guide data collection and analysis. Framework Analysis was used to determine the relevance of the CFIR constructs to implementing the Frailty Portal. RESULTS: A total of 17 interviews were conducted. The CFIR-inspired interview questions helped clarify critical aspects of implementation that need to be addressed at multiple levels if the Frailty Portal is to be successfully implemented in PHC. Finding were organized into three themes 1) PHC Practice Context, 2) Intervention attributes affecting implementation, and 3) Targeting providers with frail patients. At the intervention level the Frailty Portal was viewed positively, despite the multi-level challenges to implementing it in PHC practice settings. Provider participants perceived high opportunity costs to using the Frailty Portal due to changes they needed to make to their practice routines. However, those who had older patients, took the time to learn how to use the Frailty Portal, and created processes for sharing tasks with other PHC personnel become proficient at using the Frailty Portal. CONCLUSIONS: Structuring our evaluation around the CFIR was instrumental in identifying multi-level factors that will affect large-scale adoption of the Frailty Portal in PHC practices. Incorporating CFIR constructs into evaluation instruments can flag factors likely to impede future implementation and impact the effectiveness of innovative practices. Future research is encouraged to identify how best to facilitate changes in PHC practices to address frailty and to use implementation frameworks that honor the complexity of implementing innovations in PHC.

Workshop Report: Building Capacity for Healthcare Quality Improvement: Spread, Sustainability, Scale & the Quadruple Aim

CFHI, AHS 2018
CFHI collaborated with Alberta Health Services (AHS) to develop and deliver a workshop in March 2018 to build knowledge and capacity to better spread, sustain, and scale-up quality improvement (QI) initiatives.

 

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Organizational Culture and Change

Organizational and environmental factors associated with transfers of nursing home residents to emergency departments
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Xavier Dubucs, Souto Barreto de and Yves Rolland.
European Geriatric Medicine 2018 06/01;9(3):339-346
The emergency department transfer (EDT) rate of residents from nursing homes (NHs) to emergency departments is an important public health issue. The purpose of this study was to examine whether organizational and geographical factors were associated with EDT among older adults living in NHs.

Assessing the reliability and validity of the Danish version of Organizational Readiness for Implementing Change (ORIC)
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M. H. Storkholm, P. Mazzocato, M. K. Tessma and C. Savage.
Implement Sci 2018 Jun 5;13(1):78-018-0769-y
Organizational change initiatives in health care frequently achieve only partial implementation success. Understanding an organizational readiness for change (ORC) may be a way to develop more effective and efficient change strategies. Denmark, like many countries, has begun a major system-wide structural reform which involves considerable changes in service delivery. Due to the lack of a validated Danish instrument, we aimed to translate and validate a Danish version of the Organizational Readiness for Implementing Change (ORIC) questionnaire. It measures if organizational members are confident in their collective commitment towards and ability (efficacy) to implement organizational change. ORIC is concise, grounded in theory, and designed, but not yet validated among employees in a real hospital setting. METHODS: The 12-item ORIC instrument was translated into Danish and back-translated to English. Employees (N = 284) at a hospital department facing a major organizational change in the Central Denmark Region completed the questionnaire. Face and content validity was ascertained. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to assess construct validity. Reliability was assessed with Cronbach’s alpha. Item response theory (Rasch analysis) was used to determine item and person reliability. RESULTS: Response rate was 72%. A two factor (commitment and efficacy), 11-item scale, of the Danish language ORIC was shown to be valid (CFI = .95, RMSEA = .067, and CMNI/DF = 2.32) and reliable (Cronbach’s alpha 0.88) in a health care setting. Item response analysis confirmed acceptable person and item separation reliability. CONCLUSIONS: Our version of ORIC showed acceptable validity and reliability as an instrument for measuring readiness for implementing organizational change in a Danish-speaking health care population. For health care managers interested in evaluating their organizations and tailor change strategies, ORIC’s brevity and theoretical underpinnings could make it an appealing and feasible tool to develop more successful change efforts.

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Research Practice and Methodology

Innovative Use of Cognitive Interviewing for Nursing Home Research.
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R. Shield, D. Tyler, C. Berridge, M. Clark and S. C. Miller.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2018 Jun 16.
Due to nursing home (NH) regulatory and payment changes emphasizing person-centered care and value-based payment, we conducted a follow-up of a 2009–2010 survey to understand NH practice changes. In particular, our focus was on understanding NH culture change (CC) practices aimed at advancing person-centered care and deinstitutionalizing NHs. Unlike the 2009–2010 survey of directors of nursing (DONs) and NH administrators (NHAs), this follow-up survey’s budget could only accommodate responses from 1 survey recipient at a facility.

Enhancing the uptake of systematic reviews of effects: what is the best format for health care managers and policy-makers? A mixed-methods study
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C. Marquez, A. M. Johnson, S. Jassemi, et al.
Implement Sci 2018 Jun 22;13(1):84-018-0779-9
Systematic reviews are infrequently used by health care managers (HCMs) and policy-makers (PMs) in decision-making. HCMs and PMs co-developed and tested novel systematic review of effects formats to increase their use. METHODS: A three-phased approach was used to evaluate the determinants to uptake of systematic reviews of effects and the usability of an innovative and a traditional systematic review of effects format. In phase 1, survey and interviews were conducted with HCMs and PMs in four Canadian provinces to determine perceptions of a traditional systematic review format. In phase 2, systematic review format prototypes were created by HCMs and PMs via Conceptboard(c). In phase 3, prototypes underwent usability testing by HCMs and PMs. RESULTS: Two hundred two participants (80 HCMs, 122 PMs) completed the phase 1 survey. Respondents reported that inadequate format (Mdn = 4; IQR = 4; range = 1-7) and content (Mdn = 4; IQR = 3; range = 1-7) influenced their use of systematic reviews. Most respondents (76%; n = 136/180) reported they would be more likely to use systematic reviews if the format was modified. Findings from 11 interviews (5 HCMs, 6 PMs) revealed that participants preferred systematic reviews of effects that were easy to access and read and provided more information on intervention effectiveness and less information on review methodology. The mean System Usability Scale (SUS) score was 55.7 (standard deviation [SD] 17.2) for the traditional format; a SUS score < 68 is below average usability. In phase 2, 14 HCMs and 20 PMs co-created prototypes, one for HCMs and one for PMs. HCMs preferred a traditional information order (i.e., methods, study flow diagram, forest plots) whereas PMs preferred an alternative order (i.e., background and key messages on one page; methods and limitations on another). In phase 3, the prototypes underwent usability testing with 5 HCMs and 7 PMs, 11 out of 12 participants co-created the prototypes (mean SUS score 86 [SD 9.3]). CONCLUSIONS: HCMs and PMs co-created prototypes for systematic review of effects formats based on their needs. The prototypes will be compared to a traditional format in a randomized trial.

Producing policy relevant systematic reviews: navigating the policy-research interface
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Sandra Oliver, Mukdarut Bangpan and Kelly Dickson.
Evidence & Policy: A Journal of Research, Debate and Practice 2018;14(2):197-220
This study employed insider research and reflective practice to investigate exchanges across the research-policy interface to understand the practice of producing policy-relevant systematic reviews. Interviewees came from 11 systematic reviews or review programmes which spanned four models of policy-relevant reviews and between them provided evidence for understanding policy problems, comparing policy options, or implementing policy decisions. No review methodology was found to be uniquely appropriate for policy-relevant systematic reviews. It was the mutual engagement across the research-policy interface that made the reviews policy-relevant. This involved thinking about the issues and seeing them from multiple viewpoints to identify and shape questions; this prompted implicit or explicit value-driven debates. The intellectual work to shape a policy-relevant systematic review is an iterative, collective endeavour that requires partners from either side of the policy-research interface to engage with the unfamiliar, listen, challenge and co-construct questions and answers. Key messages Policy relevant systematic reviews are shaped by: Horizon scanning, consulting or setting research agendas with policy makers; Postgraduate students combining research training with employment backgrounds in policy; Knowledge brokering between worlds of policy and research; and/or Lateral thinking, exploratory thoughtprovoking discussion and constructive conflict.

Studying complexity in health services research: desperately seeking an overdue paradigm shift
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T. Greenhalgh and C. Papoutsi.
BMC Med 2018 Jun 20;16(1):95-018-1089-4
Complexity is much talked about but sub-optimally studied in health services research. Although the significance of the complex system as an analytic lens is increasingly recognised, many researchers are still using methods that assume a closed system in which predictive studies in general, and controlled experiments in particular, are possible and preferred. We argue that in open systems characterised by dynamically changing inter-relationships and tensions, conventional research designs predicated on linearity and predictability must be augmented by the study of how we can best deal with uncertainty, unpredictability and emergent causality. Accordingly, the study of complexity in health services and systems requires new standards of research quality, namely (for example) rich theorising, generative learning, and pragmatic adaptation to changing contexts. This framing of complexity-informed health services research provides a backdrop for a new collection of empirical studies. Each of the initial five papers in this collection illustrates, in different ways, the value of theoretically grounded, methodologically pluralistic, flexible and adaptive study designs. We propose an agenda for future research and invite researchers to contribute to this on-going series.

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Aging

The impact of a preventive and curative oral healthcare program on the prevalence and incidence of oral health problems in nursing home residents.
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B. Janssens, J. Vanobbergen, M. Petrovic, W. Jacquet, J. M. Schols and L. De Visschere.
PLoS One 2018 Jun 12;13(6):e0198910
To assess the impact of an oral healthcare program in nursing homes on the initial treatment backlog and residents’ oral health stability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study is a longitudinal cohort study in nursing home residents in Flanders, Belgium, to evaluate the oral healthcare programme Gerodent. The program consisted of: (1) the introduction of an oral healthcare team, (2) oral health education, (3) the implementation of oral health guidelines and protocols, and (4) regular visits of a mobile dental team. Data were extracted from the oral health records of 381 residents from 21 nursing homes who received treatments from the mobile dental team between October 2010 and March 2014 (mean follow-up period of 22.5 months). Oral health and treatment need between baseline and follow-up were compared. RESULTS: The mean age at baseline was 82.4 years and the mean number of consultations per resident was 3.61 during the follow-up period. The proportion of residents with an oral treatment need was reduced from 65.9% to 31.3%. Among residents with natural teeth, there was significantly lower prevalence of caries (from 70.5% at baseline to 36.5% at follow-up; p<0.001), residual roots (from 54.2% to 25.1%; p<0.001), and need for fillings (from 31.9% to 17.1%; p<0.001) or extractions (from 64.3% to 31.6%; p<0.001). In the group with partial or full dentures (n = 223), 38.1% needed a repair, rebasing or renewal of their existing dentures at baseline and the respective figure at follow-up was 9.0% (p<0.001). In terms of oral health stability, 53% of the residents had no incident restorative and prosthetic treatment need throughout the follow-up period. A lower number of natural teeth at baseline (p<0.001) and a shorter follow-up period (p = 0.002) were associated with higher chances of oral health stability. CONCLUSION: The oral healthcare program Gerodent significantly reduced the treatment backlog and contributed to a considerable proportion of residents being stable in terms of oral health without any incident treatment needs.

Personal information documents for people with dementia: Healthcare staff ’s perceptions and experiences
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L. Baillie and N. Thomas.
Dementia (London) 2018 Jan 1:1471301218778907
Person-centred care is internationally recognised as best practice for the care of people with dementia. Personal information documents for people with dementia are proposed as a way to support person-centred care in healthcare settings. However, there is little research about how they are used in practice. The aim of this study was to analyse healthcare staff ‘s perceptions and experiences of using personal information documents, mainly Alzheimer’s Society’s ‘This is me’, for people with dementia in healthcare settings. The method comprised a secondary thematic analysis of data from a qualitative study, of how a dementia awareness initiative affected care for people with dementia in one healthcare organisation. The data were collected through 12 focus groups (n = 58 participants) and 1 individual interview, conducted with a range of healthcare staff, both clinical and non-clinical. There are four themes presented: understanding the rationale for personal information documents; completing personal information documents; location for personal information documents and transfer between settings; impact of personal information documents in practice. The findings illuminated how healthcare staff use personal information documents in practice in ways that support person-centred care. Practical issues about the use of personal information documents were revealed and these may affect the optimal use of the documents in practice. The study indicated the need to complete personal information documents at an early stage following diagnosis of dementia, and the importance of embedding their use across care settings, to support communication and integrated care.

Shared decision-making for people living with dementia in extended care settings: a systematic review
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R. L. Daly, F. Bunn and C. Goodman.
BMJ Open 2018 Jun 9;8(6):e018977-2017-018977
Shared decision-making is recognised as an important element of person-centred dementia care. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to explore how people living with dementia and cognitive impairment can be included in day-to-day decisions about their health and care in extended care settings. DESIGN: A systematic review including primary research relating to shared decision-making, with cognitively impaired adults in (or transferrable to) extended care settings. Databases searched were: CINAHL, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, NICE Evidence, OpenGrey, Autism Data, Google Scholar, Scopus and Medicines Complete (June to October 2016 and updated 2018) for studies published in the last 20 years. RESULTS: Of the 19 included studies 15 involved people with living dementia, seven in extended care settings. People living with cognitive impairment often have the desire and ability to participate in decision-making about their everyday care, although this is regularly underestimated by their staff and family care partners. Shared decision-making has the potential to improve quality of life for both the person living with dementia and those who support them. How resources to support shared decision-making are implemented in extended care settings is less well understood. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence suggests that people living with cognitive impairment value opportunities to be involved in everyday decision-making about their care. How these opportunities are created, understood, supported and sustained in extended care settings remains to be determined. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42016035919.

Decreasing preventable emergency department transfers for long-term care residents using PREVIEW-ED©.
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M. R. ElBestawi and C. Kohm.
Healthc Manage Forum 2018 Jan 1:840470417753969
Healthcare organizations and governments are exploring new methods to deliver cost-effective, quality care to the frail elderly. Given the projected increase in Canada’s elderly population, ensuring that residents receive the right care, at the right time, in the right location is pivotal to this goal. Practical Routine Elder Variants Indicate Early Warning for Emergency Department has been developed as a quality improvement tool. Two pilot studies, one in Ontario and one in British Columbia, have shown promising results. Health leaders in acute care will benefit from improved Emergency Department (ED) utilization and less congested bed flow. Long-term care leaders can achieve fewer transfers to the ED, better quality outcomes, reduced costs from ED-acquired iatrogenic complications, enhanced communication with families, and improved staff confidence and morale. The health system benefits include reduced costs from fewer transfers and complications and enhanced collaboration between healthcare sectors.

A systematic review of non-pharmacological interventions to improve nighttime sleep among residents of long-term care settings.
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E. Capezuti, R. Sagha Zadeh, K. Pain, A. Basara, N. Z. Jiang and A. C. Krieger.
BMC Geriatr 2018 Jun 18;18(1):143-018-0794-3
Disturbances in sleep and circadian rhythms are common among residents of long-term care facilities. In this systematic review, we aim to identify and evaluate the literature documenting the outcomes associated with non-pharmacological interventions to improve nighttime sleep among long-term care residents. METHODS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews guided searches of five databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Scopus, and Cochrane Library) for articles reporting results of experimental or quasi-experimental studies conducted in long-term care settings (nursing homes, assisted-living facilities, or group homes) in which nighttime sleep was subjectively or objectively measured as a primary outcome. We categorized each intervention by its intended use and how it was administered. RESULTS: Of the 54 included studies evaluating the effects of 25 different non-pharmacological interventions, more than half employed a randomized controlled trial design (n = 30); the others used a pre-post design with (n = 11) or without (n = 13) a comparison group. The majority of randomized controlled trials were at low risk for most types of bias, and most other studies met the standard quality criteria. The interventions were categorized as environmental interventions (n = 14), complementary health practices (n = 12), social/physical stimulation (n = 11), clinical care practices (n = 3), or mind-body practices (n = 3). Although there was no clear pattern of positive findings, three interventions had the most promising results: increased daytime light exposure, nighttime use of melatonin, and acupressure. CONCLUSIONS: Non-pharmacological interventions have the potential to improve sleep for residents of long-term care facilities. Further research is needed to better standardize such interventions and provide clear implementation guidelines using cost-effective practices.

Conversations about Death and Dying with Older People: An Ethnographic Study in Nursing Homes.
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A. Alftberg, G. Ahlstrom, P. Nilsen, et al.
Healthcare (Basel) 2018 Jun 14;6(2):10.3390/healthcare6020063
Nursing homes are often places where older persons “come to die.” Despite this, death and dying are seldom articulated or talked about. The aim of this study was to explore assistant nurses’ experiences of conversations about death and dying with nursing home residents. This study is part of an implementation project through a knowledge-based educational intervention based on palliative care principles. An ethnographic study design was applied in seven nursing homes, where eight assistant nurses were interviewed and followed in their daily assignments through participant observations. The assistant nurses stated that they had the knowledge and tools to conduct such conversations, even though they lacked the time and felt that emotional strain could be a hinder for conversations about death and dying. The assistant nurses used the strategies of distracting, comforting, and disregarding either when they perceived that residents’ reflections on death and dying were part of their illness and disease or when there was a lack of alignment between the residents’ contemplations and the concept of dying well. They indicated that ambivalence and ambiguity toward conversations about death and dying should be taken into consideration in future implementations of knowledge-based palliative care that take place in nursing homes after this project is finalized.

Influences on Decision-Making Regarding Antipsychotic Prescribing in Nursing Home Residents With Dementia: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of Qualitative Evidence.
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K. A. Walsh, R. Dennehy, C. Sinnott, et al.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2017 Oct 1;18(10):897.e1-897.e12
Antipsychotic prescribing is prevalent in nursing homes for the management of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), despite the known risks and limited effectiveness. Many studies have attempted to understand this continuing phenomenon, using qualitative research methods, and have generated varied and sometimes conflicting findings. To date, the totality of this qualitative evidence has not been systematically collated and synthesized. AIMS: To synthesize the findings from individual qualitative studies on decision-making and prescribing behaviors for antipsychotics in nursing home residents with dementia, with a view to informing intervention development and quality improvement in this field. METHODS: A systematic review and synthesis of qualitative evidence was conducted (PROSPERO protocol registration CRD42015029141). Six electronic databases were searched systematically from inception through July 2016 and supplemented by citation, reference, and gray literature searching. Studies were included if they used qualitative methods for both data collection and analysis, and explored antipsychotic prescribing in nursing homes for the purpose of managing BPSD. The Critical Appraisal Skills Program assessment tool was used for quality appraisal. A meta-ethnography was conducted to synthesize included studies. The Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research approach was used to assess the confidence in individual review findings. All stages were conducted by at least 2 independent reviewers. RESULTS: Of 1534 unique records identified, 18 met the inclusion criteria. Five key concepts emerged as influencing decision-making: organizational capacity; individual professional capability; communication and collaboration; attitudes; regulations and guidelines. A “line of argument” was synthesized and a conceptual model constructed, comparing this decision-making process to a dysfunctional negative feedback loop. Our synthesis indicates that when all stakeholders come together to communicate and collaborate as equal and empowered partners, this can result in a successful reduction in inappropriate antipsychotic prescribing. CONCLUSIONS: Antipsychotic prescribing in nursing home residents with dementia occurs in a complex environment involving the interplay of various stakeholders, the nursing home organization, and external influences. To improve the quality of antipsychotic prescribing in this cohort, a more holistic approach to BPSD management is required. Although we have found the issue of antipsychotic prescribing has been extensively explored using qualitative methods, there remains a need for research focusing on how best to change the prescribing behaviors identified.

Heterogeneity of Different Tools for Detecting the Prevalence of Frailty in Nursing Homes: Feasibility and Meaning of Different Approaches.
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N. Martinez-Velilla, P. A. Herce, A. C. Herrero, et al.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2017 Oct 1;18(10):898.e1-898.e8
The identification of frail individuals has been recognized as a priority for the effective implementation of healthy aging strategies. Only a limited number of studies have examined frailty in nursing homes, and there is a big heterogeneity in the methods used. The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and feasibility of different frailty screening tools in nursing homes as well as its relationship with multimorbidity and disability. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional analysis from a concurrent cohort study, which included 110 participants aged over 65 years and with different degrees of disability at 2 nursing homes. MEASUREMENTS: The study used 4 different frailty scales: The Fried frailty criteria, the imputed Fried frailty criteria, the Rockwood clinical frailty scale, and the frailty in nursing home scale, and we analyzed their relationship with disability and multimorbidity. RESULTS: The mean age of the study population was 86.3 years (standard deviation 7.3), and 71.8% were female. Most residents had a high percentage of cognitive and functional impairment, multimorbidity, and risk of malnutrition. The following prevalence rates for frailty were determined: 71.8% (62.8, 79.4), 42.7% (33.9, 52.1), and 36.4% (23.8, 51.1) as per according to the Rockwood clinical frailty scale, frailty in nursing home scale, and Fried index (95% confidence interval), respectively. In the case of the Fried index, the prevalence of frailty is based on the percentage of patients meeting the criteria, which is 40% due to the large number of missing values. After the imputation of variables with the multivariate imputation by chained equation software, the prevalence of frailty increased to 66.4% (57.1, 74.5). We observed different statistically significant associations between the frailty scales and the clinical and demographic variables, and also with disability and multimorbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Most residents of nursing homes are likely to be frail, but there is no single operational definition of frailty. Although all measures of frailty had similar associations with the clinical variables of the study, there are important conceptual differences that must be considered in addressing the relationships between frailty, disability, and multimorbidity. Further research is required, and homogeneous frailty criteria must be used so that studies and interventions can be compared.

The Determinants of Quality of Life of Nursing Home Residents with Young-Onset Dementia and the Differences between Dementia Subtypes.
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B. Appelhof, C. Bakker, J. C. L. Van Duinen-van den Ijssel, et al.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2017;43(5-6):320-329
The aims of this study are to (1) explore the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in nursing home residents with young-onset dementia (YOD), (2) investigate whether there are differences between dementia subtypes (Alzheimer dementia, vascular/mixed dementia, frontotemporal dementia, other) regarding these determinants, and (3) compare QoL profiles of YOD nursing home residents across dementia subtypes. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 207 nursing home residents. Multilevel modeling was used to determine the relationships between QoL and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), dementia severity, psychotropic drug use (PDU), dementia subtype, age, and gender. Additional multilevel models were used to compare aspects of QoL between dementia subtypes. RESULTS: Residents’ QoL was negatively associated with advanced dementia, PDU, and NPS. In general, the relationships between the determinants and QoL were similar across the dementia subtypes. Aspects of QoL differed by dementia subtype. Residents with frontotemporal dementia showed less negative emotions, accepted more help and experienced better quality of relationships with professional caregivers, had a more positive self-image, felt more comfortable in the nursing home environment, and experienced lower quality of social relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the high rates of NPS and PDU in YOD residents and their negative associations with QoL, we recommend emphasizing services to manage and reduce NPS and PDU in nursing home residents with YOD. Furthermore, our findings suggest accounting for differences in aspects of QoL by dementia subtype to address specific needs and thereby improve QoL.

CLSA Report on Health and Aging in Canada: Findings from Baseline Data Collection 2010-2015

CLSA 2018
The information being collected at sites across the country from the more than 50,000 Canadians participating in the CLSA is an important national resource. Its value speaks to researchers, health policy makers, public health professionals, and anyone else with an interest in maintaining good health in Canadians. Our goal is that CLSA data will guide the development of policies and programs to support healthy aging for decades to come.

Innovation and the Aging Experience

Revera, 2018
Revera held a series of roundtables with seniors living in its Retirement Residences and Long Term Care Homes across Canada. The company also conducted a national survey of 1,099 Canadians over the age of 65 relating to innovation and the aging experience. The polling categorized older adults into three age brackets: 65-74, 75-84 and 85+. As we just explored, it is necessary to break down differences between these age groups because of the different points of view that arise at different moments in the life of a senior.

NICE Guideline: Dementia: assessment, management and support for people living with dementia and their carers (UK)

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), June 2018
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has released a guideline covering the care (the assessment, management and support) of people living with dementia / Alzheimer’s Disease, and their families / carers. It replaces the older GG42 guideline.

 

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Events

Online

Human-Centred Design, Design Thinking, and Community Change

Tuesday 26 June 11:00-12:00 MT
Presenter: Galen MacLusky
Human-Centred Design and Design Thinking, popularized by innovation firms such as IDEO and institutions such as Stanford’s d.school, are rapidly being adopted as approaches to innovation across the private, public, and voluntary sector. The promise of these approaches is alluring – that seeking to deeply understand the perspective of those impacted by a service, program, or system, and adopting an iterative, prototype-driven approach to problem-solving will result in revolutionary changes that will benefit all. But, is that promise always possible?

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News

Dementia patients could remain at home longer thanks to ground breaking technology

Everyday epiphanies: six academics recall turning points in their careers

CFHI, the Governments of Newfoundland and Labrador and PEI, and SQLI Join Forces to Improve Dementia Care

In pursuit of quality, let’s be more like geese

How Communities Benefit from Tapping Local Quality Improvement Experts

Collaborating Through Quality Improvement

Tips to avoid predatory journals and conferences

Seniors care in B.C. Months in hospital waiting for residential care not uncommon

Have an opinion/ideas on Canadian palliative care? Health Canada has created an online public consultation on this topic.

Nova Scotia now requires Long-term Care Facilities to Report Pressure Wounds

A horror story exposes poor management in nursing homes

Systematic versus rapid reviews – what about harms?

How to write a blogpost from your journal article in eleven easy steps.

Six principles for assessing scientists for hiring, promotion, and tenure (UK)

Four years after my father died, we’ve reached a milestone in dementia care (UK)

Nurses play vital roles in health care. Why are they invisible in the media?

Minister of Health announces Dr. Michael J. Strong as new President of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research

Four principles to make evidence synthesis more useful for policy

The Fix: Dementia program in Peel ‘should spread like wildfire’

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