Liane Ginsburg, Adam Easterbrook, Whitney Berta, et al.
The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety 2018 07/07
Despite emerging frameworks for quality improvement (QI) implementation, little is known about how the implementation process works, particularly in nursing home settings. A study was conducted to describe “how”’ a complex frontline worker–led QI program was implemented in nursing homes. Methods Six focus groups were conducted in February 2017 with participants of a year-long, multicomponent, unit-level QI intervention in seven nursing homes in the Canadian province of Manitoba. Constant comparative analysis was used to examine perspectives of different groups of QI program participants—35 health care aides, health professionals, and managers. Results Five themes important to the implementation process were identified: (1) “supportive elements of the QI program structure,” (2) “navigating the workplace,” (3) “negotiating relationships,” (4) “developing individual skills,” and (5) “observable program impact.” Data on theme integration suggest that “supportive elements of the QI program structure” (Theme 1), “developing individual skills” (Theme 4), and “observable program impact” (on residents, health care aides, and leaders; Theme 5) operated as part of a reinforcing feedback loop that boosted team members’ ability to navigate the workplace, negotiate relationships, and implement the QI program. Conclusion Health care aide–led QI teams are feasible. However, a leadership paradox exists whereby worker-led QI programs also must incorporate concrete mechanisms to promote strong leadership and sponsor support to teams. The findings also point to the underexplored impact of interpersonal relationships between health care aides and professional staff on QI implementation.
T. K. T. Lo, M. Hoben, P. G. Norton, G. F. Teare and C. A. Estabrooks.
BMJ Open 2018 Jul 13;8(7):e020074-2017-020074
This study explored the effect of clinical educators as facilitators of research use and how it may be modified by organisational context in the settings. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: A representative sample of 91 residential long-term care (LTC) facilities across Western Canada. PARTICIPANTS: We used surveys to collect data from the frontline care aides and information about the organisational context of the care units. OUTCOME MEASURE AND EXPLANATORY VARIABLES: We assessed research use (the outcome) with the Conceptual Research Utilization (CRU) scale. Explanatory variables in the multiple regression analysis were facilitation, organisational context and the interaction terms. Facilitation was measured by the frequency of contacts between care aides and clinical educator or person who brings new ideas about resident care. Three core organisational context variables were measured using the Alberta Context Tool. RESULTS: We included data of 3873 care aides from 294 care units in the LTC facilities. We found significant associations between CRU and facilitation, leadership, culture and evaluation. Interactions of facilitation x leadership and facilitation x culture were negative. The coefficient of the facilitation x evaluation term in the regression model was positive (0.019, 95% CI 0.012 to 0.026), suggesting synergistic effects between facilitation and a well-developed process to evaluate care quality using relevant data. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate clinical educators are effective facilitators of research use among the care aides, but the effect is modified by organisational context. For greatest impact, managers can direct efforts of the clinical educators to care units where leadership and culture ratings are lowest, but a proficient feedback and evaluation process is in place. This understanding enables managers to deploy clinical educators (a scarce resource in LTC settings) most efficiently.
Monday 30 July 11:00-12:00 MT
Presenter Dr. Adrian Wagg
Join us for another edition of the TREC Webinar Series. Dr. Adrian Wagg will discuss his work on continence in nursing homes. This webinar will outline a simple continence assessment for nursing home residents, illustrate initial management for continence and discuss cure versus care in the frail older person.
A. Gruneir, C. Cigsar, X. Wang, et al.
BMC Geriatr 2018 Jul 5;18(1):157-018-0854-8
Nursing home (NH) residents are frequent users of emergency departments (ED) and while prior research suggests that repeat visits are common, there is little data describing this phenomenon. Our objectives were to describe repeat ED visits over one year, identify risk factors for repeat use, and characterize “frequent” ED visitors. METHODS: Using provincial administrative data from Ontario, Canada, we identified all NH residents 65 years or older who visited an ED at least once between January 1 and March 31, 2010 and then followed them for one year to capture all additional ED visits. Frequent ED visitors were defined as those who had 3 or more repeat ED visits. We used logistic regression to estimate risk factors for any repeat ED visit and for being a frequent visitor and Andersen-Gill regression to estimate risk factors for the rate of repeat ED visits. RESULTS: In a cohort of 25,653 residents (mean age 84.5 (SD = 7.5) years, 68.2% female), 48.8% had at least one repeat ED visit. Residents who experienced a repeat ED visit were generally similar to others but they tended to be slightly younger, have a higher proportion male, and a higher proportion with minimal cognitive or physical impairment. Risk factors for a repeat ED visit included: being male (adjusted odds ratio 1.27, (95% confidence interval 1.19-1.36)), diagnoses such as diabetes (AOR 1.28 (1.19-1.37)) and congestive heart failure (1.26 (1.16-1.37)), while severe cognitive impairment (AOR 0.92 (0.84-0.99)) and 5 or more chronic conditions (AOR 0.82 (0.71-0.95)) appeared protective. Eleven percent of residents were identified as frequent ED visitors, and they were more often younger then 75 years, male, and less likely to have Alzheimer’s disease or other dementias than non-frequent visitors. CONCLUSIONS: Repeat ED visits were common among NH residents but a relatively small group accounted for the largest number of visits. Although there were few clear defining characteristics, our findings suggest that medically complex residents and younger residents without cognitive impairments are at risk for such outcomes.
M. N. Yoon, C. Ickert, S. E. Slaughter, C. Lengyel, N. Carrier and H. Keller.
Gerodontology 2018 Jul 11
To describe the oral health and oral prosthetic status of long-term care residents in four Canadian provinces. BACKGROUND: Oral health can have significant impact on the health and quality of life of older adults. Seniors in long-term care are highly dependent on care staff for basic activities of daily living and are at risk for poor oral health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five hundred and fifty-nine randomly selected residents were examined from thirty-two long-term care homes in Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario and New Brunswick, Canada. Four experienced registered dental hygienists, one in each province, completed a standardised oral health examination with each participant, examining lip health, breath odour, saliva appearance, natural teeth count, gingival inflammation, tooth and jaw pain, denture status, mucosal status and oral health abnormalities. RESULTS: Of the examined residents, 57.6% were dentate, with an average of 16.4 (SD = 8.0) teeth. Most dentate residents had moderate or severe inflammation on at least one tooth (79.6%). Sixty per cent of residents wore dentures, and 43.2% of edentulous residents had poor hygiene of their dentures. Nine per cent of residents required urgent dental treatment for oral health problems such as broken teeth, infection, severe decay and ulcers. CONCLUSION: This study provides an estimate of the prevalence of oral health problems in residents living in long-term care homes across Canada and indicates that improvement in oral health care is needed. Future work on development strategies aimed at optimising oral health for long-term care residents is required.
J Prev Alzheimers Dis 2018;5(3):207-212
An international committee set up through the IAP for Health met to develop an action plan for dementia. Comprehensive international and national initiatives should move forward with calls for action that include increased public awareness regarding brain health and dementia, support for a broad range of dementia research objectives, and investment in national health care systems to ensure timely competent person-centred care for individuals with dementia. The elements of such action plans should include: 1) Development of national plans including assessment of relevant lifecourse risk and protective factors; 2) Increased investments in national research programs on dementia with approximately 1% of the national annual cost of the disease invested; 3) Allocating funds to support a broad range of biomedical, clinical, and health service and systems research; 4) Institution of risk reduction strategies; 5) Building the required trained workforce (health care workers, teachers, and others) to deal with the dementia crisis; 6) Ensuring that it is possible to live well with dementia; and 7) Ensuring that all have access to prevention programs, care, and supportive living environments.
T. Schultz, J. Shoobridge, G. Harvey, L. Carter and A. Kitson.
Aust Health Rev 2018 May 23
This study evaluated Leading 4 Change, a change leadership development program designed to support healthcare middle managers through a period of significant organisational change and enhance workplace resilience.Methods. A mixed methods evaluation was conducted within the program’s framework of a quality improvement activity. Quantitative measures were participant responses (n=160) to online questionnaires, which were compared before and after the program, using an uncontrolled pre-post study design. Four questionnaires were used: Resilience @ Work, General Self-Efficacy, the 11-item Learning Organization Survey and organisational climate. Differences between the pre- and post-program periods were compared using linear mixed-effects models, incorporating repeated measures between ‘pre’ and ‘post’ periods. Qualitative data were obtained by interviewing four participants on three occasions during the program, and through text responses provided by participants during a presentation session after the program finished. Both interview data and textual data were subjected to thematic analysis.Results. Integration of data from quantitative and qualitative analyses generated three main findings: (1) participants were satisfied and engaged with the program, which met their learning objectives; (2) the program led to increased workplace resilience, in particular the ability to manage stress and self-efficacy for individuals; and (3) organisational learning perceptions were unchanged.Conclusion. Although conducted during a period of intense internal and external pressure, Leading 4 Change led to demonstrable effects. It effectively engaged middle managers across a health system. However, there was no evidence that the effect of the program extended beyond individual participants to their perceptions of their work environment as a learning organisation.What is known about the topic? Although much has been written about change management and change leadership within healthcare, the failure to manage the ‘people’ element and engage employees hampers the success of that change. However, how to engage employees and enhance their resilience and self-efficacy (self-belief to proactively manage) during change has been little explored. Further, the concept of a learning organisation has been developed in private, non-healthcare fields and there is little known about it in other areas, such as healthcare, particularly during change.What does this paper add? The paper describes the evaluation of a 16-week change leadership development program (Leading 4 Change) for middle managers of a public health system undergoing significant reform. It assesses how the program engaged employees, and how and to what extent their workplace resilience, self-efficacy and perceptions of their workplace as a learning organisation changed after the program. Based on the present study, individual development of staff does not necessarily translate directly to better staff perceptions of organisational outcomes.What are the implications for practitioners? Despite being clearly engaged with Leading 4 Change, quantitative and qualitative measures suggested mixed effects of the program on participants. Participants’ self-rated workplace resilience, ability to manage stress and self-efficacy increased after the program. However, there was no evidence that the effect of the program improved staff perceptions of their work as a learning organisation. For complex public sector healthcare organisations to become learning organisations, other organisational factors, in addition to staff development and training, require consideration.
L. Saarnio, A. M. Bostrom, R. Hedman, P. Gustavsson and J. Ohlen.
J Aging Stud 2017 Dec;43:40-45
Older people are often living the last period of their lives in institutions such as nursing homes. Knowledge of this period, specifically related to at-homeness which can be described as wellbeing in spite of illness and has been regarded as one of the goals in palliative care, has been very little researched in the context of nursing homes and the experience of nursing home staff. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of nursing home staff of how to enable at-homeness for residents. Qualitative interpretive description methodology guided the design. The data generation was conducted in winter 2014-2015, when seven repetitive reflective group discussions with staff in a nursing home were held. The results show five patterns for how healthcare staff enabled at-homeness for the residents: Striving to know the resident, Showing respect for the resident’s integrity, Creating and working in family-like relationships, Helping to find a new ordinariness and Preparing and making plans to ensure continuity. Nursing home staff seem to have collegial knowledge of how to enable at-homeness for the residents in a nursing home. Close relationships with respect for the resident’s integrity stand out as enabling at-homeness.
Robert William Smith, Elaina Orlando and Whitney Berta.
Int J Health Care Qual Assur 2018 07/09; 2018/07;31(6):587-599
The purpose of this paper is to examine how the design and implementation of learning models for performance management can foster continuous learning and quality improvement within a publicly funded, multi-site community hospital organization. Design/methodology/approach Niagara Health?s patient flow performance management system, a learning model, was studied over a 20-month period. A descriptive case study design guided the analysis of qualitative observational data and its synthesis with organizational learning theory literature. Emerging from this analysis were four propositions to inform the implementation of learning models and future research. Findings This performance management system was observed to enable: ongoing performance-related knowledge exchange by creating opportunities for routine social interaction; collective recognition and understanding of practice and performance patterns; relationship building, learning for improvement, and ?higher order? learning through dialogue facilitated using humble inquiry; and, alignment of quality improvement efforts to organizational strategic objectives through a multi-level feedback/feed-forward communication structure. Research limitations/implications The single organization and descriptive study design may limit the generalizability of the findings and introduce confirmation bias. Future research should more comprehensively evaluate the impact of learning models on organizational learning processes and performance outcomes. Practical implications This study offers novel insight which may inform the design and implementation of learning models for performance management within and beyond the study site. Originality/value Few studies have examined the mechanics of performance management systems in relation to organizational learning theory and research. Broader adoption of learning models may be key to the development of continuously learning and improving health systems.; Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how the design and implementation of learning models for performance management can foster continuous learning and quality improvement within a publicly funded, multi-site community hospital organization. Design/methodology/approach Niagara Health?s patient flow performance management system, a learning model, was studied over a 20-month period. A descriptive case study design guided the analysis of qualitative observational data and its synthesis with organizational learning theory literature. Emerging from this analysis were four propositions to inform the implementation of learning models and future research. Findings This performance management system was observed to enable: ongoing performance-related knowledge exchange by creating opportunities for routine social interaction; collective recognition and understanding of practice and performance patterns; relationship building, learning for improvement, and ?higher order? learning through dialogue facilitated using humble inquiry; and, alignment of quality improvement efforts to organizational strategic objectives through a multi-level feedback/feed-forward communication structure. Research limitations/implications The single organization and descriptive study design may limit the generalizability of the findings and introduce confirmation bias. Future research should more comprehensively evaluate the impact of learning models on organizational learning processes and performance outcomes. Practical implications This study offers novel insight which may inform the design and implementation of learning models for performance management within and beyond the study site. Originality/value Few studies have examined the mechanics of performance management systems in relation to organizational learning theory and research. Broader adoption of learning models may be key to the development of continuously learning and improving health systems.
A. A. Mallidou, P. Atherton, L. Chan, N. Frisch, S. Glegg and G. Scarrow.
BMC Health Serv Res 2018 Jun 27;18(1):502-018-3314-4
Knowledge translation (KT) is the broad range of activities aimed at supporting the use of research findings leading to evidence-based practice (EBP) and policy. Recommendations have been made that capacity building efforts be established to support individuals to enact KT. In this study, we summarized existing knowledge on KT competencies to provide a foundation for such capacity building efforts and to inform policy and research. Our research questions were “What are the core KT competencies needed in the health sector?” and “What are the interventions and strategies to teach and reinforce those competencies?” METHODS: We used a scoping review approach and an integrated KT process by involving an Advisory Group of diverse stakeholders. We searched seven health and interdisciplinary electronic databases and grey literature sources for materials published from 2003 to 2017 in English language only. Empirical and theoretical publications in health that examined KT competencies were retrieved, reviewed, and synthesized. RESULTS: Overall, 1171 publications were retrieved; 137 were fully reviewed; and 15 empirical and six conceptual academic, and 52 grey literature publications were included and synthesized in this scoping review. From both the academic and grey literature, we categorized 19 KT core competencies into knowledge, skills, or attitudes; and identified commonly used interventions and strategies to enhance KT competencies such as education, organizational support and hands-on training. CONCLUSIONS: These initial core KT competencies for individuals provide implications for education, policy, knowledge brokering, and future research, and on the need for future evaluation of the KT competencies presented. We also discuss the essential role of organizational support and culture for successful KT activities/practice.
The 7th Annual Conference on Evidence-Based Healthcare is organized by the Gulf Medical University in association with the International Society for Evidence-based Healthcare. The theme for this year’s conference is “Re-imagining Evidence-Based Medicine”. EBM has become one of the main competency domains for all health professionals, however how to teach and how to implement EBM is still a challenge. The conference will include pre-conference workshops, plenary lectures, breakout sessions and panel discussions to address these challenges.
The objective of this funding opportunity is to catalyze and support research efforts of Canadian researchers to use the available CLSA data in order to better understand how (individually and in combination) the biological, medical, psychological, social, lifestyle and/or economic aspects of people’s lives have an impact in both maintaining health and in the development of disease and disability as people age.
The application of scientific research to the creation of evidence-based policies is a science unto itself – and one that is never easy. Dissemination and implementation research (DandI) is the study of how scientific advances can be implemented into everyday life, and understanding how it works has never been more important for students and professionals across the scientific, academic, and governmental communities.
Z. Schuessler, L. Castillo, S. Fessler, R. Herrmann, D. Kuntz and B. Spencer.
J Contin Educ Nurs 2018 Jul 1;49(7):299-306
Baccalaureate-prepared nurses should be competent in accessing, evaluating, and implementing research evidence into nursing practice. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into nurses’ experiences in accessing, evaluating, and implementing research into practice. METHOD: Researchers conducted a qualitative descriptive study. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and field notes. RESULTS: Thirteen nurses participated in individual interviews. Themes that emerged included awareness, motivation-empowering change, and barriers to evidence-based practice implementation (EBP). Several experienced nurses expressed the importance of EBP in practice but could not provide clear definitions of EBP. Personal and organizational barriers negatively influence EBP implementation in clinical practice. Nurses could be motivated to use EBP if it were translated in an easy way to understand. CONCLUSION: The information derived from this study can be used to design learning opportunities that prepare practicing nurses to appropriately appraise research and integrate evidence into practice
P. Durepos, E. Orr, J. Ploeg and S. Kaasalainen.
J Adv Nurs 2018 Jun 26
A philosophical discussion of constructive realism and measurement in the development of nursing knowledge is presented. BACKGROUND: Through Carper’s four patterns of knowing, nurses come to know a person holistically. However, measurement as a source for nursing knowledge has been criticized for underlying positivism and reductionist approach to exploring reality. Which seems mal-alignment with person-centred care. DESIGN: Discussion paper. DISCUSSION: Constructive realism bridges positivism and constructivism, facilitating the measurement of physical and psychological phenomena. Reduction of complex phenomena and theoretical constructs into measurable properties is essential to building nursing’s empiric knowledge and facilitates (rather than inhibits) person-knowing. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: Nurses should consider constructive realism as a philosophy to underpin their practice. This philosophy supports measurement as a primary method of inquiry in nursing research and clinical practice. Nurses can carefully select, and purposefully integrate, measurement tools with other methods of inquiry (such as qualitative research methods) to demonstrate the usefulness of nursing interventions and highlight nursing as a science.
H. L. Colquhoun, K. Carroll, K. W. Eva, et al.
Implement Sci 2017 Sep 29;12(1):117-017-0646-0
Audit and feedback (A&F) is a common strategy for helping health providers to implement evidence into practice. Despite being extensively studied, health care A&F interventions remain variably effective, with overall effect sizes that have not improved since 2003. Contributing to this stagnation is the fact that most health care A&F interventions have largely been designed without being informed by theoretical understanding from the behavioral and social sciences. To determine if the trend can be improved, the objective of this study was to develop a list of testable, theory-informed hypotheses about how to design more effective A&F interventions. METHODS: Using purposive sampling, semi-structured 60-90-min telephone interviews were conducted with experts in theories related to A&F from a range of fields (e.g., cognitive, health and organizational psychology, medical decision-making, economics). Guided by detailed descriptions of A&F interventions from the health care literature, interviewees described how they would approach the problem of designing improved A&F interventions. Specific, theory-informed hypotheses about the conditions for effective design and delivery of A&F interventions were elicited from the interviews. The resulting hypotheses were assigned by three coders working independently into themes, and categories of themes, in an iterative process. RESULTS: We conducted 28 interviews and identified 313 theory-informed hypotheses, which were placed into 30 themes. The 30 themes included hypotheses related to the following five categories: A&F recipient (seven themes), content of the A&F (ten themes), process of delivery of the A&F (six themes), behavior that was the focus of the A&F (three themes), and other (four themes). CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a set of testable, theory-informed hypotheses from a broad range of behavioral and social science that suggest conditions for more effective A&F interventions. This work demonstrates the breadth of perspectives about A&F from non-healthcare-specific disciplines in a way that yields testable hypotheses for healthcare A&F interventions. These results will serve as the foundation for further work seeking to set research priorities among the A&F research community.
Mary J. Dyck and Nancy Novotny.
J NURS REGUL 2018 07;9(2):18-30
Nurses are expected to understand their states’ Nurse Practice Act (NPA) and practice within its scope. Role confusion can occur when nurses who practice with different scopes, such as registered nurses (RNs) and licensed practical nurses (LPNs), work closely together. Aim The purpose of this study is to examine the types of nursing activities performed by licensed nurses, and the extent to which RNs and LPNs in Illinois nursing homes are engaged in these activities. Methods A questionnaire was used to explore the types of nursing activities 140 nurses performed in 13 Illinois nursing homes and extent of their engagement in nursing activities within their scope of practice. Results Activities most frequently performed by all nurses included supervision of unlicensed assistive personnel, advocacy for residents, and collection of data to contribute to resident assessment. Both LPNs and RNs did not engage in the full extent of activities that their Illinois scope allowed, and LPNs completed activities that were not included in their scope. Conclusion Poor understanding exists about the differences between RN and LPN scope. Confusion about licensed nurses’ scopes of practice suggests that education about NPAs is needed. RNs indicated that they practice beyond their scope; however, it is not known in what way they practice beyond their scope.
S. T. Read, C. Toye and D. Wynaden.
Dementia (London) 2018 Jan 1:1471301218784806
People with dementia continue to voice concerns that health professionals are reluctant to engage with them about the planning of their care and support. Instead, their perspective is that such plans are often made by others and fail to reflect their wishes. Objective This review aimed to examine investigations of the participation of people living with dementia in the planning of their care and support, when they have also provided study data. Methods An integrative literature review was conducted to identify, critique, and synthesise relevant research findings. Eight electronic databases were searched to identify peer reviewed journal articles that met inclusion criteria. In addition, reference lists of included articles were searched, and a subject expert was consulted about any possible omissions. Results From the 346 articles accessed, seven met inclusion criteria for review. The quality appraisal showed that one article reported only pilot data; several more reported small sample sizes; and, in two instances, there was a lack of information about the psychometric properties of data collection tools and about recruitment and attrition rates. Conclusions There has been limited investigation of the participation of people with dementia in the planning of their support when they have also contributed research data. Findings provide some evidence of their participation by attending education programme, setting goals in cognitive rehabilitation therapy and contributing to advance care planning.
T. Smets, L. Pivodic, R. Piers, et al.
Palliat Med 2018 Jul 1:269216318785295
The provision of high-quality palliative care in nursing homes (NHs) is a major challenge and places demands on the knowledge and skills of the staff. AIM: This study assesses the palliative care knowledge of staff in NHs in Europe. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using structured survey Setting/participants: Nurses and care assistants working in 322 representative samples of NHs in Belgium, the Netherlands, England, Finland, Poland and Italy. Palliative care knowledge is measured with the Palliative Care Survey. Scores on the scales range between 0 and 1; higher scores indicate more knowledge. RESULTS: A total of 3392 NH-staff were given a questionnaire, and 2275 responded (67%). Knowledge of basic palliative care issues ranged between 0.20 in Poland (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19; 0.24) and 0.61 in Belgium (95% CI 0.59; 0.63), knowledge of physical aspects that can contribute to pain ranged between 0.81 in Poland (95% CI 0.79; 0.84) and 0.91 in the Netherlands (95% CI 0.89; 0.93), and knowledge of psychological reasons that can contribute to pain ranged between 0.56 in England (95% CI 0.50; 0.62) and 0.87 in Finland (95% CI 0.83; 0.90). Factors associated with knowledge were country, professional role and having undertaken formal training in palliative care. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of nurses and care assistants concerning basic palliative care issues appears to be suboptimal in all participating countries, although there is substantial heterogeneity. Education of nursing staff needs to be improved across, but each country may require its own strategy to address the unique and specific knowledge gaps.
O. Awosoga, E. M. Pijl, B. Hagen, B. Hall, T. Sajobi and S. Spenceley.
J Adv Nurs 2018 Jul 17
To report on the development and validation of the Moral Distress in Dementia Care Survey instrument. BACKGROUND: Despite growing awareness of moral distress among nurses, little is known about the moral distress experiences of nursing staff in dementia care settings. To address this gap, our research team developed a tool for measuring the frequency, severity and effects of moral distress in nursing staff working in dementia care. DESIGN: The research team employed an exploratory sequential mixed method design to generate items for the moral distress questionnaire. Data were collected between January 2013 – June 2014. In this paper, we report on the development and validation of the Moral Distress in Dementia Care Survey (MDDCS) instrument. METHODS: The MDDCS instrument was piloted with a portion of the target population prior to a broader implementation. Appropriate statistical analysis and psychometric testing were completed. RESULTS: The team collected 389 completed surveys from registered nurses, licensed practical nurses and health care aides, representing a 43.6% response rate across 23 sites. The MDDCS emerged as a reliable and valid instrument to measure the frequency, severity and effects of moral distress for nursing staff in dementia care settings. The relative value of the MDDCS as a measurement instrument was superseded by its clinical relevance for dementia care staff. CONCLUSION: The MDDCS is a potentially useful tool for estimating the frequency, severity and effects of moral distress in nursing staff working in dementia care settings and for the evaluation of measures taken to mitigate moral distress. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
E. Mariani, R. Chattat, G. Ottoboni, R. Koopmans, M. Vernooij-Dassen and Y. Engels.
J Alzheimers Dis 2018 Jun 23
Shared decision-making (SDM) can be a way for staff to adopt international recommendations advocating the involvement of nursing home residents and their family members in care planning and the development of personalized care plans. OBJECTIVE: The main aim was to analyze the effects of training nursing home staff in the implementation of SDM on agreement of residents’ ‘life-and-care plans’ with the recommendations (primary outcome) and on family caregivers’ quality of life and sense of competence, and staff’s job satisfaction (secondary outcomes). METHODS: In the intervention condition, staff attended a training program on the use of SDM with residents and family caregivers in the care planning process. In the control condition, care planning as usual took place. For the primary outcome, in-depth qualitative and quantitative analyses of the care plans were performed. Multivariate Permutation Tests were applied to assess the impact on secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Forty-nine residents and family caregivers and 34 professionals were involved. Overall, many of the care plans developed during the intervention showed a high level of agreement with the care planning recommendations. Both Italian and Dutch care plans showed improvement in the number of clear problem statements (p < 0.001). In Italy, significant improvements (p < 0.05) were also found regarding specific care objectives, documentation of objectives met, and of residents and families’ involvement. No impact was found on secondary outcomes. CONCLUSION: The involvement of residents and family caregivers in care planning contributed to an improvement of the residents’ care plans, but it did not have an effect on family caregivers and staff outcomes.
A. Hogh, M. Baernholdt and T. Clausen.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2018 Jul 11
To analyze the long-term impact of bullying among healthcare providers (T1) on missed nursing care and quality of care 2 years later (T2) and to test the potential mediating effect of affective organizational commitment. METHODS: Survey data from healthcare providers in the eldercare sector in 2006 (T1) and 2008 (T2). At T1, 9212 employees participated in the survey and 5202 participated in both T1 and T2. Including only participants who were directly engaged in the provision of care yielded 4000 providers, who were employed in 268 workgroups at T1 and T2. Associations between exposure to bullying (predictor) and the two outcomes (missed nursing care and quality of care) were investigated using multi-level linear regression analysis. Included covariates were age, gender, job position, work place and tenure. RESULTS: We found a significant association between workplace bullying at T1 and missed nursing care at T2 but not for quality of care at T2. Affective organizational commitment did not mediate the association between bullying and the two outcomes. However, affective organizational commitment at T1 was associated with quality of care at T2. CONCLUSION: Exposure to bullying at work may cause the provider to miss nursing care for clients. To improve, care administrators should consider implementing bullying prevention strategies at three levels: organizational, work group and individual.
A. M. Y. Goh, S. M. Loi, A. Westphal and N. T. Lautenschlager.
Int Psychogeriatr 2017 Dec;29(12):2099-2103
Touchscreen technology (TT) is a resource that can improve the quality of life of residents with dementia, and care staff, in residential aged care facilities (RACF) through a person-centered care approach. To enable the use of TTs to engage and benefit people with dementia in RACFs, education is needed to explore how these devices may be used, what facilitates use, and how to address barriers. We sought to provide education and explore RACF staff views and barriers on using TT to engage their residents with dementia. An educational session on using TT with residents with dementia was given to staff from three long-term RACFs in Melbourne, Australia. A cross-sectional convenience sample of 17 staff members (personal care attendants, registered nurses, enrolled nurses, allied health clinicians, and domestic staff) who attended were administered questionnaires pre- and post-sessions. As a result of the education seminar, they were significantly more confident in their ability to use TT devices with residents. TT, and education to staff about its use with residents with dementia, is a useful strategy to enhance RACF staff knowledge and confidence, thereby enhancing the use of technology in RACFs in order to improve care standards in people with dementia.
Rose Johansson-Pajala, Lene Martin and Kerstin Blomgren.
Int J Health Care Qual Assur 2018 07/09; 2018/07;31(6):531-544
The purpose of this paper is to explore the implications of registered nurses? (RNs) use of a computerized decision support system (CDSS) in medication reviews. Design/methodology/approach The paper employs a quasi-experimental, one-group pre-test/post-test design with three- and six-month follow-ups subsequent to the introduction of a CDSS. In total, 11 RNs initiated and prepared a total of 54 medication reviews. The outcome measures were the number of drug-related problems (DRPs) as reported by the CDSS and the RNs, respectively, the RNs? views on the CDSS, and changes in the quality of drug treatment. Findings The CDSS significantly indicated more DRPs than the RNs did, such as potential adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The RNs detected additional problems, outside the scope of the CDSS, such as lack of adherence. They considered the CDSS beneficial and wanted to continue using it. Only minor changes were found in the quality of drug treatments, with no significant changes in the drug-specific quality indicators (e.g. inappropriate drugs). However, the use of renally excreted drugs in reduced renal function decreased. Practical implications The RNs? use of a CDSS in medication reviews is of value in detecting potential ADRs and interactions. Yet, in order to have an impact on outcomes in the quality of drug treatment, further measures are needed. These may involve development of inter-professional collaboration, such as established procedures for the implementation of medication reviews, including the use of CDSS. Originality/value This is, to the best of the authors? knowledge, the first study to explore the implications of medication reviews, initiated and prepared by RNs who use a CDSS. The paper adds further insight into the RNs? role in relation to quality of drug treatments.; Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the implications of registered nurses? (RNs) use of a computerized decision support system (CDSS) in medication reviews. Design/methodology/approach The paper employs a quasi-experimental, one-group pre-test/post-test design with three- and six-month follow-ups subsequent to the introduction of a CDSS. In total, 11 RNs initiated and prepared a total of 54 medication reviews. The outcome measures were the number of drug-related problems (DRPs) as reported by the CDSS and the RNs, respectively, the RNs? views on the CDSS, and changes in the quality of drug treatment. Findings The CDSS significantly indicated more DRPs than the RNs did, such as potential adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The RNs detected additional problems, outside the scope of the CDSS, such as lack of adherence. They considered the CDSS beneficial and wanted to continue using it. Only minor changes were found in the quality of drug treatments, with no significant changes in the drug-specific quality indicators (e.g. inappropriate drugs). However, the use of renally excreted drugs in reduced renal function decreased. Practical implications The RNs? use of a CDSS in medication reviews is of value in detecting potential ADRs and interactions. Yet, in order to have an impact on outcomes in the quality of drug treatment, further measures are needed. These may involve development of inter-professional collaboration, such as established procedures for the implementation of medication reviews, including the use of CDSS. Originality/value This is, to the best of the authors? knowledge, the first study to explore the implications of medication reviews, initiated and prepared by RNs who use a CDSS. The paper adds further insight into the RNs? role in relation to quality of drug treatments.
M. D. M. Molero Jurado, M. D. C. Perez-Fuentes, J. J. G. Gazquez Linares, M. D. M. Simon Marquez and A. Martos Martinez.
Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 May 30;15(6):10.3390/ijerph15061116
Studies have found a higher risk of burnout among employees in the healthcare sector. As such, this study focused on Certified Nursing Aides (CNAs) who have shown a high prevalence of burnout and are therefore considered an especially vulnerable group. The objective of this study was to identify the relationships between some organizational, personal, and sociodemographic factors and burnout. The final study sample included 278 working CNAs with a mean age of 40.88 (SD = 9.41). To compile the data, an ad hoc questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic information. To collect professional and employment information, we used the Brief Emotional Intelligence Inventory for Adults, the Brief Questionnaire on Perceived Social Support, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. The results showed that Burnout Syndrome is significantly and negatively related to all the emotional intelligence factors, self-efficacy, and perceived social support. The risk of burnout is higher in younger persons and in permanently employed professionals. General self-efficacy and stress management act as protective factors against the likelihood of burnout. This study suggests that organizations should urge coaching and transformational leadership training programs to promote the wellbeing and organizational commitment of workers.
A. Kadri, P. Rapaport, G. Livingston, C. Cooper, S. Robertson and P. Higgs.
PLoS One 2018 Jul 9;13(7):e0200031
Personhood discourses in dementia care have gained prominence and current care home standards mandate that care should be “person-centred”. However, it is unclear how the personhood of staff is construed within the care relationship. This paper aims to explore how the personhood of paid carers of people with dementia can be understood by focussing on the views and experiences of care home staff. We undertook a secondary qualitative analysis of interviews with 25 paid care staff in England, conducted as part of the MARQUE (Managing Agitation and Raising QUality of lifE) study. The authors inductively developed themes around the topic of personhood for staff, contrasting management and care staff perspectives. We found that many care staff are not identified as persons in their own right by their employing institutions, and that there is a general lack of acknowledgment of the moral work of caring that occurs within formal care work. This oversight can reduce the complex relationships of care work to a series of care tasks, challenges care workers’ self-worth and self-efficacy, and impede their efforts to deliver person-centred care. We conclude that care staff status as persons in their own right should be explicitly considered in quality standards and supported by employers’ policies and practices, not simply for their role in preserving the personhood of people with dementia but for their own sense of valued personhood. Enhancing staff personhood may also result in improved care.
S. F. Simmons, C. S. Coelho, A. Sandler and J. F. Schnelle.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2018 Jul 18
To describe a staff management and quality improvement system implemented in an assisted-living facility (ALF) that provides dementia care. DESIGN: Prospective quality improvement project over 13 consecutive months. SETTING: One ALF that provides dementia care services. PARTICIPANTS: ALF residents with dementia (N=57). INTERVENTION: A staff management and quality improvement system was implemented for 3 aspects of daily care: morning and evening activity of daily living (ADL) care, nutritional care, and activity engagement. MEASUREMENTS: Supervisory staff monitored the quality of daily care processes of all residents and direct care staff using standardized observations. Observational data were summarized into quality measures for each of the 3 daily care areas and ranged from 0% to 100%, with a higher score indicative of better quality. These quality measures were shared with direct care staff in weekly huddles at which feedback was provided about areas in need of improvement. The management team also reviewed the data weekly to discuss strategies for improvement. RESULTS: The quality measures in each of the 3 areas improved or remained consistently high over the 13 study months: morning and evening ADL care (83-96%), quality nutritional of care during meals (74-95%), activity engagement (69-97%). CONCLUSION: A staff management and quality improvement system that relies on standardized observations of quality of care, weekly review by managers, and feedback to direct care staff informs areas in need of improvement and supports consistent implementation of quality of care over time for ALF residents receiving dementia care.
Y. Yuan, C. Louis, H. Cabral, J. C. Schneider, C. M. Ryan and L. E. Kazis.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2018 Jul 5
The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Nursing Home Compare (NHC) serves as the most comprehensive repository of Medicaid- and/or Medicare-certified nursing homes providing services to approximately 1.4 million US residents. A gap in the literature exists in understanding on the national level whether residents from socioeconomically disadvantaged counties experience disparities in the access to nursing homes with higher NHC star ratings. The study aimed to examine nursing home quality variations with regard to county-level socioeconomic, geographic, and metropolitan status, while adjusting for nursing home facility-level characteristics. DESIGN: Cross-sectional ecological study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 15,090 Medicaid/Medicare-certified nursing homes with nonmissing star ratings. MEASURES: Study outcomes were NHC overall, health inspection survey, nurse staffing, and quality measure star ratings. County-level measures included SES index, geographic regions, and metropolitan status. Facility-level characteristics included ownership, chain affiliation, type and length of Medicaid/Medicare certification, hospital affiliation, continuing care retirement community status, number of certified beds, and occupancy. RESULTS: Counties with average adjusted overall, nurse staffing, and quality measure star ratings below 3 stars appeared to be clustered in the South. Nursing homes located in counties with lower SES were associated with lower overall star ratings [adjusted mean stars: 3.66 to 3.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): (3.54, 3.79) to (3.73, 3.95)]. A similar pattern was observed in staffing [adjusted mean stars: 3.75 to 4.23, 95% CI: (3.54, 3.97) to (4.10, 4.35)] and quality ratings [adjusted mean stars: 3.29 to 3.52, 95% CI: (3.12, 3.47) to (3.35, 3.69)]. CONCLUSIONS: Residents in socioeconomically disadvantaged counties experience disparities in accessing nursing homes with higher star ratings. These areas may lack sufficient resources to adequately staff the facility and deliver care that meets industry quality standards. These issues are likely to persist and possibly even worsen for the lower- and middle-class geriatric population given the current uncertainty around healthcare reform.
I. Kazana and M. Pencak Murphy.
J Am Assoc Nurse Pract 2018 Jul;30(7):383-391
This quality improvement (QI) project was designed to increase walking activity for eligible residents in long-term care (LTC). Walking programs have positive benefits; however, they are underused in LTC. METHODS: The Model for Improvement and Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles were used to implement the key components including building a guiding coalition, environment and policy assessment, development of a patient-centered walking program protocol, staff education, mobility huddle to motivate and mentor staff, and ongoing evaluation and feedback. RESULTS: Of the 78 residents screened for walking activity, 13 (17%) were eligible. Data were collected weekly. After 20 weeks, 69% (n = 9) of the enrolled residents were still in the program. The majority of residents were provided walking activity between 60% and 90% of the time. None of the residents experienced a fall during the activity. Average adherence to documenting the activity was 79%. CONCLUSIONS: The QI project provided the implementation and evaluation of a consistent walking program in a LTC setting. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The project findings may assist nurse practitioners in implementing QI initiatives in LTC to increase walking activity of eligible residents and aid in evaluating those programs. However, leadership commitment and ongoing support are essential to sustain the effectiveness of a program.
S. E. Hogeveen, J. Chen and J. P. Hirdes.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2017 Oct 30;17(1):150-017-0547-9
The aim of this project is to describe the quality of assessment data regularly collected in home and community, with techniques adapted from an evaluation of the quality of long-term care data in Canada. METHODS: Data collected using the Resident Assessment Instrument – Home Care (RAI-HC) in Ontario and British Columbia (BC) as well as the interRAI Community Health Assessment (CHA) in Ontario were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s r correlation, and Cronbach’s alpha in order to assess trends in population characteristics, convergent validity, and scale reliability. RESULTS: Results indicate that RAI-HC data from Ontario and BC behave in a consistent manner, with stable trends in internal consistency providing evidence of good reliability (alpha values range from 0.72-0.94, depending on the scale and province). The associations between various scales, such as those reflecting functional status and cognition, were found to be as expected and stable over time within each setting (r values range from 0.42-0.45 in Ontario and 0.41-0.43 in BC). These trends in convergent validity demonstrate that constructs in the data behave as they should, providing evidence of good data quality. In most cases, CHA data quality matches that of RAI-HC data quality and shows evidence of good validity and reliability. The findings are comparable to the findings observed in the evaluation of data from the long-term care sector. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an increasingly complex client population in the home and community care sectors, the results from this work indicate that data collected using the RAI-HC and the CHA are of an overall quality that may be trusted when used to inform decision-making at the organizational- or policy-level. High quality data and information are vital when used to inform steps taken to improve quality of care and enhance quality of life. This work also provides evidence that a method used to evaluate the quality of data obtained in the long-term care setting may be used to evaluate the quality of data obtained through community-based measures.
D. Saliba, D. L. Weimer, Y. Shi and D. B. Mukamel.
Inquiry 2018 Jan-Dec;55:46958018786816
In 2016, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) introduced 3 new quality measures (QMs) to its report card, Nursing Home Compare (NHC). These measures-rehospitalizations, emergency department visits, and successful discharges to the community-focus on short-stay residents. We offer a first analysis of nursing homes’ performance in terms of these new measures. We examined their properties and distribution across nursing homes using descriptive statistics and regression models. We found that, similar to other QMs, performance varies across the country, and that there is very minimal correlation between these 3 new QMs as well as between these QMs and other NHC QMs. Regression models reveal that better performance on these QMs tends to be associated with fewer deficiencies, higher staffing and more skilled staffing, nonprofit ownership, and lower proportion of Medicaid residents. Other characteristics are associated with better performance for some but not all 3 QMs. We also found improvement in all 3 QMs in the second year of publication. This study contributes to the validity of these measures by demonstrating their relationship to these structural QMs. It also suggests that these QMs are important by demonstrating their large variation across the country, suggesting substantial room for improvement, and finding that nursing homes are already responding to the incentives created by publication of these QMs.
R. Milte, J. Ratcliffe, G. Chen and M. Crotty.
Value Health 2018 Jul;21(7):843-849
To generate a scoring algorithm weighted on the preferences of consumers for assessing the quality of care in nursing homes (i.e., aged care homes or institutions) in six key domains. METHODS: A discrete choice experiment was undertaken with residents of nursing homes (n = 126) or family member proxies (n = 416) in cases where severe cognitive impairment precluded resident participation. Analysis was undertaken using conditional and mixed logit regression models to determine preferences for potential attributes. RESULTS: The findings indicate that all six attributes investigated were statistically significant factors for participants. Feeling at home in the resident’s own room was the most important characteristic to both residents and family members. Care staff being able to spend enough time with residents, feeling at home in shared spaces, and staff being very flexible in care routines were also characteristics identified as important for both groups. The results of the Swait-Louviere test rejected the null hypothesis that the estimated parameters between residents and family members were the same, indicating that data from these two groups could not be pooled to generate a single weighted scoring algorithm for the Consumer Choice Index-Six Dimension instrument. Preferences were therefore encapsulated to generate scoring algorithms specific to residents and family members. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides important insights into the characteristics of nursing home care that are most valued by consumers. The Consumer Choice Index-Six Dimension instrument may be usefully applied in the evaluation, planning, and design of future services.
N. Sharma, J. Herrnschmidt, V. Claes, et al.
J Adv Nurs 2018 Jul 17
To assess nurse-reported organizational readiness for implementing change in acute care hospitals. BACKGROUND: An organization’s success at implementing new policies and programs depends largely on its stakeholders’ readiness for change. Organizational readiness is a multi-level, multi-faceted construct associated with staffing, leadership and quality of care. DESIGN: This is a secondary analysis of the cross-sectional multi-centre “Matching Registered Nurse Services with Changing Care Demands” study. METHODS: In 23 acute care hospitals across Switzerland, 1,833 registered nurses working in 124 units completed a survey between September 2015 – January 2016. Organizational readiness was measured with two subscales: “change commitment” and “change efficacy”. Work environment factors were assessed using the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index. RESULTS: Nurses were positive about implementing change in their hospitals. Intraclass correlation was higher at the unit level than at the hospital level for both change commitment and change efficacy. Nursing foundation for quality of care and supportive leadership were positively associated with readiness, change commitment and change efficacy. However, staffing and resource adequacy was positively associated only with change efficacy. No association was found with standardized staffing. CONCLUSION: While organizational readiness scores vary among hospitals and units, they are positively associated with supportive leadership and a foundation for quality of care. Further research should consider organizational readiness as an important factor of change and ultimately of the quality of care. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
L. Chisholm, N. J. Zhang, K. Hyer, R. Pradhan, L. Unruh and F. C. Lin.
Inquiry 2018 Jan-Dec;55:46958018787043
Quality of care has been a long-standing issue in US nursing homes. The culture change movement attempts to transition nursing homes from health care institutions to person-centered homes. While the adoption of culture change has been spreading across nursing homes, barriers to adoption persist. Nursing homes that disproportionately serve minority residents may have additional challenges implementing culture change compared with other facilities due to limited financial and staffing resources. The objective of this study was to examine how nursing home characteristics are associated with culture change adoption in Central Florida nursing homes. This cross-sectional study included 81 directors of nursing (DONs) who completed the Artifacts of Culture Change survey. In addition, nursing home organizational data were obtained from the Certification and Survey Provider Enhanced Reports (CASPER). A logistic regression was conducted to examine the relationship between high culture change adoption and nursing home characteristics. The overall adoption of culture change scores in Central Florida nursing homes was low. Nevertheless, there was variability across nursing homes in the adoption of culture change. High culture change adoption was associated with nursing homes having lower proportions of Medicaid residents
Iestyn Williams, Hilary Brown and Paul Healy.
International Journal of Health Policy and Management 2018;7(8):683-695
Decisions affecting cost and quality are taken across health and care but investigation of the mediating roleÂ of context in these is in its infancy. This paper presents a synthesis of the evidence on the contextual factors that influenceÂ â€˜decisions of valueâ€™ â€“ defined as those characterised by having a significant and demonstrable impact on both qualityÂ and resources â€“ in health and care. The review considers the full range of resource/quality decisions and synthesisesÂ knowledge on the contextual drivers of these. Â Methods The method involved structured evidence review and narrative synthesis. Literature was identified throughÂ searches of electronic databases (HMIC, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, NHS Evidence, Cochrane, Web of Knowledge, ABIÂ Inform/Proquest), journal and bibliography hand-searching and snowball searching using citation analysis. StructuredÂ data extraction was performed drawing out descriptive information and content against review aims and questions. DataÂ synthesis followed a thematic approach in accordance with the varied nature of the retrieved literature. Â Results Twenty-one literature items reporting 14 research studies and seven literature reviews met the inclusion criteria.Â The review shows that in health and care contexts, research into decisions of value in health and care is in its infancyÂ and contains wide variation in approach and remit. The evidence is drawn from a range of service and country settingsÂ and this reduces generalisability or transferability of findings. An area of relative strength in the published evidence isÂ inquiry into factors influencing coverage and commissioning decisions in health care systems. Allocative decisions haveÂ therefore been more consistently researched than technical decisions. We use Pettigrewâ€™s (1985) distinction betweenÂ inner and outer context to structure analysis of the range of factors reported as being influential. These include: evidence/information, organisational culture and governance regimes, and; economic and political conditions. Â Conclusion Decisions of value in health and care are subject to range of intersecting influences that often lead to aÂ departure from narrow notions of rational decision-making. Future research should pay greater attention to the relativelyÂ under-explored area of technical, as opposed to allocative, decision-making
Õie Umb Carlsson; Barbro Wadensten
Nurs Open 2018 07/13; 2018/07;0(0)
Aim To explore whether professional training contributed to implementation of the national core value system in practice in care of older people and to identify course participants’ perceptions about factors that facilitated or obstructed them in implementing their projects. To identify participants’ perceptions concerning factors that facilitate or obstruct implementation. Design Descriptive and cross-sectional. Methods Data were retrieved from 451 participants who had completed the course ?Understanding and providing leadership based on the national core value system for older people? at Uppsala University during spring semester and autumn semester of 2018. Quantitative and qualitative data were obtained using a web-based questionnaire. Results The results showed that the majority (73%) of project plans were initiated, although not always completed and sometimes interrupted. Organizational readiness in terms of management supporting and prioritizing these plans were two principle facilitators chosen by half of the respondents and consequently the absence of these factors was an obstacle. In addition, successful implementation required dedicated co-workers and certain resources, such as time and funds. Surprisingly, factors related to the project leader were reported to be of limited importance.
C. Cabanski, H. Gilbert and S. Mosesova.
Clin Transl Sci 2018 Jul;11(4):371-377
Visualizations are a powerful tool for telling a story about a data set or analysis. If done correctly, visualizations not only display data but also help the audience digest key information. However, if done haphazardly, visualization has the potential to confuse the audience and, in the most extreme circumstances, deceive. In this tutorial, we provide a set of general principles for creating informative visualizations that tell a complete and accurate story of the data.
Ruth Elizabeth Stow, Christina H. Smith and Alison B. Rushton.
BMJ Open 2018 07/01;8(7)
To examine care home resident and staff perceptions of the acceptability of participating in a feasibility trial evaluating nutritional interventions in the treatment of malnutrition.Design Exploratory qualitative methodology was used to gather descriptions of resident and staff perceptions of trial procedures, using semi-structured interviews with residents and focus groups with staff. The interviews were used to explore individual perceptions of the acceptability of the assigned intervention and the outcomes measured. Focus groups were used to explore staff experiences of trial participation and perspectives of nutritional support interventions.Setting The study was embedded within a cluster randomised feasibility trial, which randomised six care homes to provide standard care (SC), food-based (FB) intervention or oral nutritional supplement (ONS) intervention to residents with, or at risk of, malnutrition.Participants Residents in the trial with capacity to consent (n=7) formed the sampling frame for inclusion. Four agreed to be approached by the researcher and to take part in the individual interviews. All were women, representing two arms of the trial (ONS and SC). Twelve staff participated in six focus groups, one at each care home. All participants were women, representing all three arms of the trial.Results Major themes that emerged from both interviews and focus groups included the perceived acceptability of trial involvement, the value of residents completing participant-reported outcome measures and the challenges associated with outcomes measurement in this setting. Themes that emerged from the focus groups alone, included the importance of individualising an intervention, and the perceived value of FB and ONS interventions and dietetic input.Conclusions Residents and staff perceived involvement in a trial evaluating nutritional interventions to be acceptable, although the challenges associated with research in this setting were acknowledged. Resident preferences were highlighted by staff as an important consideration when implementing a nutrition support plan.Trial registration number ISRCTN38047922.
Jenny Rock, Mark McGuire and Alexandra Rogers.
Science Communication 2018 08/01; 2018/07;40(4):541-552
With its conceptual origins in marketing, design, and education, co-creation also has analogues in the fields of science and museology. Reviewing its development in these different disciplines highlights some common challenges (e.g., power relations) and benefits (e.g., joint knowledge production, critical thinking, and shared investment). Aligning this overview with conceptual models such as Arnstein?s ladder of citizen participation and Bakhtin?s carnival theory we aim to further inform the development of co-creation broadly within science communication.
M. L. Sole, S. Talbert, M. Bennett, A. Middleton, L. Deaton and D. Penoyer.
Am J Crit Care 2018 Jul;27(4):305-311
Research on many routine nursing interventions requires data collection around the clock each day (24/7). Strategies for implementing and coordinating a study 24/7 are not discussed in the literature, and best practices are needed. OBJECTIVE: To identify strategies incorporated into implementing a nursing intervention trial 24/7, including key lessons learned. METHODS: Strategies to facilitate implementation of a clinical trial of a nursing intervention with patients undergoing mechanical ventilation are shared. Challenges and changes for future studies also are discussed. RESULTS: Adequate planning, including a detailed operations manual, guides study implementation. Staffing is the most challenging and costly part of a study but is essential to a study’s success. Other important strategies include communication among the study personnel and with collaborators and direct care staff. An electronic method of recording study-related data also is essential. CONCLUSIONS: A nursing clinical trial that requires interventions on a 24/7 basis can be done with thorough planning, staffing, and continuous quality improvement activities.
A. Boaz, S. Hanney, R. Borst, A. O’Shea and M. Kok.
Health Res Policy Syst 2018 Jul 11;16(1):60-018-0337-6
Closing the gap between research production and research use is a key challenge for the health research system. Stakeholder engagement is being increasingly promoted across the board by health research funding organisations, and indeed by many researchers themselves, as an important pathway to achieving impact. This opinion piece draws on a study of stakeholder engagement in research and a systematic literature search conducted as part of the study. MAIN BODY: This paper provides a short conceptualisation of stakeholder engagement, followed by ‘design principles’ that we put forward based on a combination of existing literature and new empirical insights from our recently completed longitudinal study of stakeholder engagement. The design principles for stakeholder engagement are organised into three groups, namely organisational, values and practices. The organisational principles are to clarify the objectives of stakeholder engagement; embed stakeholder engagement in a framework or model of research use; identify the necessary resources for stakeholder engagement; put in place plans for organisational learning and rewarding of effective stakeholder engagement; and to recognise that some stakeholders have the potential to play a key role. The principles relating to values are to foster shared commitment to the values and objectives of stakeholder engagement in the project team; share understanding that stakeholder engagement is often about more than individuals; encourage individual stakeholders and their organisations to value engagement; recognise potential tension between productivity and inclusion; and to generate a shared commitment to sustained and continuous stakeholder engagement. Finally, in terms of practices, the principles suggest that it is important to plan stakeholder engagement activity as part of the research programme of work; build flexibility within the research process to accommodate engagement and the outcomes of engagement; consider how input from stakeholders can be gathered systematically to meet objectives; consider how input from stakeholders can be collated, analysed and used; and to recognise that identification and involvement of stakeholders is an iterative and ongoing process. CONCLUSION: It is anticipated that the principles will be useful in planning stakeholder engagement activity within research programmes and in monitoring and evaluating stakeholder engagement. A next step will be to address the remaining gap in the stakeholder engagement literature concerned with how we assess the impact of stakeholder engagement on research use.
K. L. Matthews, M. Baird and G. Duchesne.
Qual Health Res 2018 Aug;28(10):1621-1628
Focus groups as a data collection method in qualitative research have been used for several decades with great effect. Recent developments in online mechanisms for communication have prompted several researchers to explore alternate means of facilitating focus group participation. However, much of the online focus group literature has explored the use of text-based communication; there are few reports on the application of real-time online video-enabled software. In this article, we seek to inform the growing use of online-meeting software-mediated focus groups by reporting and analyzing its application within the context of a health workforce study among geographically dispersed radiation therapy professionals.
Jim Mann and Lillian Hung.
Action Research 2018 07/20; 2018/07:1476750318787005
Research about patients with dementia in the context of acute care has been traditionally designed and carried out by researchers with little or no involvement of people with dementia. Moving away from the traditional way of conducting research on people with dementia, this study involved people with dementia as experts of lived experiences to co-develop knowledge for change. The paper presents our shared experiences (a person with dementia and a researcher) gained from an action research, titled Co-creating Person-Centred Care in Acute Care. We highlight our successes and possibilities for making real impacts on hospital care for patients with dementia by using an appreciative inquiry approach. The project was informed by the core principles of appreciative inquiry. The research involved seven patients with dementia together with a team of 50 interdisciplinary staff to inquire and take actions for improving dementia care in a medical unit. This article draws attention to a range of ethical responsibilities and challenges, which go beyond the traditional principles in University Research Ethics. The strengths and challenges of conducting action research with people living with dementia are discussed. We conclude by offering our learnings and practical tips to encourage more collaboration between researchers and people with dementia in undertaking action research to make social change.
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2018
When is it appropriate to return individual research results to participants? The immense interest in this question has been fostered by the growing movement toward greater transparency and participant engagement in the research enterprise. Yet, the risks of returning individual research results—such as results with unknown validity—and the associated burdens on the research enterprise are competing considerations.
Simone J. C. Paulis, Irma H. J. Everink, Ruud J. G. Halfens, Christa Lohrmann and Jos M. G. A. Schols.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2018/07
To provide an overview of the prevalence rates and risk factors of dehydration among nursing home residents. Design Systematic literature review. Setting Nursing homes. Participants Nursing home residents or institutionalized long-term care residents. Measurements A systematic literature review was executed on March 15, 2018, using the databases PubMed, CINAHL, and EMBASE to retrieve all articles focused on the prevalence rates and risk factors for acute and chronic dehydration. Studies were included if the target population involved nursing home residents or institutionalized long-term care residents. Results Nineteen studies were included in this systematic review. Prevalence rates of dehydration varied between 0.8% and 38.5% and were measured using different methods. Furthermore, 49 potential risk factors for dehydration were identified. Of the 12 potential risk factors that were investigated in more than 1 study, cognitive impairment and fever were significantly associated with dehydration among nursing home residents. Conclusions/implications Dehydration is a relevant and frequently occurring problem among nursing home residents. This systematic review shows that a wide variety of methods are used to assess dehydration and that it is often unclear which type of dehydration (chronic or acute) is measured. This makes it difficult to compare prevalence rates among studies. Moreover, only 2 of 49 potential risk factors (fever and cognitive impairment) were more than once significantly associated with dehydration in the respective studies. Most of the other risk factors were assessed by only 1 study or showed inconsistent results. Therefore, more research into dehydration among nursing home residents is needed.
Pierre-André Dubé, Jessie Portelance, Olivier Corbeil, Mélanie Tessier and Maude St-Onge.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2018/07
This study examined the association between the administration of drugs to the wrong nursing home residents with a need for hospital treatment or as an indicator of mortality.; ObjectiveThis study examined the association between the administration of drugs to the wrong nursing home residents with a need for hospital treatment or as an indicator of mortality.
A. Tynan, L. Deeth and D. McKenzie.
BMC Health Serv Res 2018 Jul 3;18(1):515-018-3321-5
People in residential aged care facilities (RACF) are at very high risk of developing complex oral diseases and dental problems. A multidisciplinary approach incorporating oral health professionals and RACF staff is important for improving and sustaining oral health in RACFs. However, difficulties exist with access to oral health services for RACFs, particularly those in regional and rural areas. This study investigated the impact and experience of an integrated oral health program utilising tele-dentistry and Oral Health Therapists (OHT) in RACFs in a rural setting within Australia. METHODS: A mixed method comparison study was undertaken. Two hundred fifty-two clinical audits were completed across nine facilities with and without access to the integrated oral health program. Twenty-seven oral health quality of life surveys were completed with eligible residents. One focus group discussions (FGD) and eight interviews were completed with RACF staff. Thematic analysis was conducted on the transcribed FGDs and IDIs. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Audits showed an improved compliance to Australian Aged Care Quality Accreditation Standards for oral health in the facilities with access to the integrated program compared to those without the program. Thematic analysis revealed that facilities with the integrated program reported improvements in importance placed on OH, better access to OH services and training, and decreased disruption of residents, particularly those with high care needs. CONCLUSIONS: The integrated oral health program incorporating OHTs and tele-dentistry shows potential to improve the oral health outcomes of residents of RACFs. Improvements for managing oral health of residents with high care needs were observed. RACFs without easy access to an oral health service will also likely benefit from the increased support and training opportunities that the program enables.
M. M. Garvelink, L. Groen-van de Ven, C. Smits, R. Franken, M. Dassen-Vernooij and F. Legare.
Gerontologist 2018 Jul 10
Persons with dementia (PWDs) and their caregivers often face difficult housing decisions, that is, decisions about their living arrangements, in which the perspectives of all members of the care network should be involved. Objective: We performed a qualitative data analysis to assess the extent to which housing decisions for PWDs with their formal and informal caregivers correspond to an interprofessional shared decision making (IP-SDM) approach, and what light this approach sheds on their experiences with decision making. Research Design and Methods: We used the IP-SDM model to content-code and analyze data from 4 care networks, each consisting of a PWD, 2 informal and 2 formal caregivers. Results: Decision making in all networks corresponded to most IP-SDM elements, but never included all network members. Decision making was guided by the wishes of the PWD, but their actual involvement decreased over time. Discussion: Results show that while the IP-SDM model was helpful, the options change with cognitive decline and moving to a nursing home can become inevitable in spite of preferences. Implications: Timely and honest communication helps to mitigate the distress of deciding against patient preferences, as could advance care planning about future housing transitions.
M. Herke, A. Fink, G. Langer, et al.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Jul 18;7:CD011542
Weight loss, malnutrition and dehydration are common problems for people with dementia. Environmental modifications such as, change of routine, context or ambience at mealtimes, or behavioural modifications, such as education or training of people with dementia or caregivers, may be considered to try to improve food and fluid intake and nutritional status of people with dementia. OBJECTIVES: Primary: To assess the effects of environmental or behavioural modifications on food and fluid intake and nutritional status in people with dementia. Secondary: To assess the effects of environmental or behavioural modifications in connection with nutrition on mealtime behaviour, cognitive and functional outcomes and quality of life, in specific settings (i.e. home care, residential care and nursing home care) for different stages of dementia. To assess the adverse consequences or effects of the included interventions. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Specialized Register of Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement (ALOIS), MEDLINE, Eembase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) portal/ICTRP on 17 January 2018. We scanned reference lists of other reviews and of included articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating interventions designed to modify the mealtime environment of people with dementia, to modify the mealtime behaviour of people with dementia or their caregivers, or both, with the intention of improving food and fluid intake. We included people with any common dementia subtype. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included trials. We assessed the quality of evidence for each outcome using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included nine studies, investigating 1502 people. Three studies explicitly investigated participants with Alzheimer’s disease; six did not specify the type of dementia. Five studies provided clear measures to identify the severity of dementia at baseline, and overall very mild to severe stages were covered. The interventions and outcome measures were diverse. The overall quality of evidence was mainly low to very low.One study implemented environmental as well as behavioural modifications by providing additional food items between meals and personal encouragement to consume them. The control group received no intervention. Differences between groups were very small and the quality of the evidence from this study was very low, so we are very uncertain of any effect of this intervention.The remaining eight studies implemented behavioural modifications.Three studies provided nutritional education and nutrition promotion programmes. Control groups did not receive these programmes. After 12 months, the intervention group showed slightly higher protein intake per day (mean difference (MD) 0.11 g/kg, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.01 to 0.23; n = 78, 1 study; low-quality evidence), but there was no clear evidence of a difference in nutritional status assessed with body mass index (BMI) (MD -0.26 kg/m(2) favouring control, 95% CI -0.70 to 0.19; n = 734, 2 studies; moderate-quality evidence), body weight (MD -1.60 kg favouring control, 95% CI -3.47 to 0.27; n = 656, 1 study; moderate-quality evidence), or score on Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) (MD -0.10 favouring control, 95% CI -0.67 to 0.47; n = 656, 1 study; low-quality evidence). After six months, the intervention group in one study had slightly lower BMI (MD -1.79 kg/m(2) favouring control, 95% CI -1.28 to -2.30; n = 52, 1 study; moderate-quality evidence) and body weight (MD -8.11 kg favouring control, 95% CI -2.06 to -12.56; n = 52, 1 study; moderate-quality evidence). This type of intervention may have a small positive effect on food intake, but little or no effect, or a negative effect, on nutritional status.Two studies compared self-feeding skills training programmes. In one study, the control group received no training and in the other study the control group received a different self-feeding skills training programme. For both comparisons the quality of the evidence was very low and we are very uncertain whether these interventions have any effect.One study investigated general training of nurses to impart knowledge on how to feed people with dementia and improve attitudes towards people with dementia. Again, the quality of the evidence was very low so that we cannot be certain of any effect.Two studies investigated vocal or tactile positive feedback provided by caregivers while feeding participants. After three weeks, the intervention group showed an increase in calories consumed per meal (MD 200 kcal, 95% CI 119.81 to 280.19; n = 42, 1 study; low-quality evidence) and protein consumed per meal (MD 15g, 95% CI 7.74 to 22.26; n = 42, 1 study; low-quality evidence). This intervention may increase the intake of food and liquids slightly; nutritional status was not assessed. AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS: Due to the quantity and quality of the evidence currently available, we cannot identify any specific environmental or behavioural modifications for improving food and fluid intake in people with dementia.
T. R. Elfrink, S. U. Zuidema, M. Kunz and G. J. Westerhof.
Int Psychogeriatr 2018 Jul 18:1-15
There is an increasing evidence that reminiscence therapy is effective in improving cognitive functions and reducing depressive symptoms in people with dementia. Life story books (LSBs) are frequently used as a reminiscence tool to support recollecting autobiographical memories. As little is known about how LSBs are used and what type of studies have been employed to evaluate LSB interventions, we conducted a systematic review. METHODS: The electronic databases Scopus, PubMed, and PsychINFO as well as reference lists of existing studies were searched to select eligible articles. Out of the 55 studies found, 14 met the inclusion criterion of an original empirical study on LSBs in people with dementia. RESULTS: The majority of the LSBs were tangible books, although some digital applications were also found. The LSBs were created mostly in individual sessions in nursing homes with a median of six sessions. Some studies only focused on the person with dementia, while others also examined (in)formal caregivers. Most studies used qualitative interviews, case studies, and/or (pilot) randomized controlled trial (RCTs) with small sample sizes. Qualitative findings showed the value of LSBs in triggering memories and in improving the relation with the person with dementia. Quantitative effects were found on, e.g. autobiographical memory and depression of persons with dementia, quality of relationship with informal caregivers, burden of informal caregivers, and on attitudes and knowledge of formal caregivers. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review confirms that the use of LSBs to support reminiscence and person-centered care is promising, but larger RCTs or implementation studies are needed to establish the effects of LSBs on people with dementia.
S. Bjork, H. Lovheim, M. Lindkvist, A. Wimo and D. Edvardsson.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2018 Jan;33(1):e49-e57
The purpose of this study was to explore relations among thriving, cognitive function, and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in nursing home residents. METHODS: A national, cross-sectional, randomized study of Swedish nursing home residents (N = 4831) was conducted between November 2013 and September 2014. Activities of daily life functioning, cognitive functioning, NPS, and thriving were assessed with the Katz activities of daily living, Gottfries’ Cognitive Scale, Nursing Home version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, and Thriving of Older People Scale, respectively. Individual NPS were explored in relation to cognitive function. Simple linear and multiple regression models were used to explore thriving in relation to resident characteristics. RESULTS: Aggression and depressive symptoms were identified as negatively associated with thriving regardless of resident cognitive functioning. At higher levels of cognitive functioning, several factors showed associations with thriving; however, at lower levels of cognitive functioning, only the degree of cognitive impairment and the NPS was associated with thriving. Most of the individual NPS formed nonlinear relationships with cognitive functioning with higher symptom scores in the middle stages of cognitive functioning. Exceptions were elation/euphoria and apathy, which increased linearly with severity of cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS: The lower the cognitive functioning was, the fewer factors were associated with thriving. Aggression and depressive symptoms may indicate lower levels of thriving; thus, targeting these symptoms should be a priority in nursing homes. Copyright (c) 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
H. C. Beerens, S. M. G. Zwakhalen, H. Verbeek, et al.
Aging Ment Health 2018 Jan;22(1):26-32
The aim of the study is to identify the degree of association between mood, activity engagement, activity location, and social interaction during everyday life of people with dementia (PwD) living in long-term care facilities. METHOD: An observational study using momentary assessments was conducted. For all 115 participants, 84 momentary assessments of mood, engagement in activity, location during activity, and social interaction were carried out by a researcher using the tablet-based Maastricht Electronic Daily Life Observation-tool. RESULTS: A total of 9660 momentary assessments were completed. The mean age of the 115 participants was 84 and most (75%) were women. A negative, neutral, or positive mood was recorded during 2%, 25%, and 73% of the observations, respectively. Positive mood was associated with engagement in activities, doing activities outside, and social interaction. The type of activity was less important for mood than the fact that PwD were engaged in an activity. Low mood was evident when PwD attempted to have social interaction but received no response. CONCLUSION: Fulfilling PwD’s need for occupation and social interaction is consistent with a person-centred dementia care focus and should have priority in dementia care.
E. Altintas, A. Guerrien, B. Vivicorsi, E. Clement and R. J. Vallerand.
Can J Aging 2018 Jul 13:1-12
Based on self-determination theory, this study examined the relationship between leisure activities, motivation, and adjustment to institutional living by older adults who live in nursing homes. We hypothesized that motivational profiles with higher levels of self-determined motivation represent the optimal profiles regarding participation in leisure activities, adaptation to nursing home living, and satisfaction with life. Participants completed questionnaires assessing motivation, leisure activity participation, life satisfaction, and adaptation to the nursing home. Results showed a relationship between the latter three factors. A latent profile analysis based on the different forms of motivation indicated four distinct profiles. Although no differences were found between the high self-determined profile (high self-determined motivation and low non-self-determined motivation) and the additive profile (high self-determined motivation and non-self-determined motivation), participants with a moderate profile and a low self-determined profile reported the lowest levels in leisure activity participation, adaptation to the nursing home, and satisfaction with life.
The Online Certificate Program is a part-time program consisting of a series of six online courses focused on theories and methods relevant to the design of strategies to facilitate uptake of health-related interventions. Scholars can choose to take individual courses instead of completing all six courses required for the Certificate. The Online Courses and Certificate program are designed for people from a broad range of professional settings who are currently engaged in the development, implementation, and evaluation of strategies to promote and improve health and health care quality, including clinical and public health researchers, quality improvement officers, community-based clinic staff, public health and public policy practitioners, and clinicians. We welcome trainees who work in clinical and public health settings outside the U.S.
Odds ratios frequently are used to present strength of association between risk factors and outcomes in the clinical literature. Odds and odds ratios are related to the probability of a binary outcome (an outcome that is either present or absent, such as mortality). The odds are the ratio of the probability that an outcome occurs to the probability that the outcome does not occur.
The Laura and John Arnold Foundation, Washington, D.C. (preferred), Houston, or New York City
The Evidence-Based Policy Manager will (i) help solicit, review, refine, and manage grants to fund rigorous program evaluations; (ii) review study reports and publications to assess whether they produced valid evidence regarding program effectiveness; and (iii) gain practical, hands-on experience in funding and reviewing research and using the results to inform the policy process.
One of the projects within TREC, is a pain scale development study in which we aim to improve and evaluate an observational pain assessment scale for nursing home residents with dementias. Using data from the Resident Assessment Instrument–Minimum Data Set, version 2.0 (RAI-MDS) we will refine and then validate the scale in 300 nursing home residents in Edmonton, Winnipeg and Hamilton. This 3-year project is funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) and will begin June 2018. We are now seeking a post-doctoral fellow to work on this study.
This postdoctoral position will work directly with Dr. Malcolm Doupe (TREC Lead Investigator in Manitoba) for a one-year period commencing fall 2018. Activities will focus primarily on leading and co-authoring peer reviewed manuscripts with Dr. Doupe and involving other members of the TREC research team as appropriate. Opportunities are also available to assist with grant writing and conducting clinical trials. This position will be physically located at the Max Rady College of Medicine, Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (where Dr. Doupe is located), University of Manitoba. Some additional collaborative opportunities are also available through both the TREC scientific team (e.g., attending bi-annual national scientific meetings, conference presentations) and MCHP (e.g., attending monthly scientific meetings, attending province-wide knowledge translation workshops).
Search for job reference A6053
University of Plymouth, Plymouth UK
D-PACT is an NIHR funded programme that aims to develop and evaluate a multidisciplinary complex intervention based in primary care for improving wellbeing and health related quality of life for people with dementia and their carers. The programme will build theory in order to develop and iteratively test the feasibility of a primary care based, person centred dementia support intervention, the resulting evidence of which will inform a randomized controlled trial. Outcomes from this programme have the potential to inform practice and process for dementia care within the NHS.
This post is key to ensuring the successful delivery of D-PACT and we are looking for a highly motivated individual with a strong background in health services research, with advanced knowledge of qualitative research methods and research design. You will use realist informed approaches and qualitative methodological skills to build programme theory, and supportive logic models, to develop and test the intervention in practice. You will co-ordinate and contribute to a formative embedded process evaluation during the intervention development, followed by a parallel process evaluation during the main trial. You will also contribute to the implementation of the intervention developed. Excellent communication, team-working, inter-personal skills, organisation and great career ambition are required for the position.