January 8, 2019

Calls for Abstracts
Grants & Awards


New article by Dr. Kate Seers
Compassion in nursing: Solution or stereotype?
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Stephanie Tierney, Roberta Bivins and Kate Seers.
Nurs Inq 2018 12/11; 2019/01;0(0):e12271
Compassion in healthcare has received significant attention recently, on an international scale, with concern raised about its absence during clinical interactions. As a concept, compassionate care has been linked to nursing. We examined historical discourse on this topic, to understand and situate current debates on compassionate care as a hallmark of high-quality services. Documents we looked at illustrated how responsibility for delivering compassionate care cannot be consigned to individual nurses. Health professionals must have the right environmental circumstances to be able to provide and engage in compassionate interactions with patients and their relatives. Hence, although compassionate care has been presented as a straightforward solution when crisis faces health services, this discourse, especially in policy documents, has often failed to acknowledge the system-level issues associated with its provision. This has resulted in simplistic presentations of ?compassion? as inexpensive and the responsibility of individual nurses, a misleading proposal that risks devaluing the energy and resources required to deliver compassionate care. It also overlooks the need for organisations, not just individuals, to be charged with upholding its provision.

New article by Dr. Gillian Harvey
Facilitating successful implementation of a person-centred intervention to support family carers within palliative care: a qualitative study of the Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool (CSNAT) intervention.
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J. Diffin, G. Ewing, G. Harvey and G. Grande.
BMC Palliat Care 2018 Dec 20;17(1):129-018-0382-5
An understanding of how to implement person-centred interventions in palliative and end of life care is lacking, particularly for supporting family carers. To address this gap, we investigated components related to successful implementation of the Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool (CSNAT) intervention, a person-centred process of carer assessment and support, using Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) as a theoretical framework. This study identifies how the PARIHS component of ‘facilitation’ and its interplay with the components of ‘context’ and ‘evidence’ affect implementation success. METHODS: MRC Framework Phase IV study to evaluate implementation of the CSNAT intervention at scale, over six months, in 36 UK palliative care services. 38 practitioners acting as internal facilitators in 35/36 services were interviewed. Field notes were collected during teleconference support sessions between the external and internal facilitators. RESULTS: Successful implementation was associated with internal facilitators’ ‘leverage’ including their positioning within services, authority to change practice, and having a team of supportive co-facilitators. Effective facilitation processes included a collaborative approach, ongoing communication, and proactive problem solving to address implementation barriers. Facilitators needed to communicate the evidence and provide legitimacy for changing practice. Contextual constraints on facilitation included having to adjust recording systems to support implementation, organisational changes, a patient-focused culture and lack of managerial support. CONCLUSIONS: The CSNAT intervention requires attention to both facilitation processes and conducive organisational structures for successful implementation. These findings are likely to be applicable to any person-centred process of assessment and support within palliative care.

Calls for Abstracts

KT Canada Scientific Meeting 2019

DEADLINE 3 February
30-31 May Winnipeg MB

The Annual KT Canada Scientific Meeting will take place May 30-31 in Winnipeg, MB. We invite you to join the discussion on Advancing the science of integrated knowledge translation. We encourage those interested to submit an abstract on any topic related to advancing KT science.

AbSPORU Summer Institute 2019 Impact & Opportunities

13-15 May Edmonton, AB
DEADLINE: 25 February
We are interested in presentations that are related to patient-oriented
research which provide insights for the following themes:
● Innovative methods in knowledge synthesis, knowledge translation and/or implementation science
● Innovative patient-oriented research techniques in clinical trials
● Leveraging Alberta’s provincial data resources for patient-oriented research
● Practical approaches to meaningfully engage patients in healthresearch
● Innovative methods for conducting patient-oriented research

Special Issue Journal of Nursing Scholarship: Implementation Science

This special issue of the Journal of Nursing Scholarship will showcase examples of how implementation science can be used to create a “value chain” in health care—for different types of interventions, across various care settings, in all parts of the world. Further, this issue seeks to clarify methodological considerations for implementation science—for instance, guiding theoretical frameworks, design considerations, stakeholder involvement, implementation strategies, implementation outcomes, and contextual analysis.


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Grants & Awards

Call for Proposals 2019 of the EU Joint Programme – Neurodegenerative Disease Research (JPND)

DEADLINE This will be a two-step call, expected to be launched in early January 2019, with a likely pre-proposal submission deadline in March 2019.

In 2019, the EU Joint Programme – Neurodegenerative Disease Research (JPND) will launch, with the European Commission, a call for “Multinational research projects on Personalised Medicine for Neurodegenerative Diseases”.JPND has chosen to focus on the area of Precision Medicine, which relates to the targeting of specific elements responsible for pathology in a given individual at a particular point in time. It is an emerging approach for disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment that takes into account individual variability in genes as well as biological/molecular characteristics together with environmental and lifestyle factors.The call for multidisciplinary research proposals will focus in the following research areas:
-Diagnosis (e.g. biomarkers, imaging data, omics approaches, big data analyses);
-Prevention (e.g. biomarkers for studying novel treatments and interventions, co-morbidities, digital technologies, stratification within cohort studies and clinical trials); and
-Care (e.g. improvement of social and health care systems, molecular profiling, imaging, lifestyle data).

CFN 2019 Knowledge Translation Grants

DEADLINE Intent to Apply 14 January
The 2019 CFN Knowledge Translation (KT) Competition is designed to bridge the gap between evidence and practice. We are looking for scaleable projects that initiate or improve the implementation and/or adoption of evidence to improve the health and functioning of older adults living with frailty and/or their family/friend caregivers.


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Health Care Administration and Organization
Health Care Innovation and Quality Assurance
Organizational Culture and Change
Research Practice and Methodology


How practitioner-led research could have greater impact: the importance of considering knowledge mobilisation holistically
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Lightowler C, Stocks-Rankin C, Wilkinson H.
Evidence & Policy: A Journal of Research, Debate and Practice 2018 -11-26T00:00:00;14(4):641-663
Literature about practitioner research focuses on the production of research or building of research capacity, with limited exploration of the wider contribution that practitioner research can make to knowledge mobilisation (KM). This paper draws on findings from a practitioner research project to explore how practitioner research can facilitate KM. We suggest that more would be achieved if KM initiatives were informed by a holistic model which recognises that KM is influenced by: the actors involved (and the dynamics between them), environmental context, knowledge content and type, mechanisms for mobilising knowledge, and the underpinning values and principles.

Development of a framework for knowledge mobilisation and impact competencies
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Bayley JE, Phipps D, Batac M, Stevens E.
Evidence & Policy: A Journal of Research, Debate and Practice 2018 -11-26T00:00:00;14(4):725-738
For research to translate into impact, knowledge must be effectively mobilised beyond the academic domain. However, there is little consensus on the competencies (skills) required. This paper describes the development of a competency framework. Four existing knowledge broker frameworks were synthesised through a process of (1) extraction, (2) categorisation, (3) cleaning and (4) re-categorisation. A final set of 80 distinct, actively-phrased competencies in 11 categories was produced. This paper provides the first comprehensive framework for professional competences for impact beyond commercialisation. The potential applications, implications for competencies and associated competence alongside further research are discussed.

Pragmatic clinical trials offer unique opportunities for disseminating, implementing, and sustaining evidence-based practices into clinical care: Proceedings of a workshop.
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L. Tuzzio, E. B. Larson, D. A. Chambers, et al.
Healthc (Amst) 2018 Dec 26
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Health Care Systems (HCS) Research Collaboratory hosted a workshop to explore challenges and strategies for the dissemination, implementation, and sustainability of findings from pragmatic clinical trials (PCTs) embedded in HCS. PCTs are designed to assess the impact of interventions delivered in usual or real-world conditions and leverage existing infrastructure to answer important clinical questions. The goal of the workshop was to discuss strategies for conducting impactful future PCTs that bridge the gap between evidence, practice, and policy. This paper summarizes presentations about how to design and conduct PCTs embedded in HCS and use dissemination and implementation strategies during the planning and conduct of projects, emphasizing the ever-changing world of care delivery and the need for pragmatic trial operations to adapt at various levels of operation.

Getting evidence to travel inside public systems: what organisational brokering capacities exist for evidence-based policy?
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P. Smits, J. L. Denis, J. Preval, E. Lindquist and M. Aguirre.
Health Res Policy Syst 2018 Dec 17;16(1):122-018-0393-y
Implementing research findings into healthcare policy is an enduring challenge made even more difficult when policies must be developed and implemented with the help and support of multiple ideas, agendas and actors taking part in determinants of health. Only looking at mechanisms to feed policy-makers with evidence or to interest researchers in the policy process will simply bring partial clues; implementing evidence-based policy also requires organisations to lead and to partner in the production and intake of scientific evidence from academics and practical evidence from one another. MAIN BODY: This Commentary argues for the need to better understand the capacities required by organisations to foster evidence-based policy in a dispersed environment. It proposes a framework of 11 brokering capacities for organisations involved in evidence-based policy. Eight of these capacities are informed by streams of research related to the roles of knowledge broker, innovation broker and policy broker. Three complementary brokering capacities are informed by our experience studying real-life evidence-based policies; these are capturing boundary knowledge, trending know-how on scientific and practical evidence-based policy, and conveying evidence outward. CONCLUSIONS: Previous guidelines on brokering capacities focused on the individual level more than on the organisational level. Beyond the individual capacities of managers, designers and implementers of new policies, there is a need to identify and assess the brokering capacities of organisations involved in evidence-based policy. The three specific organisational brokering capacities for evidence-based policy that we present offer a means for policy-makers and policy designers to reflect upon favourable environments for evidence-based policy. These capacities could also help administrators and implementation scholars to think about and develop measurements to assess the quality and readiness of organisations involved in evidence-based policy design.

Middle managers’ role in implementing evidence-based practices in healthcare: a systematic review.
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S. Birken, A. Clary, A. A. Tabriz, et al.
Implement Sci 2018 Dec 12;13(1):149-018-0843-5
Middle managers are in a unique position to promote the implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in healthcare organizations, yet knowledge of middle managers’ role in implementation and determinants (e.g., individual-, organizational-, and system-level factors) which influence their role remains fractured, spanning decades and disciplines. To synthesize understanding, we undertook a systematic review of studies of middle managers’ role in healthcare EBP implementation and determinants of that role. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE/PubMed and Business Source Complete (Ebsco) for literature on middle managers’ role in healthcare EBP implementation and its determinants. We abstracted data from records that met inclusion criteria (i.e., written in English, peer-reviewed, and reporting either a protocol or results of an empirical study) into a matrix for analysis. We summarized categorical variables using descriptive statistics. To analyze qualitative data, we used a priori codes and then allowed additional themes to emerge. RESULTS: One hundred five records, spanning across several countries and healthcare settings and relating to a range of EBPs, met our inclusion criteria. Studies of middle managers’ role in healthcare EBP implementation and its determinants substantially increased from 1996 to 2015. Results from included studies suggest that middle managers shape implementation climate in addition to fulfilling the four roles hypothesized in extant theory of middle managers’ role in implementation. However, extant studies offered little understanding of determinants of middle managers’ role. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that middle managers may play an important role in facilitating EBP implementation. Included studies offered little understanding regarding the relative importance of various roles, potential moderators of the relationship between middle managers’ roles and EBP implementation, or determinants of middle managers’ role in EBP implementation. Future studies should seek to understand determinants and moderators of middle managers’ role. Clearer understanding may facilitate the translation of evidence into practice.

Deconstructing knowledge brokering for commissioned rapid reviews: an observational study.
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G. Moore, S. Redman, P. Butow and A. Haynes.
Health Res Policy Syst 2018 Dec 12;16(1):120-018-0389-7
Knowledge brokers are increasingly used by policy agencies, yet little is known about how they engage with policy-makers and facilitate discussions with them about their research needs. This study examines knowledge brokers’ behaviour in one-off interactions with policy-makers commissioning rapid reviews. It describes how knowledge brokers engage with policy-makers, build trust and gain agreement about the review’s parameters. METHODS: We observed and transcribed 15 structured knowledge brokering sessions and used line-by-line analysis to derive, test and refine a coding schedule. The final coding schedule was applied to all transcripts. We assigned 35 codes to three tasks identified in the data, namely eliciting information, exploring the policy context and negotiating the content of reviews. RESULTS: The knowledge brokers we observed were skilled facilitators who built trust by their open stance, neutrality, and knowledge of research and policy contexts. Trust engendered an interplay of expertise in which review questions and scope were clarified and contextual factors evaluated. Negotiation about the content of the review focused on understanding how it would contribute to the policy process, comparing options and assessing feasibility. Key functions of knowledge brokers included eliciting and clarifying information, linking the review questions to the context and purpose, moving fluidly between policy and research perspectives, and weighing up review options against policy objectives. Four knowledge brokering roles were identified, namely diagnostic, facilitative, deliberative and interpretative. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified ways in which knowledge brokers established rapport with policy-makers who commissioned reviews, enabled disclosure of essential information and explored contextual factors that affected the review’s purpose and intended use. Knowledge brokers were competent in the discourse and conventions of both policy and research and were skilled in negotiating complex policy and political environments, assisting policy-makers to evaluate options and craft a review proposal that was targeted, responsive and feasible. Mutuality, respect and an interplay of expertise were integral to the knowledge brokering process. Future research might usefully examine whether other rapid review programmes using knowledge brokers have similar results as well as the transferability of the four knowledge brokering roles to other contexts and settings.

Unit Leadership and Climates for Evidence-Based Practice Implementation in Acute Care: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study.
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C. J. Shuman, K. Powers, J. Banaszak-Holl and M. G. Titler.
J Nurs Scholarsh 2018 Dec 15
The purposes of this study were to (a) describe nurse manager (NM) leadership behaviors for evidence-based practice, NM evidence-based practice competencies, and unit climates for evidence-based practice implementation in acute care, and (b) test for differences in NMs’ and staff nurses’ (RNs’) perceptions. DESIGN: A multisite cross-sectional design was used to collect data from a sample of 24 NMs and 553 RNs from 24 adult medical-surgical units in seven U.S. community hospitals. METHODS: Responses were collected using electronic questionnaires, inclusive of the Nurse Manager Evidence-Based Practice Competency Scale (NM only), Implementation Leadership Scale, and Implementation Climate Scale. E-mail reminders and gift card lottery drawings encouraged response. Descriptive statistics described total and subscale scores by role. Differences in perceptions were evaluated using independent t-tests with Bonferroni correction (alpha = .05). FINDINGS: 23 NMs and 287 RNs responded (95.8% and 51.9% response rates, respectively). NMs reported they were “somewhat competent” in evidence-based practice (M = 1.62 [SD = 0.5]; 0-3 scale). NMs and RNs perceived leadership behaviors (NM: M = 2.73 [SD = 0.46]; RN: M = 2.88 [SD = 0.78]; 0-4 scale) and unit climates for evidence-based practice implementation (NM: M = 2.16 [SD = 0.67]; RN: M = 2.24 [SD = 0.74]; 0-4 scale) as evident to a “moderate extent.” RN and NM perceptions differed significantly on the Proactive (p = .01) and Knowledgeable (p < .001) leadership subscales. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence-based practice competencies and leadership behaviors of NMs, and unit climates for evidence-based practice were modest at best and interventions are needed. To close the research to practice gap, future studies should investigate the interplay between social dynamic context factors and implementation strategies to promote uptake of evidence-based practices. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Critical attention is needed to build organizational capacity for evidence-based practices through development of unit leadership and climate for evidence-based practice to accelerate routine use of evidence-based practices for improving care delivery and patient outcomes. The three instruments described herein provide a foundation for nurse leaders to assess these dynamic context factors and design interventions or programs where there is opportunity for improvement.

Applying modern measurement approaches to constructs relevant to evidence-based practice among Canadian physical and occupational therapists.
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F. Al Zoubi, N. Mayo, A. Rochette and A. Thomas.
Implement Sci 2018 Dec 18;13(1):152-018-0844-4
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a complex process. To quantify it, one has to also consider individual and contextual factors using multiple measures. Modern measurement approaches are available to optimize the measurement of complex constructs. This study aimed to develop a robust measurement approach for constructs around EBP including practice, individual (e.g. knowledge, attitudes, confidence, behaviours), and contextual factors (e.g. resources). METHODS: One hundred eighty-one items arising from 5 validated EBP measures were subjected to an item analysis. Nominal group technique was used to arrive at a consensus about the content relevance of each item. Baseline questionnaire responses from a longitudinal study of the evolution of EBP in 128 new graduates of Canadian physical and occupational therapy programmes were analysed. Principles of Rasch Measurement Theory were applied to identify challenges with threshold ordering, item and person fit to the Rasch model, unidimensionality, local independence, and differential item functioning (DIF). RESULTS: The nominal group technique identified 70/181 items, and modified Delphi approach identified 68 items that fit a formative model (2 related EBP domains: self-use of EBP (9 items) and EBP activities (7 items)) or a reflective model (4 related EBP domains: attitudes towards EBP (17 items), self-efficacy (9 items), knowledge (11 items) and resources (15 items)). Rasch analysis provided a single score for reflective construct. Among attitudes items, 65% (11/17) fit the Rasch model, item difficulties ranged from – 7.51 to logits (least difficult) to + 5.04 logits (most difficult), and person separation index (PSI) = 0.63. Among self-efficacy items, 89% (8/9) fit the Rasch model, item difficulties ranged from – 3.70 to + 4.91, and PSI = 0.80. Among knowledge items, 82% (9/11) fit the Rasch model, item difficulties ranged from – 7.85 to 4.50, and PSI = 0.81. Among resources items, 87% (13/15) fit the Rasch model, item difficulties ranged from – 3.38 to 2.86, and PSI = 0.86. DIF occurred in 2 constructs: attitudes (1 by profession and 2 by language) and knowledge (1 by language and 2 by profession) arising from poor wording in the original version leading to poor translation. CONCLUSIONS: Rasch Measurement Theory was applied to develop a valid and reliable measure of EBP. Further modifications to the items can be done for subsequent waves of the survey.


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Health Care Administration and Organization

Nursing Home Employee and Resident Satisfaction and Resident Care Outcomes.
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B. Plaku-Alakbarova, L. Punnett, R. J. Gore and Procare Research Team.
Saf Health Work 2018 Dec;9(4):408-415
Nursing home resident care is an ongoing topic of public discussion, and there is great interest in improving the quality of resident care. This study investigated the association between nursing home employees’ job satisfaction and residents’ satisfaction with care and medical outcomes. Methods: Employee and resident satisfaction were measured by questionnaire in 175 skilled nursing facilities in the eastern United States from 2005 to 2009. Facility-level data on residents’ pressure ulcers, medically unexplained weight loss, and falls were obtained from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set. The association between employee satisfaction and resident satisfaction was examined with multiple and multilevel linear regression. Associations between employee satisfaction and the rates of pressure ulcers, weight loss, and falls were examined with simple and multilevel Poisson regression. Results: A 1-point increase in overall employee satisfaction was associated with an increase of 17.4 points (scale 0-100) in the satisfaction of residents and family members (p < 0.0001) and a 19% decrease in the incidence of resident falls, weight loss, and pressure ulcers combined (p < 0.0001), after adjusting for staffing ratio and percentage of resident-days paid by Medicaid. Conclusion: Job satisfaction of nursing home employees is associated with lower rates of resident injuries and higher resident satisfaction with care. A supportive work environment may help increase quality of care in the nation’s nursing homes.

In-hospital dementia-related deaths following implementation of the national dementia plan: observational study of national death certificates from 1996 to 2016.
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M. Nakanishi, S. Yamasaki and A. Nishida.
BMJ Open 2018 Dec 16;8(12):e023172-2018-023172
To examine changes in places of dementia-related death following implementation of the national dementia plan and other policy initiatives. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Japan between October 1996 and September 2016. Four major changes in health and social care systems were identified: (1) the public long-term care insurance programme (April 2000); (2) community centres as a first access point for older residents (April 2006); (3) medical care system for older people (April 2008) and (4) the national dementia plan (April 2013). PARTICIPANTS: 9 60 423 decedents aged 65 years or older whose primary cause of death was Alzheimer’s disease, vascular or other types of dementia or senility. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Place of death which was classified into ‘hospital’, ‘intermediate geriatric care facility’ (rehabilitation facility aimed at home discharge), ‘nursing home’ or ‘own home’. RESULTS: The annual number of deaths at hospital was consistently increased over time from 1996 to 2016 (age-adjusted OR: 6.01; 95% CI 5.81 to 6.21 versus home deaths). Controlling for individual characteristics, regional supply of hospital and nursing home beds and other changes in health and social care systems, death from dementia following the national dementia plan was likely to occur in hospital (adjusted OR: 1.21; 95% CI 1.18 to 1.24), intermediate geriatric care facility (adjusted OR: 1.53; 95% CI 1.48 to 1.58) or nursing home (adjusted OR: 1.64; 95% CI 1.60 to 1.69) rather than at home. CONCLUSIONS: As the number of deaths from dementia increased over the decades, in-hospital deaths increased regardless of the national dementia plan. Further strategies should be explored to improve the availability of palliative and end-of-life care at patients’ places of residence.

Issues in Building a Nursing Home Syndromic Surveillance System with Textmining: Longitudinal Observational Study.
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T. Delespierre and L. Josseran.
JMIR Public Health Surveill 2018 Dec 13;4(4):e69
New nursing homes (NH) data warehouses fed from residents’ medical records allow monitoring the health of elderly population on a daily basis. Elsewhere, syndromic surveillance has already shown that professional data can be used for public health (PH) surveillance but not during a long-term follow-up of the same cohort. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to build and assess a national ecological NH PH surveillance system (SS). METHODS: Using a national network of 126 NH, we built a residents’ cohort, extracted medical and personal data from their electronic health records, and transmitted them through the internet to a national server almost in real time. After recording sociodemographic, autonomic and syndromic information, a set of 26 syndromes was defined using pattern matching with the standard query language-LIKE operator and a Delphi-like technique, between November 2010 and June 2016. We used early aberration reporting system (EARS) and Bayes surveillance algorithms of the R surveillance package (Hohle) to assess our influenza and acute gastroenteritis (AGE) syndromic data against the Sentinelles network data, French epidemics gold standard, following Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance system assessment guidelines. RESULTS: By extracting all sociodemographic residents’ data, a cohort of 41,061 senior citizens was built. EARS_C3 algorithm on NH influenza and AGE syndromic data gave sensitivities of 0.482 and 0.539 and specificities of 0.844 and 0.952, respectively, over a 6-year period, forecasting the last influenza outbreak by catching early flu signals. In addition, assessment of influenza and AGE syndromic data quality showed precisions of 0.98 and 0.96 during last season epidemic weeks’ peaks (weeks 03-2017 and 01-2017) and precisions of 0.95 and 0.92 during last summer epidemic weeks’ low (week 33-2016). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed that using syndromic information gives a good opportunity to develop a genuine French national PH SS dedicated to senior citizens. Access to senior citizens’ free-text validated health data on influenza and AGE responds to a PH issue for the surveillance of this fragile population. This database will also make possible new ecological research on other subjects that will improve prevention, care, and rapid response when facing health threats.

Nursing home leaders’ and nurses’ experiences of resources, staffing and competence levels and the relation to hospital readmissions – a case study.
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M. K. Glette, O. Roise, T. Kringeland, K. Churruca, J. Braithwaite and S. Wiig.
BMC Health Serv Res 2018 Dec 12;18(1):955-018-3769-3
Thirty-day hospital readmissions represent an international challenge leading to increased prevalence of adverse events, reduced quality of care and pressure on healthcare service’s resources and finances. There is a need for a broader understanding of hospital readmissions, how they manifest, and how resources in the primary healthcare service may affect hospital readmissions. The aim of the study was to examine how nurses and nursing home leaders experienced the resource situation, staffing and competence level in municipal healthcare services, and if and how they experienced these factors to influence hospital readmissions. METHOD: The study was conducted as a comparative case study of two municipalities affiliated with the same hospital, chosen for historical differences in readmission rates. Nurses and leaders from four nursing homes participated in focus groups and interviews. Data were analyzed within and across cases. RESULTS: The analysis resulted in four common themes, with some variation in each municipality, describing nurses’ and leaders’ experience of the nursing home resource situation, staffing level and competence and their perception of factors affecting hospital readmissions. The nursing home patients were described as becoming increasingly complex with a subsequent need for increased nurse competence. There was variation in competence and staffing between nursing homes, but capacity building was an overall focus. Economic limitations and attempts at saving through cost-cutting were present, but not perceived as affecting patient care and the availability of medical equipment. Several factors such as nurse competence and staffing, physician coverage, and adequate communication and documentation, were recognized as factors affecting hospital readmissions across the municipalities. CONCLUSION: Several factors related to nurses’ and leaders’ experience of the resource situation, staffing and competence level were suggested to affect hospital readmissions and the municipalities were similar in their answers regarding these factors. Patients were perceived as more complex with higher patient mortality forcing long-term nursing homes to shift towards an acute care or palliative function, and short-term nursing homes to function as “small hospitals”, requiring higher nurse competence. Staffing, competence and physician coverage did not seem to have adjusted to the new patient group in some nursing homes.

Condition-Specific Pamphlets to Improve End-of-life Communication in Long-term Care: Staff Perceptions on Usability and Use.
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T. Sussman, S. Kaasalainen, E. Lee, et al.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2018 Dec 21
This article reports findings on the usability and staff use of 5 condition- specific pamphlets of high prevalence in long-term care (LTC): dementia, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal failure, and frailty. The pamphlets were created in response to residents’, families’, and staff’s recommendations for activating early reflections and communication about end-of-life care. DESIGN: A mixed-method (qualitative and quantitative) survey design was used. Step 1 collected survey data on the usability of the pamphlets. Step 2 collected survey data on pamphlet use. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: Two nurses with specialized palliative care training, 2 resident/family representatives, 10 condition-specific specialists, and 33 LTC palliative leads reviewed the pamphlets for usability prior to distribution. A total of 178 LTC home staff in 4 participating LTC homes reported on pamphlet use. MEASURES: Specialists and resident/family representatives were asked to provide open comments and LTC home palliative leads were asked to complete a survey on the accuracy, readability, and relevance of the pamphlets. After 6 months of distribution, all staff in participating LTC homes were asked to complete a survey on pamphlet use, usefulness, and comfort with distribution. RESULTS: The pamphlets were reportedly accurate, relevant, and easy to understand. Following 6 months of availability, most staff in LTC had read the pamphlets, found the information useful, and planned to share them. However, half of the staff questioned their role in pamphlet distribution and most had not distributed them. Regulated staff (ie, staff affiliated with a regulated profession) expressed more comfort sharing the pamphlets than care aides and support staff. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Condition-specific pamphlets appear to hold promise in providing residents and families with relevant information that may activate early reflections and conversations about end-of-life care. However, structured implementation strategies, training, and discussions are required to improve staff comfort with distribution and explore roles in distribution and follow-up.

Does diverse staff and skill mix of teams impact quality of care in long-term elderly health care? An exploratory case study.
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L. Koopmans, N. Damen and C. Wagner.
BMC Health Serv Res 2018 Dec 20;18(1):988-018-3812-4
Many European countries face challenges in long-term care for older people, such as the growing number of older people requiring care, the increasing complexity of their health care problems, and a decreasing workforce that is inadequately prepared. Optimizing the staff and skill mix of health care teams may offer part of the solution for these challenges. The aim of this study was to obtain insight into the development of teams in terms of staff and skill mix, and the influence of staff and skill mix on quality of care, quality of life, and job satisfaction. METHODS: Seven teams in elderly care in the Netherlands participated in this exploratory case study. From April 2013 to January 2015, a researcher followed the development of the teams, performed observations at the workplace and held interviews with team members, team captains, and (representatives of) clients. Data-analyses were carried out in MAXQDA 11, by coding interviews and analyzing themes. RESULTS: During the project, almost all teams became more diverse in terms of staff and skill mix. In general, there was a trend towards adding (more) higher-qualified health care workers (e.g. nurse) to the team, increasing communication with other disciplines, and enhancing skills of lower-qualified team members. A more diverse staff and skill mix had a positive effect on quality of care and quality of life of clients, and on job satisfaction, but only under certain contextual conditions. Important contextual conditions for successful functioning of a diverse team were a shared view of care by all team members, good communication, autonomy for professionals, and a safe team culture. CONCLUSION: A more diverse staff and skill mix, in combination with positive contextual conditions, can result in improved quality of care, quality of life, and job satisfaction. However, a “one size fits all” blueprint for the optimal staff and skill mix, that suits each team and organization, does not exist. This depends on the context, and should be based on the needs of the clients and possible future changes in these needs.

Development, adaptation and psychometric assessment of the extended brisbane practice environment measure for nursing homes (B-PEM-NH) for use in the Norwegian setting.
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R. M. Norman, H. H. Iversen and I. S. Sjetne.
Geriatr Nurs 2018 Dec 12
Care workers’ work environment is known to be associated with patient and nurse outcomes. To our knowledge no questionnaire is available for assessing this environment for all care workers in the Norwegian nursing-home setting. This paper describes the development, adaptation and assessment of such a questionnaire: the extended Norwegian version of the Brisbane Practice Environment Measure for Nursing Homes (B-PEM-NH). This version was developed and assessed using semistructured interviews, a reference group meeting, translation, adaptation, and pretesting, and psychometric assessment including exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and retest. We tested hypotheses to assess relations to other variables. The final factor solution comprised 41 items and 9 factors: interpersonal leadership, professional development, resources, professional leadership, input and acknowledgement, patient and next-of-kin focus, multidisciplinary collaboration, language misunderstandings, and feeling unsafe. The assessment showed that the B-PEM-NH had good psychometric properties, suggesting that the questionnaire is suitable for application in similar settings.

Adoption of Health Information Technology Among US Nursing Facilities.
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J. R. Vest, H. Y. Jung, K. Wiley Jr, H. Kooreman, L. Pettit and M. A. Unruh.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2018 Dec 19
Nursing facilities have lagged behind in the adoption of interoperable health information technology (ie technologies that allow the sharing and use of electronic patient information between different information systems). The objective of this study was to estimate the nationwide prevalence of electronic health record (EHR) adoption among nursing facilities and to identify the factors associated with adoption. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: We surveyed members of the Society for Post-Acute & Long-Term Care Medicine (AMDA) about their organizations’ health information technology usage and characteristics. MEASUREMENTS: Using questions adopted from existing instruments, the survey measured nursing home’s EHR adoption, the ability to send, receive, search and integrate electronic information, as well as barriers to usage. Additionally, we linked survey responses to public use secondary data sources to construct measurements for 8 determinants known to be associated with organizational adoption: innovativeness, functional differentiation, role specialization, administrative intensity, professionalism, complexity, technical knowledge resources, and slack resources. A series of regression models estimated the association between potential determinants and technology adoption. RESULTS: 84% of nursing facilities reported using an EHR. After controlling for all other factors, respondents who characterized their organization as more innovative had more than 6 times the odds (adjusted odds ratio = 6.39, 95% confidence interval = 2.69, 15.21) of adopting an EHR. Organization innovativeness was also associated with an increased odds of being able to send, integrate, and search for electronic information. The most commonly identified barrier to sharing clinical information among nursing facilities with an EHR was a reported absence of interoperability (57%). CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: An organizational culture that fosters innovation and awareness campaigns by professional societies may facilitate further adoption and effective use of technology. This will be increasingly important as policy makers continue to emphasize the use of EHRs and interoperability to improve the quality of care in nursing facilities.

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Health Care Innovation and Quality Assurance

Problematizing ‘wickedness’: a critique of the wicked problems concept, from philosophy to practice
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Nick Turnbull and Robert Hoppe.
Policy and Society 2018 07/02:1-23
The concept of “wicked problems” is a major current in the fields of policy analysis and planning. However, the basis of the concept has been insufficiently examined. This re-examination of its conceptual basis explains the origins of the limitations and flaws in the wicked problems concept. This paper analyses and rejects the notion of ?wicked problems? on philosophical and practical grounds. We argue instead that the policy sciences already had better conceptualizations of public problems before Rittel and Webber’s flawed formulation. We return to this literature, and build upon it by reframing “wickedness” in terms of higher and lower levels of problematicity in problem structuring efforts. In doing so, we offer an alternative, novel combination of the philosophy of questioning and the policy work approach to policy practice. ?Wickedness? is re-conceptualized as problematicity, conceived as the distance between those who question or inquire into a policy problem. This is primarily a political distance, articulated in terms of ideas, interests, institutions and practices. High problematicity arises only when wide political distances are explicitly maintained, such that partial answers cannot be reached. Practitioners deal with problematicity by a dual practical strategy of balancing closing-down and opening-up sub-questions to the problem in order to structure them such that they become amenable to action through partial answers. This simultaneously incorporates a politics of negotiating political distance via partisan adjustment and serial strategic analysis. The argument constitutes a theoretically and practically superior alternative to the “wicked problems” perspective.

From complex social interventions to interventions in complex social systems: Future directions and unresolved questions for intervention development and evaluation
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Graham F. Moore, Rhiannon E. Evans, Jemma Hawkins, et al.
Evaluation 2018 10/31; 2018/12:1356389018803219
Complex systems approaches to social intervention research are increasingly advocated. However, there have been few attempts to consider how models of intervention science, such as the Medical Research Council complex interventions framework, might be reframed through a complex systems lens. This article identifies some key areas in which this framework might be reconceptualized, and a number of priority areas where further development is needed if alignment with a systems perspective is to be achieved. We argue that a complex systems perspective broadens the parameters of ?relevant? evidence and theory for intervention development, before discussing challenges in defining feasibility in dynamic terms. We argue that whole systems evaluations may be neither attainable, nor necessary; acknowledgment of complexity does not mean that evaluations must be complex, or investigate all facets of complexity. However, a systems lens may add value to evaluation design through guiding identification of key uncertainties, and informing decisions such as timings of follow-up assessments.

Forty years of wicked problems literature: forging closer links to policy studies
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Brian W. Head.
Policy and Society 2018 07/09:1-18
Rittel and Webber boldly challenged the conventional assumption that ?scientific? approaches to social policy and planning provide the most reliable guidance for practitioners and researchers who are addressing complex, and contested, social problems. This provocative claim, that scientific-technical approaches would not ?work? for complex social issues, has engaged policy analysts, academic researchers and planning practitioners since the 1970s. Grappling with the implications of complexity and uncertainty in policy debates, the first generation of ?wicked problem? scholars generally agreed that wicked issues require correspondingly complex and iterative approaches. This tended to quarantine complex ?wicked? problems as a special category that required special collaborative processes. Most often they recommended the inclusion of multiple stakeholders in exploring the relevant issues, interests, value differences and policy responses. More than four decades later, however, there are strong arguments for developing a second-generation approach which would ?mainstream? the analysis of wicked problems in public policy. While continuing to recognize the centrality of complexity and uncertainty, and the need for creative thinking, a broader approach would make better use of recent public policy literatures on such topics as problem framing, policy design, policy capacity and the contexts of policy implementation.

Applying a Theory-Driven Framework to Guide Quality Improvement Efforts in Nursing Homes: The LOCK Model.
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W. L. Mills, C. B. Pimentel, J. A. Palmer, et al.
Gerontologist 2018 May 8;58(3):598-605
Implementing quality improvement (QI) programs in nursing homes continues to encounter significant challenges, despite recognized need. QI approaches provide nursing home staff with opportunities to collaborate on developing and testing strategies for improving care delivery. We present a theory-driven and user-friendly adaptable framework and facilitation package to overcome existing challenges and guide QI efforts in nursing homes. Design and development: The framework is grounded in the foundational concepts of strengths-based learning, observation, relationship-based teams, efficiency, and organizational learning. We adapted these concepts to QI in the nursing home setting, creating the “LOCK” framework. The LOCK framework is currently being disseminated across the Veterans Health Administration. Results: The LOCK framework has five tenets: (a) Look for the bright spots, (b) Observe, (c) Collaborate in huddles, (d) Keep it bite-sized, and (e) facilitation. Each tenet is described. We also present a case study documenting how a fictional nursing home can implement the LOCK framework as part of a QI effort to improve engagement between staff and residents. The case study describes sample observations, processes, and outcomes. We also discuss practical applications for nursing home staff, the adaptability of LOCK for different QI projects, the specific role of facilitation, and lessons learned. Implications: The proposed framework complements national efforts to improve quality of care and quality of life for nursing home residents and may be valuable across long-term care settings and QI project types.

The Improvement Readiness scale of the SCORE survey: a metric to assess capacity for quality improvement in healthcare.
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K. C. Adair, K. Quow, A. Frankel, et al.
BMC Health Serv Res 2018 Dec 17;18(1):975-018-3743-0
Quality improvement efforts are inextricably linked to the readiness of healthcare workers to take them on. The current study aims to clarify the nature and measurement of Improvement Readiness (IR) by 1) examining the psychometric properties of a novel IR scale, 2) assessing relationships between IR and other safety culture domains 3) exploring whether IR differs by healthcare worker demographic factors, and 4) examining linguistic differences in word type use between high and low scoring IR work settings from their free text responses. METHODS: Of 13,040 eligible healthcare workers across a large academic health system, 10,627 (response rate 81%) completed the 5-item IR scale, demographics, safety culture scales, and two open-ended questions. Psychometric analyses, correlations and ANOVAs tested the properties of IR. Linguistic Inquiry Word Count software assessed comments from open-ended questions. RESULTS: The IR scale exhibited strong psychometric properties and a one factor model fit the data well (Cronbach’s alpha = .93; RMSEA = .07; CFI = 99; TLI = .99). IR scores differed significantly by role, shift, shift length, and years in specialty. IR correlated significantly and in expected directions with safety culture scales. Linguistic analyses revealed that people in low versus high IR work settings used significantly more words in their responses, and specifically more past tense verbs (e.g., “ignored”), negative emotion words (e.g., “upset”), and first person singular (“I”). Workers from high IR work settings used significantly more positive emotions words (e.g., “grateful”) and social words (e.g., “team”). CONCLUSION: The IR scale exhibits strong psychometric properties, is associated with better safety and teamwork climate, lower burnout, and predicts linguistic differences in high versus low IR groups.

Improving specialist palliative care in residential care for older people: a checklist to guide practice.
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L. Forbat, M. Chapman, C. Lovell, W. M. Liu and N. Johnston.
BMJ Support Palliat Care 2018 Sep;8(3):347-353
Palliative care needs rounds are triage meetings that have been introduced in residential care for older adults to help identify and prioritise care for people most at risk for unplanned dying with inadequately controlled symptoms. This study sought to generate an evidence-based checklist in order to support specialist palliative care clinicians integrate care in residential nursing homes for older people. METHODS: A grounded theory ethnographic study, involving non-participant observation and qualitative interviews. The study was conducted at four residential facilities for older people in one city. Observations and recordings of 15 meetings were made, and complimented by 13 interviews with staff attending the needs rounds. RESULTS: The palliative care needs round checklist is presented, alongside rich description of how needs rounds are conducted. Extracts from interviews with needs rounds participants illustrate the choice of items within the checklist and their importance in supporting the evolution towards efficient and effective high-quality specialist palliative care input to the care of older people living in residential care. CONCLUSIONS: The checklist can be used to support the integration of specialist palliative care into residential care to drive up quality care, provide staff with focused case-based education, maximise planning and reduce symptom burden for people at end of life.

Characteristics of healthcare organisations struggling to improve quality: results from a systematic review of qualitative studies.
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V. M. Vaughn, S. Saint, S. L. Krein, et al.
BMJ Qual Saf 2019 Jan;28(1):74-84
Identifying characteristics associated with struggling healthcare organisations may help inform improvement. Thus, we systematically reviewed the literature to: (1) Identify organisational factors associated with struggling healthcare organisations and (2) Summarise these factors into actionable domains. METHODS: Systematic review of qualitative studies that evaluated organisational characteristics of healthcare organisations that were struggling as defined by below-average patient outcomes (eg, mortality) or quality of care metrics (eg, Patient Safety Indicators). Searches were conducted in MEDLINE (via Ovid), EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and Web of Science from database inception through February 8 2018. Qualitative data were analysed using framework-based synthesis and summarised into key domains. Study quality was evaluated using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program tool. RESULTS: Thirty studies (33 articles) from multiple countries and settings (eg, acute care, outpatient) with a diverse range of interviewees (eg, nurses, leadership, staff) were included in the final analysis. Five domains characterised struggling healthcare organisations: poor organisational culture (limited ownership, not collaborative, hierarchical, with disconnected leadership), inadequate infrastructure (limited quality improvement, staffing, information technology or resources), lack of a cohesive mission (mission conflicts with other missions, is externally motivated, poorly defined or promotes mediocrity), system shocks (ie, events such as leadership turnover, new electronic health record system or organisational scandals that detract from daily operations), and dysfunctional external relations with other hospitals, stakeholders, or governing bodies. CONCLUSIONS: Struggling healthcare organisations share characteristics that may affect their ability to provide optimal care. Understanding and identifying these characteristics may provide a first step to helping low performers address organisational challenges to improvement. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO: CRD42017067367.


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Organizational Culture and Change

Navigating the storm: How proficient organizational culture promotes clinician retention in the shift to evidence-based practice.
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N. J. Williams and R. S. Beidas.
PLoS One 2018 Dec 21;13(12):e0209745
Clinician turnover is a major concern as mental health systems and organizations invest substantial resources in the implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP). In this study, we identify malleable factors associated with reduced clinician turnover during a system-wide EBP implementation initiative. Specifically, we examine how proficient organizational culture (i.e., norms and behavioral expectations that clinicians prioritize improvement in client well-being and exhibit competence in up-to-date treatment practices), EBP implementation climate (i.e., perceptions that the organization’s policies, procedures, and practices support EBP use), and change in these organizational characteristics relate to clinician turnover during a system-wide EBP transformation. METHOD: Data were collected from 236 clinicians in 19 mental health clinics across 3 years of a system-wide EBP implementation initiative in the City of Philadelphia. Clinicians reported on proficient organizational culture and EBP implementation climate at baseline (T1) and two-year follow-up (T2). Administrators reported on clinician turnover at three-year follow-up (T3). Hypotheses were tested via multilevel mediation analyses incorporating mixed effects logistic regression models. RESULTS: Controlling for organization size, clinician job satisfaction, attitudes towards EBP, job tenure, and age, higher levels of proficient organizational culture and improvement in proficient culture from baseline to two-year follow-up predicted reduced clinician turnover in the year following; these effects were mediated by EBP implementation climate and by improvement in EBP implementation climate, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Organizations with more proficient cultures have more supportive EBP implementation climates that predict reduced clinician turnover during system-wide EBP implementation initiatives. Strategies that target these antecedents in mental health service organizations may contribute to reduced clinician turnover.

Health outcomes measurement and organizational readiness support quality improvement: a systematic review.
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N. A. Kampstra, N. Zipfel, P. B. van der Nat, G. P. Westert, P. J. van der Wees and A. S. Groenewoud.
BMC Health Serv Res 2018 Dec 29;18(1):1005-018-3828-9
Using outcome measures to advance healthcare continues to be of widespread interest. The goal is to summarize the results of studies which use outcome measures from clinical registries to implement and monitor QI initiatives. The second objective is to identify a) facilitators and/or barriers that contribute to the realization of QI efforts, and b) how outcomes are being used as a catalyst to change outcomes over time. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases for relevant articles published between January 1995 and March 2017. We used a standardized data abstraction form. Studies were included when the following three criteria were fulfilled: 1) they relied on structural data collection, 2) when a structural and comprehensive QI intervention had been implemented and evaluated, and 3) impact on improving clinical and/or patient-reported outcomes was described. Data on QI strategies, QI initiatives and the impact on outcomes was extracted using standardized assessment tools. RESULTS: We included 21 articles, of which eight showed statistically significant improvements on outcomes using data from clinical registries. Out of these eight studies, the Chronic Care Model, IT application as feedback, benchmarking and the Collaborative Care Model were used as QI methods. Encouraging trends in realizing improved outcomes through QI initiatives were observed, ranging from improving teamwork, implementation of clinical guidelines, implementation of physician alerts and development of a decision support system. Facilitators for implementing QI initiatives included a high quality database, audits, frequent reporting and feedback, patient involvement, communication, standardization, engagement, and leadership. CONCLUSION: This review suggests that outcomes collected in clinical registries are supportive to realize QI initiatives. Organizational readiness and an active approach are key in achieving improved outcomes.

Quality improvement strategies for organizational change: a multiphase observational study to increase insight into nonparticipating organizations.
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J. J. A. de Groot, M. Timmermans, J. M. C. Maessen, et al.
BMC Health Serv Res 2018 Dec 29;18(1):1011-018-3847-6
The scope of implementation research is often restricted to the analysis of organizations that participate voluntarily in implementation interventions. The recruitment of participants for a quality improvement collaborative increases awareness of the specific innovation. The objective of this multiphase observational study was to identify differences between organizations that participated in a large-scale implementation project aiming to improve perioperative care, functional recovery, and length of hospital stay after gynecologic surgery and organizations that did not participate. A secondary objective was to explore how perioperative practice changed among nonparticipants. METHODS: Of the seven gynecology departments of nonparticipating Dutch hospitals, five agreed to participate in a retrospective analysis. Baseline data of participating hospitals’ (N = 19) characteristics, time to functional recovery, and length of hospital stay were compared. Outcome measures for the subsequent pre-post awareness study in the five nonparticipating hospitals were: (1) overall adherence to predefined evidence-based perioperative elements; and (2) change in functional recovery and length of hospital stay. Multivariable regression models, adjusted for baseline characteristics, were used for analysis. RESULTS: In retrospect, nonparticipating and participating hospitals did not differ in baseline characteristics, functional recovery, and length of hospital stay. In three of the five nonparticipating hospitals, adherence to the selected evidence-based perioperative elements increased significantly after awareness of the trial (overall mean difference 9.7%, 95% CI 6.9 to 12.5%, p < 0.001). Linear regression models revealed no statistically significant or clinically relevant differences in time to functional recovery (mean difference – 0.2 days, 95% CI -0.7 to 0.2, p = 0.319) or length of hospital stay (mean difference – 0.4 days, 95% CI -1.3 to 0.5, p = 0.419) in the nonparticipating hospitals. None of these hospitals managed to reduce time to functional recovery or length of hospital stay significantly. CONCLUSIONS: No differences in perioperative outcomes between the nonparticipating and participating hospitals were identified at baseline. Despite the statistically significant improvement in overall evidence-based perioperative care, the awareness raised by recruitment activities alone was not enough to reduce time to functional recovery and length of hospital stay in nonparticipating hospitals. Insight into the trends of nonparticipants is valuable to existing implementation effectiveness research.

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Research Practice and Methodology

RePAIR consensus guidelines: Responsibilities of Publishers, Agencies, Institutions, and Researchers in protecting the integrity of the research record.
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Collaborative Working Group from the conference “Keeping the Pool Clean: Prevention and Management of Misconduct Related Retractions”.
Res Integr Peer Rev 2018 Dec 19;3:15-018-0055-1. eCollection 2018
The progression of research and scholarly inquiry does not occur in isolation and is wholly dependent on accurate reporting of methods and results, and successful replication of prior work. Without mechanisms to correct the literature, much time and money is wasted on research based on a crumbling foundation. These guidelines serve to outline the respective responsibilities of researchers, institutions, agencies, and publishers or editors in maintaining the integrity of the research record. Delineating these complementary roles and proposing solutions for common barriers provide a foundation for best practices.

A Patient-Centered Approach to Comparative Effectiveness Research Focused on Older Adults: Lessons From the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute.
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N. R. Mason, H. C. Sox and E. P. Whitlock.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2018 Dec 26
The mission of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) is to fund the production of high-quality evidence that will enable patients and clinicians to make informed, personalized healthcare decisions. Since 2012, the PCORI has invested $177 million in patient-centered comparative effectiveness research (CER) that specifically targets the health needs of older adults, with additional relevant studies in its broader portfolio. Developing the PCORI’s research portfolio has provided us with significant insights into what factors to consider when conducting CER in older adult populations. When comparing the net benefit of two or more interventions for older adults, investigators should consider the following: absolute risk difference, competing risks, life expectancy, the difference between chronologic and physiologic age, the importance of patient preferences, and other potential drivers of variable treatment effects. Investigators should also engage older adults and their caregivers as partners throughout the research process. Their input helps to identify key outcomes of interest and insights about the conduct of the research. As the PCORI continues to support research that addresses the healthcare decisions of the rapidly growing older adult population, it needs to partner with patients and researchers to identify the most important questions to address.

Embracing complexity and uncertainty to create impact: exploring the processes and transformative potential of co-produced research through development of a social impact model.
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K. Beckett, M. Farr, A. Kothari, L. Wye and A. le May.
Health Res Policy Syst 2018 Dec 11;16(1):118-018-0375-0
The potential use, influence and impact of health research is seldom fully realised. This stubborn problem has caused burgeoning global interest in research aiming to address the implementation ‘gap’ and factors inhibiting the uptake of scientific evidence. Scholars and practitioners have questioned the nature of evidence used and required for healthcare, highlighting the complex ways in which knowledge is formed, shared and modified in practice and policy. This has led to rapid expansion, expertise and innovation in the field of knowledge mobilisation and funding for experimentation into the effectiveness of different knowledge mobilisation models. One approach gaining prominence involves stakeholders (e.g. researchers, practitioners, service users, policy-makers, managers and carers) in the co-production, and application, of knowledge for practice, policy and research (frequently termed integrated knowledge translation in Canada). Its popularity stems largely from its potential to address dilemmas inherent in the implementation of knowledge generated using more reductionist methods. However, despite increasing recognition, demands for co-produced research to illustrate its worth are becoming pressing while the means to do so remain challenging. This is due not only to the diversity of approaches to co-production and their application, but also to the ways through which different stakeholders conceptualise, measure, reward and use research. While research co-production can lead to demonstrable benefits such as policy or practice change, it may also have more diffuse and subtle impact on relationships, knowledge sharing, and in engendering culture shifts and research capacity-building. These relatively intangible outcomes are harder to measure and require new emphases and tools. This opinion paper uses six Canadian and United Kingdom case studies to explore the principles and practice of co-production and illustrate how it can influence interactions between research, policy and practice, and benefit diverse stakeholders. In doing so, we identify a continuum of co-production processes. We propose and illustrate the use of a new ‘social model of impact’ and framework to capture multi-layered and potentially transformative impacts of co-produced research. We make recommendations for future directions in research co-production and impact measurement.

Towards an assessment for organizational participatory research health partnerships: A systematic mixed studies review with framework synthesis.
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J. Hamzeh, P. Pluye, P. L. Bush, C. Ruchon, I. Vedel and C. Hudon.
Eval Program Plann 2018 Dec 11;73:116-128
Within the health sciences, organizational participatory research (OPR) is defined as a blend of research and action, in which academic researchers partner with health organization members. OPR is based on a sound partnership between all stakeholders to improve organizational practices. However, little research on the evaluation of OPR health partnership exists. This systematic mixed studies review sought to produce a new theoretical model that structures the evaluation of the OPR processes and related outcomes of OPR health partnerships. Six bibliographic databases were searched together with grey literature sources for OPR health partnership evaluation questionnaires. Six questionnaires were included, from which a pool of 95 OPR health partnership evaluation items were derived. The included questionnaires were appraised for the quality of their origin, development and measurement properties. A framework synthesis was performed using an existing OPR framework by organizing questionnaire items in a matrix using a hybrid thematic analysis. This led to our proposed Organizational Participatory Research Evaluation Model (OPREM) that includes three axes, Trust, Collective Learning and Sustainability (with specific dimensions) and 95 items. This model provides information to help stakeholders comprehensively structure the evaluation of their partnerships and subsequent improvement; thus, potentially helping to improve health organization practices.

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Generation of a function affect model for residents with advanced dementia.
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E. Chang, M. Edenborough, D. Nicholls, A. Johnson, S. Brownhill and J. Simard.
Int J Nurs Pract 2018 Dec 19:e12718
This article presents the generation of a model of care encompassing “function” and “affect” based on findings from a 2011 research project aimed at improving care delivery for people with advanced dementia. Objectives were to provide comprehensive and sustainable care, honouring and respecting the person. BACKGROUND: Dementia is a debilitating, progressive, and terminal disease with a trajectory ranging from approximately 3 to 16 years, yet attention to end-of-life care, promoting comfort, alleviating suffering, and maximizing quality of life is frequently overlooked for people living in the advanced stages of the disease. METHODS: The research project from which the model was drawn used a three-phase mixed methods approach at three residential aged care facilities (nursing homes) providing high care in New South Wales, Australia. Thematic analysis was elicited from focus group discussions with staff, family members, and carers of residents. FINDINGS: Themes describe distinct dimensions of a model of care: “function” (dedication, designation, and deliberation) and “affect” (the personal outcomes revealed in relaxation, stimulation, and transformation). CONCLUSION: Reframing nursing practice from task and disease orientation to person centred and relationship focused is essential in meeting the complete needs of people with advanced dementia. This transformational model of care may be useful in adapting to other end-of-life care settings.

The Predictors of and Motivations for Increased Family Involvement in Nursing Homes.
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A. R. Roberts, K. J. Ishler and K. B. Adams.
Gerontologist 2018 Dec 19
Quantitative and qualitative data from a statewide survey of family members of nursing home residents were analyzed to determine the predictors of, and motivations for, family involvement. Research Design and Methods: We examined 3 types of involvement: visiting, providing personal care, and family-staff communication. Our mixed methods approach used (a) multilevel regression models to examine predictors of family involvement, including family member perceptions and resident, family member, and facility characteristics, and (b) a thematic analysis of qualitative data regarding the experiences of family members and their motivations for involvement. Results: Families were more involved when a short-term stay (<3 months) was expected, and when residents were in poorer physical condition. Spouses and female family members were more involved than others, yet the effect of gender varied by relationship type. At the facility level, families of residents in rural facilities reported less family involvement. Aside from these commonalities, predictors of each type of involvement varied. Themes from the qualitative data identify unique motivations for each type of involvement-to enhance residents’ identity, care, or quality of life. Discussion: Families visit more and provide more hands-on assistance when they are not confident in the care being provided or the well-being and stability of their resident loved one. Receiving adequate information, perceiving staff as friendly, and residents as looking well cared for promote greater family-staff communication. Implications: Findings can inform strategies to increase meaningful family involvement in nursing homes.

Interventions to Optimise Prescribing in Older People with Dementia: A Systematic Review.
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L. Shafiee Hanjani, D. Long, N. M. Peel, G. Peeters, C. R. Freeman and R. E. Hubbard.
Drugs Aging 2018 Dec 19
Older adults living with dementia may have a higher risk of medication toxicity than those without dementia. Optimising prescribing in this group of people is a critically important yet challenging process. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to systematically review the evidence for the effectiveness of interventions for optimising prescribing in older people with dementia. METHODS: This systematic review searched the Pubmed, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library electronic databases for studies that evaluated relevant interventions. Experimental, quasi-experimental and observational studies published in English prior to August 2018 were included. Data were synthesised at a narrative level. RESULTS: The 18 studies accepted for review included seven randomised, two nonrandomised controlled, five quasi-experimental and four observational studies. Half the studies were conducted in nursing homes and the other half in hospital and community settings. There was great variability in the interventions and outcomes reported and a meta-analysis was not feasible. The three randomised and four nonrandomised studies examining medication appropriateness all reported improvements on at least one measure of the outcome. Six studies reported on interventions that identified and resolved drug-related problems. The results for other outcomes, including the number of medications (10 studies), healthcare utilisation (7 studies), mortality (7 studies), quality of life (3 studies) and falls (3 studies), were mixed and difficult to synthesise because of variability in the study design and measures used. CONCLUSION: Emerging evidence suggests that interventions in older people with dementia may have positive effects on medication appropriateness and resolution of drug-related problems; however, whether optimisation of medication results in clinically meaningful outcomes remains uncertain.

Relationship between Functional Improvement and Cognition in Short-Stay Nursing Home Residents.
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L. Loomer, B. Downer and K. S. Thomas.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2018 Dec 13
Improving function is an important outcome of postacute care in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), but cognitive impairment can limit a resident’s ability to improve during a postacute care stay. Our objective was to examine the association between residents’ cognitive status on admission and change in self-care and mobility during a Medicare-covered SNF stay. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of Medicare beneficiaries who had a new SNF stay between January and June 2017. SETTING: SNFs in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Newly admitted residents with Medicare-covered SNF stays between January and June 2017 (n = 246 395). MEASUREMENTS: Residents’ self-care and mobility at SNF admission and discharge were determined using items from Section GG (eating, oral hygiene, toileting hygiene, sit to lying, lying to sitting, sit to stand, chair/bed transfer, and toilet transfer) of the Minimum Data Set. Residents were classified as cognitively intact, mildly impaired, moderately impaired, or severely impaired, according to the Cognitive Function Scale. Multivariable regression models controlling for residents’ demographic and clinical characteristics and SNF fixed effects were used to identify residents whose discharge scores for self-care and mobility were better or the same as expected according to their cognitive status on admission. RESULTS: Residents who were cognitively impaired on admission had lower functional status on admission and were less likely to improve in self-care and mobility compared with residents who were cognitively intact. Approximately 63% of residents who were cognitively intact had discharge scores for self-care and mobility that were better or the same as expected compared with 45% of residents with severe cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive impairment is associated with poorer self-care and mobility function among SNF residents. These findings have important implications for clinicians, who may need additional support when caring for residents with cognitive impairment to make the same improvements in functional status as residents who are cognitively intact.

Becoming at home in residential care for older people: a material culture perspective.
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M. Lovatt.
Sociol Health Illn 2018 Feb;40(2):366-378
Residential homes encourage new residents to bring belongings with them, so that they can personalise their room and ‘feel at home’. Existing literature on material culture in residential homes views objects as symbols and repositories of home and identity, which can facilitate a sense of belonging in residents through their display in residents’ rooms. I suggest that this both misunderstands the processual and fluid nature of home and identity, and conceptualises objects as essentially passive. This article uses ethnographic data and theories of practice and relationality to argue that rather than the meaning of home being inherent in objects, or felt subjectively by residents, meaning is generated through ongoing, everyday interactions between the two. I show that residents became at home by acquiring new things -as well as displaying existing possessions – and also through interacting with mundane objects in everyday social and relational practices such as cleaning and hosting. I conclude that being at home in older people’s residential homes need not be so different from being at home at other stages of the life course and in other settings. This challenges conceptualisations of older people’s homes – and older age itself – as somehow unknowable and unfamiliar.

The IOU Consensus Recommendations for Empirical Therapy of Cystitis in Nursing Home Residents
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J. T. Hanlon, S. Perera, P. J. Drinka, et al.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2018 Dec 24
To establish consensus recommendations for empirical treatment of uncomplicated cystitis with anti-infectives in noncatheterized older nursing home residents to be implemented in the Improving Outcomes of UTI Management in Long-Term Care Project (IOU) funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. DESIGN: Two-round modified Delphi survey. PARTICIPANTS: Expert panel of 19 clinical pharmacists. MEASUREMENTS: Comprehensive literature search and development/review/edit of draft survey by the investigative group (one geriatric clinical pharmacist, two geriatric medicine physicians, and one infectious disease physician). The expert panel members rated their agreement with each of 31 recommendations for drugs of choice, dosing medications at various levels of renal function, drug-drug interactions to avoid, and duration of therapy by sex on a 5-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree). Consensus agreement was defined as a lower 95% confidence limit of 4.0 or higher for the recommendation-specific mean score. RESULTS: The response rate was 95% for the first round, and three recommendations achieved consensus (dosing for nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in those without chronic kidney disease, and drug-drug interaction between trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and warfarin). In the second round, 90% responded and reached consensus on an additional eight recommendations (two for nitrofurantoin or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole as initial drugs of choice, three for dosing ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole at various levels of chronic kidney disease, and three drug-drug interactions to avoid: trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole with phenytoin and ciprofloxacin with theophylline or with tizanidine). CONCLUSION: An expert panel of clinical pharmacists was able to reach consensus on a set of recommendations for the empirical treatment of cystitis with oral anti-infective medications in older nursing home residents. The recommendations were incorporated into a treatment algorithm for uncomplicated cystitis in noncatheterized nursing home residents and used in educational materials for health professionals in an ongoing controlled intervention study.

Improving the approach to future care planning in care homes.
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J. Kinley, L. Denton and J. Levy.
Int J Palliat Nurs 2018 Dec 2;24(12):576-583
There is international and national interest in the availability and provision of quality end-of-life care. In the UK this includes the promotion of advance care planning (ACP). AIMS:: To support care home staff to apply national policy on ACP in practice. METHODS:: A proactive document, the PErsonalised Advisory CarE (PEACE) plan, was created. An audit was undertaken of its implementation in practice in one care home. FINDINGS:: All of the residents with a PEACE plan who died (n=8) did so in their preferred place of care; only 50% of residents (3 out of 6) without a PEACE plan died in their preferred place of care. No family members declined the opportunity to have a PEACE plan conversation. CONCLUSION:: Future care planning, rather than ACP, is required in nursing care homes. Research investigating the outcomes and cost-effectiveness of undertaking these conversations is required to further guide national recommendations.

Do Family Proxies Get It Right? Concordance in Reports of Nursing Home Residents’ Everyday Preferences.
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A. R. Heid, L. R. Bangerter, K. M. Abbott and K. Van Haitsma.
J Appl Gerontol 2017 Jun;36(6):667-691
Limited work has examined how well family proxies understand nursing home residents’ preferences. With 85 dyads of a nursing home resident and relative, we utilize descriptive statistics and multi-level modeling to examine the concordance in reports of importance ratings of 72 everyday preferences for residents. Results reveal significant mean differences at the p < .001 level between proxies and residents on 12 of 72 preferences; yet, perfect agreement in responses is poor and only increases when dichotomizing responses into an important versus not important outcome. Multi-level modeling further indicates that dyads are discrepant on reports of the importance of growth activities for residents, with residents reporting higher levels of importance than proxies. This discrepancy is associated with residents’ hearing impairment and proxies’ perception of resident openness. The findings highlight not only how proxies may be able to inform care for residents in nursing homes but also where further discussions are warranted.

Aggressive behaviour risk assessment tool for long-term care (ABRAT-L): Validation study.
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S. C. Kim, B. Berry and L. Young.
Geriatr Nurs 2018 Dec 10
This prospective cohort study was conducted to validate the usefulness of the Aggressive Behaviour Risk Assessment Tool for Long-Term Care (ABRAT-L) in predicting aggressive events. A total of 615 newly admitted residents at 22 long-term care homes in Canada were included. The risk of aggression was assessed using the six-item ABRAT-L within 24 hours of admission, and incident reports of aggressive events occurring within 30 days of admission were collected. Forty-seven residents out of 615 had one or more aggressive events (7.6%). The receiver operating characteristics analysis of ABRAT-L showed a good discriminant ability at the previously recommended cut-off score of 4, with satisfactory sensitivity and specificity. The usefulness of ABRAT-L in identifying potentially aggressive residents at the time of admission was confirmed. This validation study supports the adoption of a proactive risk assessment tool, ABRAT-L, as a part of routine admission assessments at long-term care homes.

Preventive interventions for pressure ulcers in long-term older people care facilities: A systematic review.
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S. Maki-Turja-Rostedt, M. Stolt, H. Leino-Kilpi and E. Haavisto.
J Clin Nurs 2018 Dec 27
To explore the effectiveness of interventions aimed at pressure ulcer (PU) prevention in long-term older people care facilities (LOPC). BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers cause suffering for patients and constitute a major financial burden. Although most PUs could be prevented, their number has remained high. To avoid unnecessary suffering and costs, PU prevention must be effective. DESIGN: A systematic review. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in six electronic databases PubMed (MEDLINE), CINAHL, Web of Science Core Collection, Scopus, Cochrane Wounds Group Specialized Register and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The inclusion criteria were 1) study published in 2005 – 2017, 2) intervention with pre- and post-tests, focusing on PU prevention, 3) implemented in LOPC-facilities, 4) persons >65 years as study population, and 5) outcomes reported as PU incidence or prevalence or healing time. The PRISMA guidelines were followed. The methodological quality of the studies was evaluated using the Joanna Briggs Institute’s MAStARI critical appraisal checklist. The data were analyzed with narrative synthesis. RESULTS: The review included eighteen studies. The study designs were RCTs (n=10), comparable cohort or case-control studies (n=3), and descriptive or case series (n=5). PU incidence in LOPC-facilities decreased by using computerized decision-making support systems, PU prevention programs, repositioning, or advanced cushions. PU prevalence decreased with PU prevention programs, by using advanced mattresses and overlays, or by adding protein and energy supplements to diet. CONCLUSIONS: There are many ways to prevent PUs in LOPC- facilities; no single effective way can be identified. One third of the preventive interventions in LOPC- facilities were effective. However, systematic evidence from randomized trials on preventive interventions of PUs in LOPC- settings is still lacking. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The findings can be used in practice for selecting and in research for developing effective preventive interventions of PUs in LOPC-facilities.

Attitudes and needs of residents in long-term care facilities regarding physical activity – a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative studies.
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C. Maurer, S. Draganescu, H. Mayer and H. Gattinger.
J Clin Nurs 2018 Dec 27
To identify the attitudes and needs of nursing home residents regarding physical activity. BACKGROUND: Nursing home residents often have mobility problems and are at high risk for further mobility impairment. From their point of view, being physically active is an important part of their perceived quality of life. However, no study has synthesized existing qualitative literature on residents’ attitudes and needs regarding physical activity. DESIGN: Synthesis of qualitative studies. METHODS: A systematic review and synthesis of qualitative studies was performed, using ENTREQ statement for reporting. Three databases (Pubmed, CINAHL, and PsychInfo) were searched, supplemented by a hand search. Qualitative studies published in English or German were included if they addressed the attitudes and needs of residents concerning the promotion of physical activities. Finally, 12 studies were critically reviewed, and a thematic synthesis was conducted. RESULTS: Four analytical themes relating to residents’ attitudes were identified: ‘promoting physical activity increases the quality of life’, ‘accepting the conditions’, ‘personal initiative is significant’, and ‘promoting physical activity is not helpful’. Relating to residents’ needs, the analyses yielded five themes: ‘living autonomously’, ‘continuing life as before’, ‘competent care’, ‘individually adapted program and support’, and ‘barrier-free accessibility’. CONCLUSION: Nursing home residents have different attitudes and needs regarding being physically active. It is important to perceive these attitudes and needs of each resident and to offer an individual adapted program and support. Further research should consider motivational strategies for residents who are not very much familiar with being physically active and offer exercise programs with individual parts to address residents’ preferences. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: To motivate and activate residents, institutions should be aware of residents’ individual attitudes and needs regarding physical activity. Further development of interventions concerning mobility promotion activities and their implementation in long-term care settings should consider the outlined factors.

Validation of a one year fracture prediction tool for absolute hip fracture risk in long term care residents.
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A. M. Negm, G. Ioannidis, M. Jantzi, et al.
BMC Geriatr 2018 Dec 27;18(1):320-018-1010-1
Frail older adults living in long term care (LTC) homes have a high fracture risk, which can result in reduced quality of life, pain and death. The Fracture Risk Scale (FRS) was designed for fracture risk assessment in LTC, to optimize targeting of services in those at highest risk. This study aims to examine the construct validity and discriminative properties of the FRS in three Canadian provinces at 1-year follow up. METHODS: LTC residents were included if they were: 1) Adults admitted to LTC homes in Ontario (ON), British Columbia (BC) and Manitoba (MB) Canada; and 2) Received a Resident Assessment Instrument Minimum Data Set Version 2.0. After admission to LTC, one-year hip fracture risk was evaluated for all the included residents using the FRS (an eight-level risk scale, level 8 represents the highest fracture risk). Multiple logistic regressions were used to determine the differences in incident hip or all clinical fractures across the provinces and FRS risk levels. We examined the differences in incident hip or all clinical fracture for each FRS level across the three provinces (adjusted for age, BMI, gender, fallers and previous fractures). We used the C-statistic to assess the discriminative properties of the FRS for each province. RESULTS: Descriptive statistics on the LTC populations in ON (n = 29,848), BC (n = 3129), and MB (n = 2293) are: mean (SD) age 82 (10), 83 (10), and 84 (9), gender (female %) 66, 64, and 70% respectively. The incident hip fractures and all clinical fractures for FRS risk level were similar among the three provinces and ranged from 0.5 to 19.2% and 1 to 19.2% respectively. The overall discriminative properties of the FRS were similar between ON (C-statistic = 0.673), BC (C-statistic = 0.644) and MB (C-statistic = 0.649) samples. CONCLUSION: FRS is a valid tool for identifying LTC residents at different risk levels for hip or all clinical fractures in three provinces. Having a fracture risk assessment tool that is tailored to the LTC context and embedded within the routine clinical assessment may have significant implications for policy, service delivery and care planning, and may improve care for LTC residents across Canada.

Predicting Future Health Transitions Among Newly Admitted Nursing Home Residents With Heart Failure.
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G. A. Heckman, J. P. Hirdes, P. C. Hebert, et al.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2018 Dec 17
To understand how a heart failure diagnosis and admission health instability predict health transitions and outcomes among newly admitted nursing home residents. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of linked administrative data, including the Continuing Care Report System MDS 2.0 for nursing homes, the Discharge Abstract Database for hospitalized patients, and National Ambulatory Care Reporting System to track emergency department visits. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Older adults, aged 65 years and above, admitted to nursing homes in Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia, Canada, from 2010 to 2016. MEASURES: Mortality and hospitalization were plotted over 1 year. Multistate Markov models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for transitions to different states of health in stability, hospitalization, and death, stratified by heart failure diagnosis and by interRAI Changes in Health and End-stage disease Signs and Symptoms (CHESS) score, at 90 days following admission to a nursing home. RESULTS: The final sample included 143,067 residents. Adverse events were most common in the first 90 days. A diagnosis of heart failure predicted worsening health instability, hospitalizations, and mortality. The effect of heart failure on hospitalizations and death was strongest for low baseline health instability (CHESS = 0; OR 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.58-1.68, and OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.57-1.86, respectively), versus moderate instability (CHESS = 1-2; OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.32-1.39, and OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.41-1.55), versus high instability (CHESS = 3; OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.03-1.23, and OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.11-1.32). The magnitude of the impact of a heart failure diagnosis was greatest for lower baseline health instability. Residents with the highest degree of health instability were also most likely to die in hospital. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: A diagnosis of heart failure and health instability provide complementary information to predict transfers, deaths, and adverse outcomes. Clearly identifying these at-risk patients may be useful in targeting interventions in nursing homes.

Psychosocial interventions for pain management in older adults with dementia: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.
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L. Pu, W. Moyle, C. Jones and M. Todorovic.
J Adv Nurs 2018 Dec 10
To assess the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions on pain in older adults living with dementia. DESIGN: A systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES: Scopus, ProQuest, EBSCO (CINAHL and MEDLINE), PubMed, OVID (PsycINFO), Web of Science and Cochrane Library were searched from their inception up to 2 May 2018. REVIEW METHODS: Risk of bias assessment and meta-analysis were conducted according to the Cochrane methods using RevMan 5.3 and findings were generated using the GRADE profiler software. RESULTS: Eight studies met the inclusion criteria, but the quality of the current evidence was low to moderate. Results showed that psychosocial interventions significantly reduced the observational pain score, as well as pain medication. Subgroup analyses indicated that sensory stimulation and individual interventions showed a reduction in observational pain in people with dementia. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that psychosocial interventions may be potentially effective alternatives for pain management in people with dementia. However, caution is needed in interpreting these results due to limited studies, risk of bias and heterogeneity across studies. Further, well-designed research is needed on psychosocial interventions to strengthen quality of pain management in people with dementia. IMPACT: This review synthesized current evidence using psychosocial interventions to manage pain in people with dementia. Findings suggest that psychosocial interventions may lead to a potential reduction of pain and pain medication in people with dementia. Healthcare providers may wish to integrate psychosocial interventions as part of the multimodal approach to the management of pain in people living with dementia.

Empowering Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease To Avoid Unwanted Medical Care: A Look At The Dementia Care Triad.
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W. Shelton, E. Tenenbaum, K. Costello and D. Hoffman.
Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 2018 Dec 13:1533317518817614
Patients with Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia with acute medical problems, who have lost capacity and are without advance directives, are at risk of being over treated inhospitals. To deal with this growing demographic and ethical crisis, patients with dementia need to plan for their future medical care while they have capacity to do so. This article will examine the role of each member of the dementia care triad and how to empower the patient to participate in planning future medical care. A case will be made that physicians have the same professional disclosure obligations to dementia patients as they do to all other capable patients with terminal illnesses. Because there is little consensus about what facts should be included in a diagnostic disclosure, this article will offer a proposal to empower newly diagnosed patients with dementia with capacity to plan for their future medical care.

Pro Re Nata Drug Use in Nursing Home Residents: A Systematic Review.
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M. Dorks, K. Allers and F. Hoffmann.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2018 Dec 11
In addition to routinely administered long-term medication, complex drug regimens of nursing home residents often include as needed or pro re nata (PRN) medication. However, there has been no systematic evaluation of the frequency and concomitants of PRN medication in nursing homes. The main objective of this systematic review was to provide a current assessment of PRN drug use in nursing homes. DESIGN: A systematic literature search was performed. Data were identified from 4 electronic bibliographic databases: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Scopus. Studies were included if they reported quantitative data on PRN drug use in nursing home residents. RESULTS: Our search strategy resulted in 484 hits, of which 27 articles satisfied the inclusion criteria. The mean number of PRN drugs ranged between 0.4 and 4.9 per resident with a median of 2.5. The proportion of residents prescribed at least 1 PRN drug was between 48.4% and 97.4% (median = 74.9). Administration of prescribed PRN medication was rather low as the proportion of residents with administered PRN drugs ranged from 28% to 55%. Frequently prescribed PRN drugs were analgesics, laxatives, and sedatives. Advanced age, dementia, a higher number of regularly scheduled medications, and length of stay in the nursing home were associated with higher use of PRN drugs. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Although not regularly administered, PRN drug use in nursing home residents should be taken into account as part of complex drug regimens. In that sense, there seems to be an inadequate number of studies reporting on it. When screening tools like the Beers Criteria are adapted, PRN drugs should be included.

Burden of Oral Symptoms and Its Associations With Nutrition, Well-Being, and Survival Among Nursing Home Residents.
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E. K. Lindroos, R. K. T. Saarela, M. H. Suominen, et al.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2018 Dec 9
To explore how oral problems, chewing problems, dry mouth, and swallowing difficulties cluster and whether their burden is associated with nutritional status, eating habits, gastrointestinal symptoms, psychological well-being, and mortality among institutionalized residents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with 1-year mortality. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 3123 residents living in assisted facilities and nursing homes in Helsinki, Finland. MEASURES: Trained nurses assessed residents in all nursing homes and assisted living facilities in Helsinki in 2011. A personal interview, the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), oral symptoms, questions about eating habits, and psychological well-being were used to assess each resident. We divided the subjects first according to the number of oral symptoms into 4 groups: no oral symptoms (G0), 1 oral symptom (G1), 2 oral symptoms (G2), and all 3 symptoms (G3); and second according to the symptoms: dry mouth, chewing problems, and swallowing difficulties. The diagnoses and medications were retrieved from medical records, and mortality data were obtained from central registers. RESULTS: In all, 26% of the subjects had 1 oral problem (G1), 11% had 2 oral problems (G2), and 4% had all 3 oral problems (G3), whereas 60% (n = 1870) had no oral symptoms. Thus, the oral symptoms moderately overlapped. The burden of oral symptoms was linearly associated with malnutrition, higher numbers of comorbidities, dependency in physical functioning, gastrointestinal symptoms, and eating less and more often alone. The higher the burden of oral symptoms, the lower the self-rated health and psychological well-being. Mortality increased along with the higher oral symptoms burden. Among residents having 1 or more symptoms, 26% had chewing problems, 18% swallowing difficulties, and 15% dry mouth. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: The burden of oral health problems was associated in a stepwise fashion with poor health and psychological well-being, malnutrition, and mortality. Clinicians should routinely assess older institutionalized residents’ oral health status to improve residents’ well-being.

Health Outcomes of Deprescribing Interventions Among Older Residents in Nursing Homes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
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C. H. Kua, V. S. L. Mak and S. W. Huey Lee.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2018 Dec 20
Deprescribing is effective in addressing concerns relating to polypharmacy in residents of nursing homes. However, the clinical outcomes of deprescribing interventions among residents in nursing homes are not well understood. We evaluated the impact of deprescribing interventions by health care professionals on clinical outcomes among the older residents in nursing homes. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. CINAHL, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched from inception until September 2017; manual searches of reference lists of systematic reviews identified in the electronic search; and online trial registries for unpublished, ongoing, or planned trials. (PROSPERO CRD42016050028). SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomized controlled trials in a nursing home setting that included participants of at least 60 years of age. MEASURES: Falls, all-cause mortality, hospitalization, and potentially inappropriate medication were assessed in the meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 41 randomized clinical studies (18,408 residents) that examined deprescribing (defined as either medication discontinuation, substitution, or reduction) in nursing were identified. Deprescribing interventions significantly reduced the number of residents with potentially inappropriate medications by 59% (odds ratio [OR] 0.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.19-0.89). In subgroup analysis, medication review-directed deprescribing interventions reduced all-cause mortality by 26% (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.65-0.84), as well as the number of fallers by 24% (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.62-0.93). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to other deprescribing interventions, medication review-directed deprescribing had significant benefits on older residents in nursing homes. Further research is required to elicit other clinical benefits of medication review-directed deprescribing practice.


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brainXchange Webinar Psychosocial interventions for people with dementia: past, present and future

Monday 14 January 13:30-14:30 MT
Presenter: Dr. Henry Brodaty
This presentation will broadly cover the spectrum of psychosocial research in dementia – past, present and future. Dr. Brodaty will summarise the evidence and provide examples of success as well discuss therapies aimed at the person with dementia, the effects of dementia on and interventions for family carers as well as interventions for behaviours and psychological symptoms associated with dementia. Overall this webinar aims to demonstrate that psychosocial research in dementia has increased in breadth, innovation, quantity, quality and rigour.

KT Canada Building research partnerships to support child well-being in Nova Scotia

Thursday 10 January 10:00-11:00 MT
Presenter: Dr. Jessie-Lee McIsaac
Learning objectives:
1. Define research partnerships through integrated knowledge translation and engaged scholarship approaches
2. Describe contextual factors that influence research partnerships
3. Identify ways to support research partnerships

NCCMT Spotlight on Methods and Tools: Self-evaluation Tool for Action in Partnership

Wednesday 27 February 11:00 MT
Presenters: Dr. Angèle Bilodeau and Gillian Kranias

Self-evaluation Tool for Action in PartnershipThis tool provides members of a partnership with the opportunity to express perceptions and opinions on their partnership experiences. The tool’s 18 items are related to the following six requirements for effective partnership work:
-the range of perspectives relevant to the issue
-early stakeholder involvement in strategic decisions
-engagement of stakeholders in negotiating and influencing decisions
-commitment of strategic and pivotal stakeholders to the project
-partnership arrangements that favour equalization of power among the stakeholders
-partnership arrangements that help build collective actionHow can the Self-evaluation Tool for Action in Partnership help you?
Public health professionals collaborate with others and participate in partnerships throughout their careers. This tool allows members of partnerships to evaluate themselves and learn about the requirements for effective partnership work. This tool is an English translation/adaptation of the Outil diagnostique de l’action en partenariat, created in French, in Québec, in 2008. It is now available in both official languages and can facilitate bilingual evaluation within or across partnerships. The target audience for the Self-evaluation Tool for Action in Partnership also includes any members of a partnership who have decided to participate in self-evaluation.

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IHI Blueprint for Complex Care: Advancing the Field of Care for Individuals with Complex Health and Social Needs.

Across the US, pioneering health care organizations are testing promising new models of care for individuals with complex medical, behavioral, and social needs. Many of these activities occur in isolation, however, with little opportunity for innovators to learn from each other and advance best practices collectively. The Blueprint for Complex Care provides a strategic plan to support these innovations and accelerate opportunities to improve care for individuals with complex health and social needs. Drawing from experts and frontline stakeholders across the US, the Blueprint assesses the current state of the complex care field and presents actionable recommendations to help the field reach its full potential for improving care delivery for the nation’s most vulnerable patients.

NoMAD Questionnaire

The NoMAD instrument is designed to help researchers and practitioners get a better understanding of how to implement new technologies and complex interventions in healthcare. It is a measure that can be applied to assess, monitor, or measure factors likely to affect normalisation from the perspective of implementation participants. The instrument is used in the context of the ImpleMentAll study and is therefore translated into seven different languages used all over Europe and Australia.

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We need person centred research for person centred care

StatsCan Nursing and residential care facilities, 2016

If You Can’t Have Fewer Meetings, Have Better Ones

When Needs Arise, These Older Women Have One Another’s Backs

Leadership is Key, but not Always Enough

7 teaching tips to consider for your classroom

Dementia May Never Improve, but Many Patients Still Can Learn

Assisted Living’s Breakneck Growth Leaves Safety Of Dementia Patients Behind (US)

Long-term and dementia care urgently needed in mother tongue for multilingual patients, experts say

Scrubbed: Ontario emergency room chief faces questions about failing to hire any female doctors in 16 years

This Type of Illiteracy Could Hurt You

Universities should use federal budget boost to help companies keep innovating, not to do it themselves, top science policy expert says

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Tenure-track Faculty Position in the School of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences University of Ottawa

DEADLINE: 28 February
The Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Ottawa invites applications for one tenure-track faculty position in the School of Nursing whose research program is related to issues facing areas of seniors’ health including but not limited to specific conditions, ethical issues, family care giving, healthy aging, etc.

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