February 5, 2019

Calls for Abstracts
Grants & Awards


New TREC article
Understanding professional advice networks in long-term care: an outside-inside view of best practice pathways for diffusion

Lisa A. Cranley, Janice M. Keefe, Deanne Taylor, et al.
Implementation Science 2019 01/30;14(1):10
Interpersonal relationships among professionals drive both the adoption and rejection of consequential innovations. Through relationships, decision-makers learn which colleagues are choosing to adopt innovations, and why. The purpose of our study was to understand how and why long-term care (LTC) leaders in a pan-Canadian interpersonal network provide and seek advice about care improvement innovations, for the eventual dissemination and implementation of these innovations.

New article by Stephanie Chamberlain and Dr. Carole Estabrooks
Characteristics and unmet care needs of unbefriended residents in long-term care: a qualitative interview study.
Non UofA Access

S. A. Chamberlain, W. Duggleby, P. Teaster and C. Estabrooks.
Aging Ment Health 2019 Jan 24:1-9
This study explored the impact of being ‘unbefriended’ for residents in Canadian long-term care (LTC) homes. Residents are ‘unbefriended’ if they lack decision-making capacity and family or friends to act as their legal representative. Research suggests that unbefriended individuals may have unmet needs and experience poor quality of care due to their limited social support. Our specific objectives were to identify resident characteristics, their unmet care needs, and implications for quality of care and quality of life. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 39 LTC staff and 3 public guardians. Interviews took place between March 2017 and September 2017. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. We analyzed the interviews using content analysis. RESULTS: We found two groups of unbefriended LTC residents: (1) individuals with no living conjugate partner or children and (2) individuals with histories of substance use, homelessness, and estrangement from family. Unbefriended residents have no one to help meet needs for social interaction and engagement or to assist in purchasing needed personal items and uninsured services. LTC staff report significant care issues with unbefriended residents at end of life, including more aggressive behaviors and inappropriate care practices. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate alarming issues in quality of life and quality of care for unbefriended residents. Unbefriended residents had limited social support and difficulty accessing even basic personal items. We discuss implications for policy and practice.

New Policy Brief from World Dementia Council
Renewing priority for dementia: Where do we stand?
Defeating dementia: the road to 2025

World Dementia Council, 2019
Across the OECD, 19 million men and women are living with dementia, with far too many experiencing a poor quality of life. Worldwide, someone develops dementia every three seconds. With no clinical breakthroughs, the number of people with dementia is set to grow and OECD countries are under increasing pressure to address the consequences of dementia. As global leaders return to London on 5 December 2018 to discuss dementia, five years after the World Dementia Council was established following the December 2013 G8 Summit on Dementia, this new OECD Policy Brief looks at what progress countries have made over the past five years.

New article by Dr. Janet Squires
Hospital organizational context and delivery of evidence-based stroke care: a cross-sectional study.
Non UofA Access

N. E. Andrew, S. Middleton, R. Grimley, et al.
Implement Sci 2019 Jan 18;14(1):6-018-0849-z
Organizational context is one factor influencing the translation of evidence into practice, but data pertaining to patients with acute stroke are limited. We aimed to determine the associations of organizational context in relation to four important evidence-based stroke care processes. METHODS: This was a mixed methods cross-sectional study. Among 19 hospitals in Queensland, Australia, a survey was conducted of the perceptions of stroke clinicians about their work using the Alberta Context Tool (ACT), a validated measure covering 10 concepts of organizational context, and with additional stroke-specific contextual questions. These data were linked to the Australian Stroke Clinical Registry (AuSCR) to determine the relationship with receipt of evidence-based acute stroke care (acute stroke unit admission, use of thrombolysis for those with acute ischemic stroke, receipt of a written care plan on discharge, and prescription of antihypertensive medications on discharge) using quantile regression. Exploratory cluster analysis was used to categorize hospitals into high and low context groups based on all of the 10 ACT concepts. Differences in adherence to care processes between the two groups were examined. RESULTS: A total of 215 clinicians completed the survey (50% nurses, 37% allied health staff, 10% medical practitioners), with 81% being in their current role for at least 1 year. There was good reliability (infinity 0.83) within the cohort to allow pooling of professional groups. Greater ACT scores, especially for social capital (mu 9.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.86 to 13.14) and culture (mu 7.33, 95% CI 2.05 to 12.62), were associated with more patients receiving stroke unit care. There was no correlation between ACT concepts and other care processes. Working within higher compared to lower context environments was associated with greater proportions of patients receiving stroke unit care (88.5% vs. 69.0%) and being prescribed antihypertensive medication at discharge (62.5% vs. 52.0%). Staff from higher context hospitals were more likely to value medical and/or nursing leadership and stroke care protocols. CONCLUSIONS: Overall organizational context, and in particular aspects of culture and social capital, are associated with the delivery of some components of evidence-based stroke care, offering insights into potential pathways for improving the implementation of proven therapies.

New article by Dr. Shannon Scott
A decision tool to help researchers make decisions about including systematic reviews in overviews of reviews of healthcare interventions.
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M. Pollock, R. M. Fernandes, A. S. Newton, S. D. Scott and L. Hartling.
Syst Rev 2019 Jan 22;8(1):29-018-0768-8
Overviews of reviews of healthcare interventions (overviews) integrate information from multiple systematic reviews (SRs) to provide a single synthesis of relevant evidence for decision-making. Overviews may identify multiple SRs that examine the same intervention for the same condition and include some, but not all, of the same primary studies. Different researchers use different approaches to manage these “overlapping SRs,” but each approach has advantages and disadvantages. This study aimed to develop an evidence-based decision tool to help researchers make informed inclusion decisions when conducting overviews of healthcare interventions. METHODS: We used a two-stage process to develop the decision tool. First, we conducted a multiple case study to obtain empirical evidence upon which the tool is based. We systematically conducted seven overviews five times each, making five different decisions about which SRs to include in the overviews, for a total of 35 overviews; we then examined the impact of the five inclusion decisions on the overviews’ comprehensiveness and challenges, within and across the seven overview cases. Second, we used a structured, iterative process to transform the evidence obtained from the multiple case study into an empirically based decision tool with accompanying descriptive text. RESULTS: The resulting decision tool contains four questions: (1) Do Cochrane SRs likely examine all relevant intervention comparisons and available data? (2) Do the Cochrane SRs overlap? (3) Do the non-Cochrane SRs overlap? (4) Are researchers prepared and able to avoid double-counting outcome data from overlapping SRs, by ensuring that each primary study’s outcome data are extracted from overlapping SRs only once? Guidance is provided to help researchers answer each question, and empirical evidence is provided regarding the advantages, disadvantages, and potential trade-offs of the different inclusion decisions. CONCLUSIONS: This evidence-based decision tool is designed to provide researchers with the knowledge and means to make informed inclusion decisions in overviews. The tool can provide practical guidance and support for overview authors by helping them consider questions that could affect the comprehensiveness and complexity of their overviews. We hope this tool will be a useful resource for researchers conducting overviews, and we welcome discussion, testing, and refinement of the proposed tool.

Calls for Abstracts

2019 International Health Congress

26-28 June Oxford UK
DEADLINE 5 February
The 2019 global health conference is hosted at the University of Oxford. The aim of the event, building on the past four world health congresses, is to highlight the link between research and practice by gathering together a wide range of papers on health and health services research close to practice and/or policy. These will come from the full range of allied disciplines including primary care, acute medicine, public health, psychiatry, paediatrics, and ageing as well as economics, psychology, statistics, social science and ethics, clinical trial design, health informatics and implementation research.

GSA 2019 Annual Scientific Meeting

13-17 November Austin, TX
We are seeking dynamic and knowledgeable presenters for the GSA 2019 Annual Scientific Meeting who are addressing the field’s most pressing challenges and are generating actionable insights in the behavioral and social sciences, biological sciences, health sciences, and social research, policy, and practice. Research presented at the conference will be published in GSA’s multidisciplinary journal, Innovation in Aging. Learn more about the abstract submission process—including access to a webinar—and start preparing your abstract for submission today.

Issue 3 of the Evidence-Informed Decision Making (EIDM) Casebook

The National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools (NCCMT) is pleased to announce that we are assembling a collection of stories for the third issue of the EIDM Casebook. Following the success of the first two issues of the EIDM Casebook, we invite individuals and organizations from across Canada and the world to consider submitting abstracts describing efforts to achieve EIDM in public health practice, programs and policy. Be a part of this growing collection of selected success stories that illustrate what EIDM looks like in practice.


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Grants & Awards

University of Alberta Libraries & FGSR Images of Research Competition

DEADLINE 8 February
Restricted to Graduate Students at University of Alberta
The Images of Research (IOR) competition is an opportunity for current University of Alberta graduate students from all disciplines to capture, share, and present the essence of their research in one image. This competition, and its accompanying exhibition, aim to showcase and preserve graduate student research in print and digital form, foster student engagement, and support graduate students’ academic endeavours.

Conference Travel Support – KT Canada Scientific Meeting 2019

Restricted to Alberta-based a graduate students and postdoctoral fellows
The Alberta SPOR SUPPORT Unit Knowledge Translation Platform is offering financial support for graduate students / postdoctoral fellows to attend the 2019 KT Canada Scientific Meeting for the purpose of expanding their understanding of knowledge translation, knowledge synthesis, or implementation science.
Value: The Conference Travel Support amount is variable, up to a maximum of $1,200 per successful applicant. Up to two people will be given the Conference Travel Support. This is to help cover the cost of transportation, registration, food, and/or accommodations associated with travel to the KT Canada Scientific Meeting.
Eligibility: Applicants must be Alberta-based a graduate student / postdoctoral fellow involved in patient-oriented research and KT.


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Health Care Administration and Organization
Health Care Innovation and Quality Assurance
Organizational Culture and Change
Research Practice and Methodology


Knowledge transfer and exchange in health and safety: a rapid review
Non UofA Access

Van Eerd, Dwayne
Policy and Practice in Health and Safety 2019 01/10:1-24
Workplace injury and illness can be burdensome for workers and workplaces regardless of jurisdiction. The notion of research to practice is important in health and safety research. The objective of this article is to describe and synthesize the literature describing knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) approaches relevant to workplaces. A rapid review of the literature was done. Search strategies were run in eight electronic databases. Documents describing a KTE approach for workplaces were reviewed. Data related to key aspects of the KTE approach as well as conceptual guidance were extracted and synthesized. Literature searches revealed 34 documents that described 23 different KTE approaches designed to reach workplace audiences. Many KTE approaches were guided by conceptual frameworks. Common elements related to audience, activities and impact were found to guide future KTE approaches. Including workplace parties as an audience in a multi-faceted approach are important principles of KTE for health and safety.

Evaluation of a targeted, theory-informed implementation intervention designed to increase uptake of emergency management recommendations regarding adult patients with mild traumatic brain injury: results of the NET cluster randomised trial.
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M. Bosch, J. E. McKenzie, J. L. Ponsford, et al.
Implement Sci 2019 Jan 17;14(1):4-018-0841-7
Evidence-based guidelines for management of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in the emergency department (ED) are now widely available; however, clinical practice remains inconsistent with these guidelines. A targeted, theory-informed implementation intervention (Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) intervention) was designed to increase the uptake of three clinical practice recommendations regarding the management of patients who present to Australian EDs with mild head injuries. The intervention involved local stakeholder meetings, identification and training of nursing and medical local opinion leaders, train-the-trainer workshops and standardised education materials and interactive workshops delivered by the opinion leaders to others within their EDs during a 3 month period. This paper reports on the effects of this intervention. METHODS: EDs (clusters) were allocated to receive either access to a clinical practice guideline (control) or the implementation intervention, using minimisation, a method that allocates clusters to groups using an algorithm to minimise differences in predefined factors between the groups. We measured clinical practice outcomes at the patient level using chart audit. The primary outcome was appropriate screening for post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) using a validated tool until a perfect score was achieved (indicating absence of acute cognitive impairment) before the patient was discharged home. Secondary outcomes included appropriate CT scanning and the provision of written patient information upon discharge. Patient health outcomes (anxiety, primary outcome: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were also assessed using follow-up telephone interviews. Outcomes were assessed by independent auditors and interviewers, blinded to group allocation. RESULTS: Fourteen EDs were allocated to the intervention and 17 to the control condition; 1943 patients were included in the chart audit. At 2 months follow-up, patients attending intervention EDs (n = 893) compared with control EDs (n = 1050) were more likely to have been appropriately assessed for PTA (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 20.1, 95%CI 6.8 to 59.3; adjusted absolute risk difference (ARD) 14%, 95%CI 8 to 19). The odds of compliance with recommendations for CT scanning and provision of written patient discharge information were small (OR 1.2, 95%CI 0.8 to 1.6; ARD 3.2, 95%CI – 3.7 to 10 and OR 1.2, 95%CI 0.8 to 1.8; ARD 3.1, 95%CI – 3.0 to 9.3 respectively). A total of 343 patients at ten interventions and 14 control sites participated in follow-up interviews at 4.3 to 10.7 months post-ED presentation. The intervention had a small effect on anxiety levels (adjusted mean difference – 0.52, 95%CI – 1.34 to 0.30; scale 0-21, with higher scores indicating greater anxiety). CONCLUSIONS: Our intervention was effective in improving the uptake of the PTA recommendation; however, it did not appreciably increase the uptake of the other two practice recommendations. Improved screening for PTA may be clinically important as it leads to appropriate periods of observation prior to safe discharge. The estimated intervention effect on anxiety was of limited clinical significance. We were not able to compare characteristics of EDs who declined trial participation with those of participating sites, which may limit the generalizability of the results. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12612001286831), date registered 12 December 2012.

De-implementation of tradition-based practices in critical care: A qualitative study.
Non UofA Access

A. M. Bourgault and M. J. Upvall.
Int J Nurs Pract 2019 Jan 17:e12723
To explore the process of tradition-based practice (TBP) de-implementation by critical care nurses. BACKGROUND: Ritualistic and routine practices have been described as sacred cows or TBPs. Many clinical practices have insufficient or no evidence and may lead to poor patient outcomes. De-implementation (termination) of potentially harmful, ineffective, or non cost-effective TBP is necessary to facilitate evidence-based practice (EBP) in the clinical setting. DESIGN: Descriptive qualitative inquiry guided this study. METHODS: Twenty-two critical care nurses from an acute care hospital in central Florida participated. Individual and focus group interviews were performed March to July 2016 and analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Three themes were identified: (a) uncertainty, (b) desire to know, and (c) preparing for practice change. Nurses were uncertain about the scientific underpinnings of everyday clinical practices and had difficulty differentiating TBP from EBP. De-implementation processes and strategies appeared to replicate implementation processes. CONCLUSION: More research is needed to evaluate de-implementation processes and strategies used for de-implementation. An emphasis should be placed on ensuring that nurses are knowledgeable about fundamental EBP skills to encourage assessment of clinical practices for supporting research evidence. Awareness and understanding of TBPs will facilitate a more comprehensive approach towards achieving the gold standard of EBP.


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Health Care Administration and Organization

Perceived job quality, work-life interference and intention to stay: Evidence from the aged care workforce in Australia
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Zhiming Cheng, Ingrid Nielsen and Henry Cutler.
Int J of Manpower 2019 01/09; 2019/01
The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between aged care employees? perceived job quality and intention to stay in current aged care facilities, mediated by work-life interference. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses the nationally representative employee?employer matched data from the 2012 National Aged Care Workforce Census and Survey in Australia. It applies the theoretical lens of the Job Characteristics Model and a mediation analytical model that controls for a rich set of employee, employer and regional characteristics. Findings This paper finds that higher perceived job quality positively correlates with greater intention to stay and that work-life interference mediates the relationship between perceived job quality and intention to stay. Research limitations/implications This paper cannot make inference about causal relationship. Future studies on the aged care workforce should collect longitudinal data so that time-invariant unobservables can be eliminated in econometric modelling. Practical implications Efforts by the aged care sector to design quality jobs are likely to have significant positive correlation with the intention to stay, not only because employees are less likely to leave higher quality jobs per se, but also because higher quality jobs interfere less in the family lives of aged care workers, which itself is associated with greater intention to stay. Originality/value The results add to a small literature that has investigated how work-family variables can mediate between interventions that organisations put in place to improve work-life balance, and employee outcomes.; Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between aged care employees? perceived job quality and intention to stay in current aged care facilities, mediated by work-life interference. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses the nationally representative employee?employer matched data from the 2012 National Aged Care Workforce Census and Survey in Australia. It applies the theoretical lens of the Job Characteristics Model and a mediation analytical model that controls for a rich set of employee, employer and regional characteristics. Findings This paper finds that higher perceived job quality positively correlates with greater intention to stay and that work-life interference mediates the relationship between perceived job quality and intention to stay. Research limitations/implications This paper cannot make inference about causal relationship. Future studies on the aged care workforce should collect longitudinal data so that time-invariant unobservables can be eliminated in econometric modelling. Practical implications Efforts by the aged care sector to design quality jobs are likely to have significant positive correlation with the intention to stay, not only because employees are less likely to leave higher quality jobs per se, but also because higher quality jobs interfere less in the family lives of aged care workers, which itself is associated with greater intention to stay. Originality/value The results add to a small literature that has investigated how work-family variables can mediate between interventions that organisations put in place to improve work-life balance, and employee outcomes.

The role of work intensification in intention to stay: A study of personal support workers in home and community care in Ontario, Canada
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Firat K. Sayin, Margaret Denton, Catherine Brookman, Sharon Davies, James Chowhan and Isik U. Zeytinoglu.
Economic and Industrial Democracy 2019 01/07; 2019/01:0143831X18818325
This study examines the role of work intensification in personal support workers? (PSWs) intention to stay, while exploring the mediating relationships of stress and extrinsic and intrinsic job satisfaction. A 2015 survey of 938 PSWs is analysed using structural equation modelling. It is found that work intensification is negatively associated with intention to stay, and this relationship is mediated through stress and intrinsic job satisfaction. Extrinsic job satisfaction does not play a mediating role. Findings explain the mechanism between work intensification and intention to stay, and demonstrate work intensification as a challenge in retaining PSWs in home and community care work.

Mind the gap: is the Canadian long-term care workforce ready for a palliative care mandate?
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Paulette V. Hunter, Lynn McCleary, Noori Akhtar-Danesh, et al.
Ageing and Society :1-21
The average expected lifespan in Canadian long-term care (LTC) homes is now less than two years post-admission, making LTC a palliative care setting. As little is known about the readiness of LTC staff in Canada to embrace a palliative care mandate, the main objective of this study was to assess qualities relevant to palliative care, including personal emotional wellbeing, palliative care self-efficacy and person-centred practices (e.g. knowing the person, comfort care). A convenience sample of 228 professional and non-professional staff (e.g. nurses and nursing assistants) across four Canadian LTC homes participated in a survey. Burnout, secondary traumatic stress and poor job satisfaction were well below accepted thresholds, e.g. burnout: mean = 20.49 (standard deviation (SD) = 5.39) for professionals; mean = 22.09 (SD = 4.98) for non-professionals; cut score = 42. Furthermore, only 0–1 per cent of each group showed a score above cut-off for any of these variables. Reported self-efficacy was moderate, e.g. efficacy in delivery: mean = 18.63 (SD = 6.29) for professionals; mean = 15.33 (SD = 7.52) for non-professionals; maximum = 32. The same was true of self-reported person-centred care, e.g. knowing the person; mean = 22.05 (SD = 6.55) for professionals; mean = 22.91 (SD = 6.16) for non-professionals; maximum = 35. t-Tests showed that non-professional staff reported relatively higher levels of burnout, while professional staff reported greater job satisfaction and self-efficacy (p 0.05). Overall, these results suggest that the emotional wellbeing of the Canadian LTC workforce is unlikely to impede effective palliative care. However, palliative care self-efficacy and person-centred care can be further cultivated in this context.

Person-Directed Care Planning in Nursing Homes: Resident, Family, and Staff Perspectives.
Non UofA Access

K. Scales, M. Lepore, R. A. Anderson, et al.
J Appl Gerontol 2017 Sep 1:733464817732519
Empowering individuals to direct their own care is central to person-centered care and health care policy. However, there is limited knowledge of how “person-directed care planning” (PDCP) can be achieved in particular settings. This study identifies key structures and processes for operationalizing and implementing PDCP in nursing homes. Using participatory inquiry, we convened “stakeholder engagement sessions” with residents, families, nursing staff, and managers/administrators in two North Carolina nursing homes ( N = 24 sessions; N = 67 unique participants). Stakeholders discussed current care-planning processes and provided feedback on an emergent conceptual framework of PDCP. Three themes emerged through directed-content analysis: strategies included providing formal and informal opportunities to engage in care planning and ensuring effective follow-through; different roles were required among leadership, staff, residents, and families to accomplish PDCP; and limits on achieving PDCP included competing priorities and perceived regulatory and resource constraints. Results are discussed in terms of the specific competencies required for accomplishing PDCP.

An Analysis of Documents Guiding Palliative Care in Five
Canadian Provinces.

Non UofA Access

C. Hill, W. Duggleby, L. Venturato, et al.
Can J Aging 2019 Jan 24:1-15
he purpose of this study was to analyse the consistency and extent of palliative content across high-level guiding documents related to the care of persons residing in Canadian long-term care homes. A systematic search was conducted examining documents at the national level and across five provinces (Alberta, Ontario, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Quebec). Twenty-five documents were selected based on inclusion criteria from 273 documents identified in the systematic search. The majority of these documents were created nationally (48%) or in Ontario (28%). Documents varied in palliative topics discussed, and long-term care was discussed minimally. A minimal number of palliative care guiding documents were found. Long-term care specific documents were absent, and all documents lacked consistency on palliative topics. It is imperative that palliative principles are present and consistent in high-level documents in order to improve the quality of life and care for long-term care residents across Canada.

The Effect of a Comprehensive Dementia Care Management Program on End-of-Life Care.
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L. A. Jennings, M. Turner, C. Keebler, et al.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2019 Jan 24
Although Alzheimer disease and other dementias are life limiting, only a minority of these patients or their proxy decision makers participate in advance care planning. We describe end-of-life care preferences and acute care and hospice use in the last 6 months of life for persons enrolled in a comprehensive dementia care management program. DESIGN: Observational, retrospective cohort. SETTING: Urban, academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 322 persons enrolled in dementia care management after July 1, 2012, who died before July 1, 2016. INTERVENTION: Dementia care comanagement model using nurse practitioners partnered with primary care providers and community organizations to provide comprehensive dementia care, including advance care planning. MEASUREMENTS: Advance care preferences, use of Physician Orders for Life Sustaining Treatment (POLST), hospice enrollment, and hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits in the last 6 months of life obtained from electronic health record data. RESULTS: Nearly all decedents (99.7%, N = 321) had a goals-of-care conversation documented (median = 3 conversations; interquartile range = 2-4 conversations), and 64% had advance care preferences recorded. Among those with recorded preferences, 88% indicated do not resuscitate, 48% limited medical interventions, and 35% chose comfort-focused care. Most patients (89%) specified limited artificial nutrition, including withholding feeding tubes. Over half (54%) had no hospitalizations or ED visits in the last 6 months of life, and intensive care unit stays were rare (5% of decedents). Overall, 69% died on hospice. Decedents who had completed a POLST were more likely to die in hospice care (74% vs 62%; P = .03) and die at home (70% vs 59%; P = .04). CONCLUSIONS: Enrollees in a comprehensive dementia care comanagement program had high engagement in advance care planning, high rates of hospice use, and low acute care utilization near the end of life. Wider implementation of such programs may improve end-of-life care for persons with dementia.

Compassion fatigue among nurses working in a long-term care facility: The Israeli experience.
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I. Shahar, I. Asher and M. Ben Natan.
Nurs Health Sci 2019 Jan 20
Nurses working in a long-term care facility could be at risk of developing compassion fatigue due to the nature of their work. In this descriptive, cross-sectional survey, we explored the level of compassion fatigue among nurses working in a long-term care facility, as well as the associated sociodemographic and occupational factors. In total, 103 nurses employed in various departments of a long-term care facility in central Israel completed the Hebrew version of the Professional Quality of Life Scale R-IV. Nurses scored moderate-high on the compassion fatigue (mean = 3.6, standard deviation = .5), burnout (mean = 3.5, standard deviation = .5), and compassion satisfaction (mean = 3.8, standard deviation = .5) scales. Older nurses scored lower on compassion fatigue, while nurses with higher qualifications scored higher on compassion satisfaction. In this study, we implicate that it is necessary to raise awareness about compassion fatigue, both in nursing education and training and in long-term care organizations. It is necessary to improve understanding of this phenomenon in order to help nurses acquire appropriate coping skills to address this critical issue.

Ontario’s Retirement Homes and Long-Term Care Homes: A Comparison of Care Services and Funding Regimes.
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B. Roblin, R. Deber, K. Kuluski and M. P. Silver.
Can J Aging 2019 Jan 10:1-13
Growing demand for beds in government-subsidized long-term care (LTC) homes in Ontario is causing long waitlists, which must be absorbed by other residential alternatives, including unsubsidized retirement homes. This study compares Ontario’s LTC homes and retirement homes for care services provided, funding regimes, and implications of differential funding for seniors. Descriptive data for both types of homes were collected from public and proprietary sources regarding service offerings, availability, costs, and funding. Overlaps exist in the services of both LTC and retirement homes, particularly at higher levels of care. Although both sectors charge residents for accommodation, most care costs in LTC homes are publicly funded, whereas residents in retirement homes generally cover these expenses personally. Given waitlists in Ontario’s LTC homes, many seniors must find residential care elsewhere, including in retirement homes. Several policy alternatives exist that may serve to improve equity of access to seniors’ residential care.

Tonight’s Sleep Predicts Tomorrow’s Fatigue: A Daily Diary Study of Long-Term Care Employees With Nonwork Caregiving Roles.
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N. DePasquale, T. Crain, O. M. Buxton, S. H. Zarit and D. M. Almeida.
Gerontologist 2019 Jan 18
Long-term care employees and employees with nonwork caregiving roles are at high risk for sleep problems and fatigue. Little is known, however, about relationships between sleep and fatigue among long-term care employees who occupy nonwork caregiving roles. This study examined whether longer sleep duration and better sleep quality reduce fatigue occurrence and severity within and between long-term care employees with nonwork caregiving roles, and investigated nonwork caregiving role occupancy as a moderator of these relationships. Research Design and Methods: The sample comprised 166 women working in U.S.-based nursing homes. All women had children aged 9-17 years and some also had nonwork caregiving responsibilities for adult relatives. Sleep (duration and quality) and fatigue (occurrence and severity) were assessed via telephone interviews for eight consecutive evenings. Multilevel modeling was used to examine within-person and between-person associations. Results: At the within-person level, nights characterized by longer-than-usual sleep duration or better-than-usual sleep quality were followed by days with lower odds of reporting fatigue; these same sleep characteristics predicted less severe next-day fatigue. At the between-person level, employees with better average sleep quality, but not longer sleep duration, had lower odds of experiencing fatigue. Relationships between sleep and fatigue were generally similar regardless of nonwork caregiving responsibilities for children or for both children and adults. Discussion and Implications: Findings suggest that tonight’s sleep predicts tomorrow’s fatigue. Given the serious and wide-ranging consequences of fatigue, sleep constitutes a worthwhile intervention target with potential benefits for employees, care recipients, and organizations.

Implementing primary healthcare nurse practitioners in long term care teams: A qualitative descriptive study.
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K. Kilpatrick, M. Jabbour, E. Tchouaket, M. Acorn, F. Donald and S. Hains.
J Adv Nurs 2019 Jan 29
To identify the conditions needed to implement nurse practitioners in long-term care in Quebec, Canada. DESIGN: A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews (N=91) and socio-demographic questionnaires were completed with providers and managers from May 2016 – March 2017. Nurse practitioner activity logs were compiled at three sites. Content analysis was used. RESULTS: All sites initially implemented a shared care model but not all sites successfully implemented a consultative model. The progression was influenced by physicians’ level of comfort in moving towards a consultative model. Weekly meetings with physicians and nurse managers and an office for nurse practitioners located near healthcare teams facilitated communication and improved implementation. Half-time nurse practitioner positions facilitated recruitment. Improvements were noted in timely care for residents, family involvement and quality of documentation of the healthcare team. Regulatory restrictions on prescribing medications used frequently in long-term care and daily physician presence at some sites limited implementation. CONCLUSION: The project fostered an understanding of the conditions needed to successfully implement nurse practitioners in long-term care. An examination of the perspective of residents and families is needed.

Nursing Staff Characteristics on Resident Outcomes in Nursing Homes.
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J. H. Shin.
J Nurs Res 2018 Jun 5
The outlook of administrative staff and registered nurses (RNs) plays a critical role in the management of nursing homes. No previous study has compared the outcomes of nursing homes with RNs on staff with those of nursing homes without RNs on staff in Korea. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between nurse-led nursing homes, staff turnover, and resident outcomes in nursing homes in Korea. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, 36 nursing homes with 30 or more beds participated. Primary data included 15 quality indicators. RESULTS: Nursing homes with RNs had statistically significant better resident outcomes. RN turnover related positively to the prevalence of falls ( beta = 1.68, p < .05) and tube feeding (beta = 1.71, p < .01) and negatively to incontinence (beta = -1.53, p < .01). Nursing homes with RNs with tenures greater than 1 year had statistically significant lower prevalence of falls (beta = -0.47, p < .05), incontinence (beta = -0.45, p < .05), weight loss (beta = -0.53 p < .05), and bed rest (beta = -0.54, p < .01) and increased range of motion (beta = 0.51, p < .05). Interestingly, having a nurse as a director for more than 1 year related negatively to the incidence of urinary tract infection (beta = -0.56, p < .05) in residents. The rate of RN turnover was found to impact fall prevalence (beta = 1.68, p < .05) and tube feeding (beta = 1.71, p < .01) positively and to impact incontinence (beta = -1.53, p < .01) negatively. CONCLUSIONS: Turnover of nursing home staff and length of tenure may contribute to the more effective management of nursing homes, higher-quality long-term care insurance, and RN-staffing-related laws. Assessing staff characteristics and the tenure of employees promotes the effective management of nursing homes.

Mapping Core Concepts of Person-Centered Care in Long-Term Services and Supports.
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L. L. Behrens, G. McGhan, K. M. Abbott, et al.
J Gerontol Nurs 2019 Feb 1;45(2):7-13
Person-centered care (PCC) has a wide range of definitions, most based on expert opinion rather than empirical analysis. The current study used an empirical concept mapping approach to identify core components of PCC used in long-term services and supports (LTSS). The aim is to help providers and researchers develop a unified set of domains that can be used to assess and improve the quality of PCC in real-world settings. Results yielded six domains describing essential elements of PCC in LTSS: Enacting Humanistic Values, Direct Care Worker Values, Engagement Facilitators, Living Environment, Communication, and Supportive Systems; and two underlying dimensions: Intrapersonal Activities and Extrapersonal Services and Social and Physical Environment. Nurses can use the results to enhance clinical knowledge and skills around delivery of PCC. Researchers can use the results to build a comprehensive and unified measure to accelerate adoption of PCC practices shown to benefit older adults, families, and the LTSS workforce.

Interprofessional teamwork, quality of care and turnover intention in geriatric care: A cross-sectional study in 55 acute geriatric units.
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R. D. Piers, K. Versluys, J. Devoghel, A. Vyt and N. Van Den Noortgate.
Int J Nurs Stud 2018 Dec 31;91:94-100
The complex health problems of older persons require that health professionals closely work together, in particular when an acute decline necessitates admission at an acute geriatric unit. These working conditions may cause additional stress in staff. This study aims to identify the relation between interprofessional teamwork, the quality of care and turnover intention in acute geriatric units. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Perceptions of interprofessional teamwork, quality of care and turnover intention among team members of 55 acute geriatric units were measured using validated questionnaires. A multilevel linear regression model was built for quality of care and logistic regression for turnover intention, with random intercept for acute geriatric unit. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 60%. Of the 890 respondents, 71% were nursing professionals, 20% allied health professionals, 5% physicians, and 4% administrative staff. Twenty-three percent reported poor to fair quality of care in their unit; 19% was not sure that patients or families had been given enough means to organise care after discharge. Fifteen percent reported turnover intention (18%, 8%, 9% and 11% among nursing professionals, allied health professionals, physicians and administrative workers respectively, p = 0.005). Higher perceived interprofessional teamwork was related to higher quality of care (estimated coefficient 0.05, p < 0.001) and lower turnover intention in nursing professionals only (estimated OR 0.94, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Creating a care environment of good interprofessional teamwork can help acute geriatric units to retain nursing professionals in the job and achieve higher quality of care.

Relationship between speaking English as a second language and agitation in people with dementia living in care homes: Results from the MARQUE (Managing Agitation and Raising Quality of life) English national care home survey.
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C. Cooper, P. Rapaport, S. Robertson, et al.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2018 Mar;33(3):504-509
As not speaking English as a first language may lead to increased difficulties in communication with staff and other residents, we (1) tested our primary hypotheses that care home residents with dementia speaking English as a second language experience more agitation and overall neuropsychiatric symptoms, and (2) explored qualitatively how staff consider that residents’ language, ethnicity, and culture might impact on how they manage agitation. METHODS: We interviewed staff, residents with dementia, and their family carers from 86 care homes (2014-2015) about resident’s neuropsychiatric symptoms, agitation, life quality, and dementia severity. We qualitatively interviewed 25 staff. RESULTS: Seventy-one out of 1420 (5%) of care home residents with dementia interviewed spoke English as a second language. After controlling for dementia severity, age, and sex, and accounting for care home and staff proxy clustering, speaking English as a second language compared with as a first language was associated with significantly higher Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (adjusted difference in means 8.3, 95% confidence interval 4.1 to 12.5) and Neuropsychiatric inventory scores (4.1, 0.65 to 7.5). Staff narratives described how linguistic and culturally isolating being in a care home where no residents or staff share your culture or language could be for people with dementia, and how this sometimes caused or worsened agitation. CONCLUSIONS: Considering a person with dementia’s need to be understood when selecting a care home and developing technology resources to enable dementia-friendly translation services could be important strategies for reducing distress of people with dementia from minority ethnic groups who live in care homes.

Planning, Access, Levels of Care and Violence in Ontario’s Long-Term Care

Ontario Health Coalition January 2019
In this report, we look more closely at the evidence of increased need and inadequate levels of care in Ontario’s long-term care homes in which nearly 80,000 people live and their consequences for caregivers and residents, including escalating violence.

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Health Care Innovation and Quality Assurance

The Management of Wicked Problems in Health and Social Care
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Will Thomas, Anneli Hujala, Sanna Laulainen, Robert McMurray (eds)
Routledge; 2018 ISBN 9781138103627
At a time of growing pressure on health and social care services, this book draws together contributions which highlight contemporary challenges for their management. Providing a range of contributions that draw on a Critical Management Studies perspective the book raises macro-level concerns with theory, demographics and economics on the one hand, as well as micro-level challenges of leadership, voice and engagement on the other. Rather than being an attempt to define the ‘wickedness’ of problems in this field, this book provides new insights designed to be of interest and value to researchers, students and managers.
Contributions from international researchers explore four main topics:
-identifying contemporary challenges in health and social care;
-managing, leading and following;
-listening to silent voices in delivering change; and
-new methodologies for understanding care challenges.
The concerns discussed in this volume are ‘wicked’ in so far as they are persistent, pernicious and beyond the curative abilities of any single organisation or profession. Such problems require collaboration but also new approaches to listening to those who suffer their effects. This book demonstrates such listening through its engagement with policy makers, leaders, followers, professions, patients, forgotten groups and silenced voices. Moreover, it considers how future research might be transformed so as to shine a more inclusive light on ‘wicked’ problems and their amelioration. This is a timely and engaging book that challenges you – the reader – to think again about how we should look at, engage with and support all those involved in health and social care.

Advance Care Planning in the Nursing Home Setting: A Practice Improvement Evaluation.
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A. C. Kezirian, M. J. McGregor, U. Stead, et al.
J Soc Work End Life Palliat Care 2019 Jan 17:1-18
This study evaluated a practice improvement initiative conducted over a 6 month period in 15 Canadian nursing homes. Goals of the initiative included: (1) use the Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) model to improve advance care planning (ACP) within the sample of nursing homes; (2) investigate whether improved ACP practice resulted in a change in residents’ hospital use and ACP preferences for home-based care; (3) engage participating facilities in regular data collection to inform the initiative and provide a basis for reflection about ACP practice and; (4) foster a team-based participatory care culture. The initiative entailed two cycles of learning sessions followed by implementation of ACP practice improvement projects in the facilities using a PDSA approach by participating clinicians (e.g., physicians, social workers, nurses). Clinicians reported significantly increased confidence in many dimensions of ACP activities. Rates of hospital use and resident preference for home-based care did not change significantly. The initiative established routine data collection of outcomes to inform practice change, and successfully engaged physicians and non-physician clinicians to work together to improve ACP practices. Results suggest recurrent PDSA cycles that engage a ‘critical mass’ of clinicians may be warranted to reinforce the standardization of ACP in practice.

Managing deterioration in older adults in care homes: a quality improvement project to introduce an early warning tool.
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S. Little, G. Rodgers and J. M. Fitzpatrick.
Br J Community Nurs 2019 Feb 2;24(2):58-66
Many older adults living in care homes have complex health needs requiring comprehensive care. Early warning tools can help identify deterioration, but currently they are less often used in care homes. The aim of this quality improvement project was to introduce an early warning tool, the Significant 7, to facilitate identification and management of deterioration in care home residents. The plan, do, study, act (PDSA) method was used, and process mapping informed a tailored intervention. Introducing the tool had positive outcomes for residents and care staff. There was a reduction in the incidence of pressure ulcers and falls, and care staff were more confident in recognising resident deterioration. Next steps include scaling up the project to further examine how this early warning tool can improve resident, staff and organisational outcomes, in order to explore the potential use of the tool by community nurses with older people living at home.

The Effectiveness of Function-Focused Care Interventions in Nursing Homes: A Systematic Review.
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S. J. Lee, M. S. Kim, Y. J. Jung and S. O. Chang.
J Nurs Res 2018 Jun 5
Since the Omnibus Budget and Reconciliation Act was passed in South Korea in 1987, function-focused care (FFC) has been used in long-term care to achieve the highest possible levels of self-care and independence for older adults. However, many perceive nursing home residents with cognitive function impairments as having little restorative potential. PURPOSE: The purpose of this review is to report on evidence and strategies relating to FFC interventions in nursing home settings and to summarize the effects of FFC on the functional abilities of resident subgroups. METHODS: A literature review using EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature was conducted for articles published between January 1, 2000, and February 20, 2016. Twenty-two eligible studies were identified. Relevant data were extracted, and the results were synthesized into an integrated literature review. Study quality was appraised using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and the Risk of Bias Assessment tool for Non-randomized Studies. RESULTS: This review included 22 trials that were of moderate to high quality. Our systematic review confirmed the FFC interventions as integrated and dedicated processes; the five key strategies underpinning effective FFC interventions; and the effectiveness of FFC interventions on physical, psychosocial, and cognitive functions. The five key strategies underpinning FFC interventions included interactive learning for caregivers, the content of learning programs for caregivers, residents’ preferences and interests, optimizing approaches according to residents’ functional status, and the conceptual frameworks of FFC interventions. Most of the studies (n = 15) evaluated psychosocial functions and found significant improvements in aspects such as mood, affect, and behavioral problems. Likewise, the 13 studies assessing physical function found significant improvements in effectiveness in aspects such as movement, balance, and activities of daily living. Only four studies looked at cognitive function effectiveness, using measures such as place finding, verbal use, and memory. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Our review found scientific evidence that FFC interventions improve functional abilities across various levels of cognitive function in nursing homes. Nursing homes may employ effective strategies to maximize the effects of FFC interventions and use educational materials to teach caregivers to implement FFC interventions competently.

The Implementation of an Innovative Hydration Monitoring App in Care Home Settings: A Qualitative Study.
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A. Steven, G. Wilson and L. Young-Murphy.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2019 Jan 29;7(1):e9892
In response to marked concern regarding inadequate fluid intake recording in care homes, an innovative mobile hydration app was collaboratively developed. “Hydr8” aimed to facilitate accurate recording and communication of residents’ fluid intake and ultimately increase care quality and patient safety. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the implementation of Hydr8 in a sample of care homes in one area in England. METHODS: The principles of Realist Evaluation and Action research were drawn upon throughout the study. Overall, 5 care homes participated in this study, 3 interview-only sites and 2 case-study sites, where interviews and observations were conducted at 3 time-points. Furthermore, 28 staff members participated, including care staff, management, a registered nurse, and administrative staff. RESULTS: Findings suggest that Hydr8 benefits practice, enhancing the understanding of hydration and person-centered care and improving staff communication. However, technical glitches hindered the seamless embedding of Hydr8 into everyday practice, and enthusiasm for long-term use was dependent on the resolution of issues. In addition, Hydr8 heightened perceptions of personal accountability, and while managers viewed this as positive, some staff members were apprehensive. However, individuals were enthusiastic about the long-term use and potential of Hydr8. CONCLUSIONS: Utilizing the findings of this study to further develop and adapt Hydr8 indicates the long-term use of Hydr8 as promising. Although perceptions of Hydr8 were primarily positive, setbacks in its implementation and use created difficulties in normalizing the solution into everyday practice. This study highlights the need for education related to hydration practice and a change of infrastructure in care home settings to implement technical solutions and changes to care.

Implementing a patient-centered walking program for residents in long-term care: A quality improvement project.
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I. Kazana and M. Pencak Murphy.
J Am Assoc Nurse Pract 2018 Jul;30(7):383-391
This quality improvement (QI) project was designed to increase walking activity for eligible residents in long-term care (LTC). Walking programs have positive benefits; however, they are underused in LTC. METHODS: The Model for Improvement and Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles were used to implement the key components including building a guiding coalition, environment and policy assessment, development of a patient-centered walking program protocol, staff education, mobility huddle to motivate and mentor staff, and ongoing evaluation and feedback. RESULTS: Of the 78 residents screened for walking activity, 13 (17%) were eligible. Data were collected weekly. After 20 weeks, 69% (n = 9) of the enrolled residents were still in the program. The majority of residents were provided walking activity between 60% and 90% of the time. None of the residents experienced a fall during the activity. Average adherence to documenting the activity was 79%. CONCLUSIONS: The QI project provided the implementation and evaluation of a consistent walking program in a LTC setting. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The project findings may assist nurse practitioners in implementing QI initiatives in LTC to increase walking activity of eligible residents and aid in evaluating those programs. However, leadership commitment and ongoing support are essential to sustain the effectiveness of a program.

Challenges, Opportunities, and Methods for Large-Scale Evaluations.
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J. H. Derzon.
Eval Health Prof 2018 Jun;41(2):321-345
The logic, theory, and practice of large-scale evaluation were once limited to large federal initiatives. However, with the advent of regularly collected performance measures and the often multisite implementation of quality improvement efforts, there is an opportunity to adopt large-scale evaluation methods in local and regional evaluation efforts. While ineffective programs show little variation in their ineffectiveness, effective programs generally show a range of effects. A central task of large-scale evaluation is to describe and ascribe why the same program, implemented in multiple settings, produces different effects. By its attention to variation attributable to setting, activities, outputs, and by participants and documenting the conditions in which programs achieve greater and lesser success, large-scale evaluation supports the needs of decision-makers when choosing to implement an evidence-based program. In addition to knowing a program is effective, decision-makers want to know whether it is appropriate for their situation and what facilitates or impedes effective implementation and bears on the program’s ultimate effectiveness. This article presents the different methods and approaches appropriate for effectively and efficiently constructing and executing a large-scale evaluation that will provide decision-makers the evidence they need for evidence-informed adoption of effective programs.

Analysing barriers to service improvement using a multi-level theory of innovation: the case of glaucoma outpatient clinics.
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S. Turner, C. Vasilakis, M. Utley, P. Foster, A. Kotecha and N. J. Fulop.
Sociol Health Illn 2018 May;40(4):654-669
The development and implementation of innovation by healthcare providers is understood as a multi-determinant and multi-level process. Theories at different analytical levels (i.e. micro and organisational) are needed to capture the processes that influence innovation by providers. This article combines a micro theory of innovation, actor-network theory, with organisational level processes using the ‘resource based view of the firm’. It examines the influence of, and interplay between, innovation-seeking teams (micro) and underlying organisational capabilities (meso) during innovation processes. We used ethnographic methods to study service innovations in relation to ophthalmology services run by a specialist English NHS Trust at multiple locations. Operational research techniques were used to support the ethnographic methods by mapping the care process in the existing and redesigned clinics. Deficiencies in organisational capabilities for supporting innovation were identified, including manager-clinician relations and organisation-wide resources. The article concludes that actor-network theory can be combined with the resource-based view to highlight the influence of organisational capabilities on the management of innovation. Equally, actor-network theory helps to address the lack of theory in the resource-based view on the micro practices of implementing change.

Barriers and facilitators of pediatric shared decision-making: a systematic review.
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L. Boland, I. D. Graham, F. Legare, et al.
Implement Sci 2019 Jan 18;14(1):7-018-0851-5
Shared decision-making (SDM) is rarely implemented in pediatric practice. Pediatric health decision-making differs from that of adult practice. Yet, little is known about the factors that influence the implementation of pediatric shared decision-making (SDM). We synthesized pediatric SDM barriers and facilitators from the perspectives of healthcare providers (HCP), parents, children, and observers (i.e., persons who evaluated the SDM process, but were not directly involved). METHODS: We conducted a systematic review guided by the Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU). We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, PubMed, and PsycINFO (inception to March 2017) and included studies that reported clinical pediatric SDM barriers and/or facilitators from the perspective of HCPs, parents, children, and/or observers. We considered all or no comparison groups and included all study designs reporting original data. Content analysis was used to synthesize barriers and facilitators and categorized them according to the OMRU levels (i.e., decision, innovation, adopters, relational, and environment) and participant types (i.e., HCP, parents, children, and observers). We used the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool to appraise study quality. RESULTS: Of 20,008 identified citations, 79 were included. At each OMRU level, the most frequent barriers were features of the options (decision), poor quality information (innovation), parent/child emotional state (adopter), power relations (relational), and insufficient time (environment). The most frequent facilitators were low stake decisions (decision), good quality information (innovation), agreement with SDM (adopter), trust and respect (relational), and SDM tools/resources (environment). Across participant types, the most frequent barriers were insufficient time (HCPs), features of the options (parents), power imbalances (children), and HCP skill for SDM (observers). The most frequent facilitators were good quality information (HCP) and agreement with SDM (parents and children). There was no consistent facilitator category for observers. Overall, study quality was moderate with quantitative studies having the highest ratings and mixed-method studies having the lowest ratings. CONCLUSIONS: Numerous diverse and interrelated factors influence SDM use in pediatric clinical practice. Our findings can be used to identify potential pediatric SDM barriers and facilitators, guide context-specific barrier and facilitator assessments, and inform interventions for implementing SDM in pediatric practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42015020527.


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Organizational Culture and Change

How was a national moving and handling people guideline intended to work? The underlying programme theory.
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M. Lidegaard, K. B. Olsen and S. J. Legg.
Eval Program Plann 2019 Jan 14;73:163-175
In healthcare, moving and handling people (MHP) often cause musculoskeletal disorders. To prevent musculoskeletal disorders due to MHP, many national evidence-based guidelines have been developed. However, little is known about how these guidelines were intended to work, i.e. their ‘programme theory’, how implementation by intended users is influenced by contextual factors and mechanisms to produce outcomes. This paper identifies the programme theory of a national MHP guideline (MHPG) using thematic analysis of the MHPG document, three organisational planning documents, and interviews with MHPG developers. The analysis identified the intended users of the MHPG as health and safety managers and MHP coordinators. The programme theory comprised contextual factors, potentially hindering (e.g. budget constraints) or facilitating (e.g. changing demographics) implementation, being influenced by mechanisms mainly based on ethical (quality of care, evidence-based practices), and economic reasoning (reducing cost of MHP, return on investment) to reduce injuries caused by MHP – the intended outcome.

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Research Practice and Methodology

The time has come: Embedded implementation research for health care improvement.
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K. Churruca, K. Ludlow, N. Taylor, J. C. Long, S. Best and J. Braithwaite.
J Eval Clin Pract 2019 Jan 10
The field of implementation science has developed in response to slow and inconsistent translation of evidence into practice. Despite utilizing increasingly sophisticated approaches to implementation, including applying a complexity science lens and conducting realist evaluations, challenges remain to getting the kinds of outcomes hoped for by implementation efforts. These include gaining access and buy-in from those implementing the change and accounting for the influence of local context. One emerging approach to address these challenges is embedded implementation research-a collaborative, adaptive approach to improvement. It involves researchers and implementers working together in situ from the outset of, and throughout, an implementation project. Both groups can benefit from the collaboration: it increases the rigor of evaluation, provides opportunities to improve the intervention through direct feedback, and promotes better on-the-ground understanding of the change process. We aimed to examine the potential benefits, and some of the challenges, of increased embeddedness. METHOD: We performed a multi-case analysis of implementation research projects that varied by degree of embeddedness. RESULTS: Embedded implementation research may offer a range of advantages over dichotomized research-practice designs, including better understanding of local context and direct feedback to improve the implementation along the way. We present a model that spans four approaches: dichotomized research-practice, collaborative linking-up, partially-embedded, and deep immersion. CONCLUSION: Embedded implementation research approaches hold promise in comparison to traditional dichotomized-research practice designs, where the research is external to the implementation and conducts a summative evaluation. We are only beginning to understand how such partnerships operate in practice and what makes them successful. Our analysis suggests the time has come to consider such approaches.

Five Approaches to Qualitative Comparison Groups in Health Research: A Scoping Review.
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S. Lindsay.
Qual Health Res 2018 Dec 1:1049732318807208
Qualitative researchers have much to gain by using comparison groups. Although their use within qualitative health research is increasing, the guidelines surrounding them are lacking. The purpose of this article is to explore the extent to which qualitative comparison groups are being used within health research and to outline the lessons learned in using this type of methodology. Through conducting a scoping review, 31 articles were identified that demonstrated five different types of qualitative comparison groups. I highlight the key benefits and challenges in using this approach.

Facilitated Peer Mentorship to Support Aging Research: A RE-AIM Evaluation of the CoMPAdRE Program.
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R. M. Masterson Creber, M. R. Baldwin, P. J. Brown, et al.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2019 Jan 29
The need for mentorship in aging research among postdoctoral trainees and junior faculty across medical disciplines and subspecialties is increasing, yet senior personnel with expertise in aging are lacking to fulfill the traditional dyadic mentorship role. Facilitated peer mentorship is grounded in collaborative work among peers with the guidance of a senior mentor. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated the Columbia University Mentor Peer Aging Research (CoMPAdRE) program, an interprofessional facilitated peer mentorship program for early stage investigators, using the Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation and Maintenance framework (RE-AIM). Reach: A total of 15 participants, of which 20% were women, from five states and across six medical specialties participated. Effectiveness: Participants published 183 papers, of which more than 20% were collaborative papers between CoMPAdRE mentees or mentees-mentor. Participants reported developing skills in negotiation, navigating the academic role, organizing a seminar, management, and leadership over the course of the program. According to the qualitative findings, the most important components of the program included alignment around the aging, learning from national leaders, developing leadership skills and career networking. Adoption: Individual-level factors included selecting participants with a research track record, willingness to sign a compact of commitment and involvement in shaping the program. An institutional-level factor that facilitated program adoption included strong commitment from department leaders. IMPLEMENTATION: The program cost $3,259 per participant. Maintenance: CoMPAdRE is being maintained and currently incorporating a second cohort of mentees. CONCLUSION: This RE-AIM evaluation provides lessons learned and strategies for future adoption, implementation, and maintenance of an aging-focused facilitated peer mentorship program.

Adequacy of Inclusion of Older Adults in NIH-Funded Phase III Clinical Trials.
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J. Lockett, S. Sauma, B. Radziszewska and M. A. Bernard.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2019 Jan 29
In the United States, the population aged 65 and older is rapidly growing, and this group uses more healthcare resources and has unique healthcare needs that do not exist in younger populations. However, it was reported that older adults are excluded or underrepresented in clinical trials for several diseases. We examined phase III clinical trials funded by the National Institutes of Health found in http://www.clinicaltrials.gov from 1965 to 2015 that addressed top causes for hospitalization and/or disability-adjusted life years in older adults: congestive heart failure (n = 45), cardiac dysrhythmias (n = 24), coronary atherosclerosis (n = 106), heart attack (n = 76), stroke (n = 113), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 14), pneumonia (n = 48), lung cancer (n = 117), prostate cancer (n = 65), and osteoarthritis (n = 15). We then analyzed the representation of older adults in these studies. We found that 33% of studies had arbitrary upper age limits, and 67% of studies reported mean and/or median ages that skewed younger than expected for the disease or condition of interest. Beyond explicit exclusion by age, older adults were often implicitly excluded based on various comorbid conditions such as polypharmacy/concomitant medication (37%) or cardiac issues (30%). We conclude that outcomes of these trials may not be fully generalizable to the general population of older adults.

The 5Ts: Preliminary Development of a Framework to Support Inclusion of Older Adults in Research.
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C. B. Bowling, H. E. Whitson and T. M. Johnson 2nd.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2019 Jan 29
To address the underrepresentation of older adults in clinical research, the National Institutes of Health will require investigators to include individuals across the lifespan. As investigators from other fields endeavor to recruit participants who are more representative of the patient population, geriatricians may have the opportunity to influence a broad range of research studies in older adults. Our aims were to elicit challenges to inclusion of older adults in clinical research and to develop a preliminary framework for communicating these challenges to non-geriatrics-trained researchers. DESIGN: Communication framework development. SETTING: Academic hospital and Veterans Affairs Medical Center. PARTICIPANTS: Nongeriatrician researchers and staff, aging research experts. MEASUREMENTS: Interviews were used to elicit challenges nongeriatrician investigators and research staff experience when conducting research that includes older adults and then solicit experienced aging researchers’ responses to these challenges. RESULTS: Challenges described by nongeriatrician investigators included lack of knowledge, rigid study structures, and a disease-focused approach. Responses from our geriatrics experts included communicating practical advice for avoiding common pitfalls. Our resulting framework is the 5Ts: Target Population, Team, Tools, Time, and Tips to Accommodate. This tool complements the 5Ms (Mind, Mobility, Medications, Multicomplexity, and Matters Most to Me) model for geriatric care and emphasizes representation of the Target Population, building research Teams that include aging expertise, incorporating appropriate Tools for function and patient-reported outcomes, anticipating Time for longer study visits, and accommodating common needs with practical Tips. Limitations include convenience sampling and lack of formal qualitative thematic analysis. CONCLUSION: Communicating with nongeriatrician researchers using the 5Ts may offer a practical approach to avoiding barriers to inclusion of older adults in research and complements an existing framework for communicating the value of geriatric medicine. Next steps in developing the 5Ts will be to include additional stakeholders (eg, national samples of nongeriatrician investigators, older adults and their families) and evaluating the impact of its implementation.

Methodological Guidance for a Quality Review Article.
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P. C. Heyn, S. Meeks and R. Pruchno.
Gerontologist 2019 Jan 30.
Readers of The Gerontologist are familiar with population changes and projections that have spurred a surge in gerontological research across disciplines. This proliferation of research increases the importance of high-quality review and synthesis for moving research forward and informing policy and practice. We have therefore witnessed an increased number of systematic review publications in the field of gerontology (Shenkin, Harrison, Wilkinson, Dodds, & Ioannidis, 2017). In 2015, The Gerontologist began accepting review articles and as of August 2018, The Gerontologist has received more than 250 review submissions. We are anticipating that this figure will double by the end of 2019. In response to the high number of review submissions and the need for rigorous evaluation, Patricia C. Heyn, PhD, FGSA, joined The Gerontologist’s editorial leadership team in 2017 as the Associate Editor for review articles. Dr. Heyn, an expert in the synthesis and systematic review methodologies, has led efforts to redesign The Gerontologist “Review Articles” section by formulating a clear set of guidelines and instructions for authors interested in submitting review articles to the journal. The goal of the section is to produce and disseminate the best evidence available in the field of gerontology. The purpose of this editorial is to provide to The Gerontologist readers resources and guidance to prepare a high-quality review report that requires a thorough and updated search of the literature.

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Perceptions of home in long-term care settings: before and after institutional relocation
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Mineko Wada, Sarah L. Canham, Lupin Battersby, et al.
Ageing and Society :1-24
Although moving from institutional to home-like long-term care (LTC) settings can promote and sustain the health and wellbeing of older adults, there has been little research examining how home is perceived by older adults when moving between care settings. A qualitative study was conducted over a two-year period during the relocation of residents and staff from an institutional LTC home to a purpose-built LTC home in Western Canada. The study explored perceptions of home amongst residents, family members and staff. Accordingly, 210 semi-structured interviews were conducted at five time-points with 35 residents, 23 family members and 81 staff. Thematic analyses generated four superordinate themes that are suggestive of how to create and enhance a sense of home in LTC settings: (a) physical environment features; (b) privacy and personalisation; (c) autonomy, choice and flexibility; and (d) connectedness and togetherness. The findings reveal that the physical environment features are foundational for the emergence of social and personal meanings associated with a sense of home, and highlight the impact of care practices on the sense of home when the workplace becomes a home. In addition, tension that arises between providing care and creating a home-like environment in LTC settings is discussed.

Eating performance in relation to intake of solid and liquid food in nursing home residents with dementia: A secondary behavioral analysis of mealtime videos.
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W. Liu, K. Williams, M. Batchelor-Murphy, Y. Perkhounkova and M. Hein.
Int J Nurs Stud 2019 Jan 3
Persons with dementia commonly experience low food intake leading to negative nutritional and functional outcomes. While multilevel personal and environmental factors that influence intake are implicated, evidence is lacking on the role of characteristics of dynamic eating performance cycles. An eating performance cycle is defined as the process of getting food from the plate or container, transporting it into the mouth, and chewing and swallowing it. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between intake and characteristics of eating performance cycles among nursing home residents with dementia. METHODS: A secondary analysis of 111 mealtime video clips from a nursing home communication training study was conducted. The 111 videos involved 25 residents and 29 staff (N = 42 unique staff-resident dyads) in 9 nursing homes. The Cue Utilization and Engagement in Dementia Mealtime video-coding scheme was used to code the characteristics of eating performance cycles, including eating technique (resident-completed, staff-facilitated), type of food (solid, liquid), duration of each eating performance cycle, and intake outcome (intake, no intake). The Generalized Linear Mixed Model was used to examine the interaction effects of eating technique by type of food, eating technique by duration, and type of food by duration on intake outcome. RESULTS: Totally 1122 eating performance cycles were coded from 111 video clips. The majority of the cycles (85.7%) resulted in intake. There were significant interactions for eating technique by duration, and type of food by duration. As the duration of the eating performance cycle increased, staff-facilitated cycles resulted in greater odds of intake than resident-completed cycles (OR = 17.80 vs. 2.73); and cycles involving liquid food resulted in greater odds of intake than cycles involving solid food (OR = 15.42 vs. 3.15). Though the interaction between eating technique and type of food was not significant, the odds of intake were greater for resident-completed cycles than for staff-facilitated cycles regardless of the type of food being involved in the cycle (OR = 3.60 for liquid food, OR = 10.69 for solid food). CONCLUSIONS: The findings pointed out the importance of supporting resident independence in eating performance, providing liquid food when residents struggle with solid food, and provision of longer and continuous facilitation at mealtimes to improve intake. The findings inform the development and implementation of innovative mealtime assistance and staff training to promote eating performance and intake.

Factors That Affect Oral Care Outcomes for Institutionalized Elderly.
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Y. Nomura, N. Takei, T. Ishii, et al.
Int J Dent 2018 Dec 10;2018:2478408
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an oral care intervention program on the incidence of pneumonia and fever as a surrogate endpoint. In addition, we tried to determine the oral care risk factors for the incidence of fever. We provided an oral care program for the elderly at one private nursing home in July 2013. The maximum capacity of the nursing home was 60 residents. The body temperatures of all residents were measured twice a day and were summarized as the incidence of fever over a one-month period, which was used as the dependent variable. The residents’ life conditions, number of teeth, and prescribed diet were used as independent variables. The factors that affected the incidence of fever were the number of remaining teeth, a prescribed diet of sliced food, the meal care level, and the oral Candida levels. These risk factors affected the incidence of fever independently or interactively with oral care. Some risk factors for the incidence of fever were enhanced by the oral care program. It is important to evaluate and control these factors before the implementation of an oral care program.

Psychosocial interventions for people with dementia: An overview and commentary on recent developments.
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J. R. Oyebode and S. Parveen.
Dementia (London) 2016 Jul 4
An influential review in 2010 concluded that non-pharmacological multi-component interventions have positive effects on cognitive functioning, activities of daily living, behaviour and mood of people with dementia. Our aim here is to provide an up-to-date overview of research into psychosocial interventions and their impact on psychosocial outcomes. We focused on randomised controlled trials, controlled studies and reviews published between October 2008 and August 2015, since the earlier review. The search of PsychInfo, Medline and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews yielded 61 relevant articles, organised into four themes echoing key phases of the care pathway: Living at home with dementia (five reviews, eight studies), carer interventions (three reviews, four studies), interventions in residential care (16 reviews, 12 studies) and end-of-life care (three reviews, two studies), along with an additional group spanning community and institutional settings (six reviews, two studies). Community findings suggested that appointment of dementia specialists and attention to case management can produce positive outcomes; physical therapies, cognitive training and modified cognitive behaviour therapy also had a range of benefits. There was more limited evidence of positive benefits for people with dementia through interventions with family carers. Thirty-two articles focused on the management of ‘behavioural symptoms’ through a range of interventions all of which had some evidence of benefit. Also a range of multi-component and specific interventions had benefits for cognitive, emotional and behavioural well-being of people with dementia in residential settings, as well as for quality of life. Overall, interventions tended to be short term with impact only measured in the short term. We recommend further research on interventions to promote living well in the community post-diagnosis and to address end-of-life care. Development of psychosocial interventions would benefit from moving beyond the focus on control of behaviours to focus on wider aspects of life for people with dementia.

Intimacy between care home residents with dementia: Findings from a review of the literature.
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E. Wiskerke and J. Manthorpe.
Dementia (London) 2016 Jul 13
There is limited research on what family members and frontline care home staff consider to be the best responses to the sexual expression of a person with dementia, whilst at the same time respecting relatives’ feelings, managing their possible distress and conflict, and how good practice should be reflected in care home policy and practice guidance. METHODS: This literature review explored what is known of the views of relatives and care workers of new relationships or sexual intimacy between care home residents with dementia, whilst still married to another person. It reports the findings of searches of three databases undertaken in August 2014 (Medline, Embase and PsychINFO). FINDINGS: Nine papers were found relevant to the research question. The following themes emerged from a synthesis of the papers located: sexuality in old age, dementia and sexuality, hyper-sexuality, views regarding sexuality of older people living in care homes, the law, ethics and consent, relationships and communication between care home and relatives, and new relationships or intimacy between residents with dementia. CONCLUSION: While studies of residents’ expression of sexuality and their engaging in sexual behaviour with other resident(s) may be challenging to manage in care home settings and can be emotionally painful or uncomfortable for families, the review found that studies are few in number and span emotional intimacy and distressing behaviour.

The experiences of family caregivers of people with advanced dementia living in nursing homes, with a specific focus on spouses: A narrative literature review.
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J. Hennings and K. Froggatt.
Dementia (London) 2016 Nov 17
Dementia affects individuals, families and their relationships. While there is increasing evidence about the experiences of family caregivers of people with dementia, relatively little is known of their experiences when their relatives are living in nursing homes with dementia. This narrative literature review aimed to synthesise current knowledge about family caregivers’ experience of having relatives living in nursing homes with advanced dementia, particularly focussing on community-dwelling spouses. Using a systematic approach, textual narrative synthesis was undertaken. Four themes were identified: changing relationships, the need for companionship, adjusting to new roles and relationships and anticipating death/looking towards the future. Two additional themes were present only for spouses: changing identity – feeling married, being married; and alone but… The review demonstrates that some aspects of spouses’ experiences are different from those of other family caregivers. Longitudinal studies are required to better understand spouses’ motivations to continue caring in this context and to find ways of supporting them.

Framework for Decision-making for Older Adults with Multiple Chronic Conditions: Executive Summary of Action Steps for the AGS Guiding Principles on the Care of Older Adults with Multimorbidity.
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C. Boyd, C. D. Smith, F. A. Masoudi, et al.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2019 Jan 21
Caring for older adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs) is challenging. The American Geriatrics Society (AGS) previously developed The AGS Guiding Principles for the Care of Older Adults with Multimorbidity using a systematic review of the literature and consensus (Table 1). The objective of the current work was to translate these principles into a framework of Actions and accompanying Action Steps for decision-making for clinicians who provide both primary and specialty care to older people with MCCs. A workgroup of geriatricians, cardiologists, and generalists: 1) articulated the core MCC Actions and the Action Steps needed to carry out the Actions; 2) provided decisional tips and communication scripts for implementing the Actions and Action Steps, using commonly encountered situations: 3) performed a scoping review to identify evidence-based, validated tools for carrying out the MCC Actions and Action Steps; and 4) identified potential barriers to, and mitigating factors for, implementing the MCC Actions. The recommended MCC Actions include: 1) Identify and communicate patients’ health priorities and health trajectory; 2) Stop, start, or continue care based on health priorities, potential benefit versus harm and burden, and health trajectory; and 3) align decisions and care among patients, caregivers, and other clinicians with patients’ health priorities and health trajectory. The tips and scripts for carrying out these Actions are included in the full MCC Action Framework available in the supplement (www.GeriatricsCareOnline.org).

Effectiveness of conservative urinary incontinence management among female nursing home residents-A cluster RCT.
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M. Hodl, R. J. G. Halfens and C. Lohrmann.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2019 Jan 19;81:245-251
Guideline-compliant conservative management of urinary incontinence (UI) is the first step of the initial management for UI and is recommended for long-term care in older persons. Recent studies have focused on the effects of guideline-compliant UI management. However, most of these studies were tested in another setting than nursing homes and were not focused on conservative management. AIMS: To measure the effectiveness of 29 evidence-based nursing recommendations regarding the conservative management of UI in Austrian nursing homes. METHODS: The study is a cluster randomized intervention trial with institution as the unit of randomization. Twelve nursing homes in two Austrian provinces (Styria, Carinthia) were randomly allocated to the intervention group (IG) and control group (CG). Data were collected from participating residents over a three-month period. The intervention consisted of the implementation of recommendations for the conservative management of UI among female nursing home residents. The primary outcome variable was the daily UI experienced by the participating residents. RESULTS: Residents in the (IG n = 216) had a lower risk (OR = 0.14, p = 0.02) of experiencing daily UI and were less likely to receive absorbent products (OR = 0.01, p = 0.01) than residents in the CG (n = 165). Residents in the IG (OR = 5.16, p = 0.00) were five times more likely to receive recommended interventions (e.g., bladder training) than residents in the CG. CONCLUSION: Introducing guideline-compliant management into nursing practice can increase the likelihood of evidence-based interventions for the conservative management of UI. The intervention in this study targeted on nurses/nurse managers and can be recommended for the nursing home setting.

Effects of play activities program for nursing home residents with dementia on pain and psychological well-being: Cluster randomized controlled trial.
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M. M. Y. Tse, J. L. Lau, R. Kwan, et al.
Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018 Oct;18(10):1485-1490
The prevalence of chronic pain among nursing home residents with dementia is high. This present study aimed to explore the effectiveness of a play activities program among nursing home residents with dementia. METHODS: Each nursing home was randomly assigned to an experimental group or control group. A 1-h play activities program was offered weekly for 8 weeks to the experimental group, whereas participants in the control group read books and magazines for 15 min weekly for the 8 weeks. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline, post-intervention (at week 8) and 4 weeks after the intervention. RESULTS: A total of 53 nursing home residents from four nursing homes were recruited. There were significant treatment effects on pain, depression and happiness level when comparing the experimental group and control group. However, there were no treatment effects on activities of daily living, social engagement, behavioral symptoms and mobility between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The play activities program was useful in reducing pain and improving the psychological health of nursing home residents with dementia.

Standards for the Use of Telemedicine for Evaluation and Management of Resident Change of Condition in the Nursing Home.
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S. M. Gillespie, A. L. Moser, M. Gokula, et al.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2019 Feb;20(2):115-122
This document offers guidance to clinicians and facilities on the use of telemedicine to deliver medically necessary evaluation and management of change of condition for nursing home residents. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: Members of the telemedicine workgroup of AMDA-The Society for Post-Acute Long-Term Medicine-developed this guideline through both telephonic and face-to-face meetings between April 2017 and September 2018. The guideline is based on the currently available research, experience, and expertise of the workgroup’s members, including a summary of a recently completed systematic mixed studies literature review to determine evidence for telemedicine to reduce emergency department visits or hospitalizations of nursing home residents. RESULTS: Research and experience to date support the use of telemedicine as a tool in change of condition assessment and management as a means of reducing unnecessary emergency department visits and hospitalization. Telemedicine-delivered care should be integrated into the primary care of the resident and delivered by providers with competency in post-acute long-term care. The development and sustainability of telemedicine programs is heavily dependent on financial implications. Quality measures should be defined for telemedicine programs in nursing homes. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Telemedicine programs in nursing homes can contribute to the delivery of timely, high quality medical care, which reduces unnecessary hospitalization. Reimbursement for telemedicine-driven care should be based upon medical necessity of visits to care and the maintenance of quality standards. More studies are needed to understand which telemedicine tools and processes are most effective in improving outcomes for nursing home residents.

A Proposal for the Retrospective Identification and Categorization of Older People With Functional Impairments in Scientific Studies-Recommendations of the Medication and Quality of Life in Frail Older Persons (MedQoL) Research Group.
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S. Brefka, D. Dallmeier, V. Muhlbauer, et al.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2019 Feb;20(2):138-146
When treating older adults, a main factor to consider is physical frailty. Because specific assessments in clinical trials are frequently lacking, critical appraisal of treatment evidence with respect to functional status is challenging. Our aim was to identify and categorize assessments for functional status given in clinical trials in older adults to allow for a retrospective characterization and indirect comparison of treatment evidence from these cohorts. We conducted 4 separate systematic reviews of randomized and nonrandomized controlled clinical trials in older people with hypertension, diabetes, depression, and dementia. All assessments identified that reflected functional status were analyzed. Assessments were categorized across 4 different functional status levels. These levels span from functionally not impaired, slightly impaired, significantly impaired, to severely impaired/disabled. If available from the literature, cut-offs for these 4 functioning levels were extracted. If not, or if the existing cut-offs did not match the predefined functional levels, cut-off points were defined by an expert group composed of geriatricians, pharmacists, pharmacologists, neurologists, psychiatrists, and epidemiologists using a patient-centered approach. We identified 51 instruments that included measures of functional status. Although some of the assessments had clearly defined cut-offs across our predefined categories, many others did not. In most cases, no cut-offs existed for slightly impaired or severely impaired older adults. Missing cut-offs or values to adjust were determined by the expert group and are presented as described. The functional status assessments that were identified and operationalized across 4 functional levels could now be used for a retrospective characterization of functional status in randomized controlled trials and observational studies. Allocated categories only serve as approximations and should be validated head-to-head in future studies. Moreover, as general standard, upcoming studies involving older adults should include and explicitly report functional impairment as a baseline characteristic of all participants enrolled.

The Impact of Frailty and Comorbidity on Institutionalization and Mortality in Persons With Dementia: A Prospective Cohort Study.
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M. L. Haaksma, D. Rizzuto, I. H. G. B. Ramakers, et al.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2019 Feb;20(2):165-170.e2
The predictive value of frailty and comorbidity, in addition to more readily available information, is not widely studied. We determined the incremental predictive value of frailty and comorbidity for mortality and institutionalization across both short and long prediction periods in persons with dementia. DESIGN: Longitudinal clinical cohort study with a follow-up of institutionalization and mortality occurrence across 7 years after baseline. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 331 newly diagnosed dementia patients, originating from 3 Alzheimer centers (Amsterdam, Maastricht, and Nijmegen) in the Netherlands, contributed to the Clinical Course of Cognition and Comorbidity (4C) Study. MEASURES: We measured comorbidity burden using the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics (CIRS-G) and constructed a Frailty Index (FI) based on 35 items. Time-to-death and time-to-institutionalization from dementia diagnosis onward were verified through linkage to the Dutch population registry. RESULTS: After 7 years, 131 patients were institutionalized and 160 patients had died. Compared with a previously developed prediction model for survival in dementia, our Cox regression model showed a significant improvement in model concordance (U) after the addition of baseline CIRS-G or FI when examining mortality across 3 years (FI: U = 0.178, P = .005, CIRS-G: U = 0.180, P = .012), but not for mortality across 6 years (FI: U = 0.068, P = .176, CIRS-G: U = 0.084, P = .119). In a competing risk regression model for time-to-institutionalization, baseline CIRS-G and FI did not improve the prediction across any of the periods. CONCLUSIONS: Characteristics such as frailty and comorbidity change over time and therefore their predictive value is likely maximized in the short term. These results call for a shift in our approach to prognostic modeling for chronic diseases, focusing on yearly predictions rather than a single prediction across multiple years. Our findings underline the importance of considering possible fluctuations in predictors over time by performing regular longitudinal assessments in future studies as well as in clinical practice.

Number of Medications and Mortality Among Residents in Nursing Homes
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M. Martin-Perez, A. Ruigomez, R. Pastor-Barriuso, F. J. Garcia Lopez, A. Villaverde-Hueso and J. Damian.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2019 Jan 17.
The use of multiple concurrent medications is an indicator commonly used to evaluate the quality of pharmacotherapy in older adults, via an assessment of the medication burden. Previous studies have reported polypharmacy prevalences of up to 40% among nursing home (NH) residents.3 However, the association between polypharmacy and mortality in this setting is still unclear. The aim of this study was to measure the association between multiple medication use and all-cause mortality in older people residing in NHs in Madrid.

The Association of Resident Communication Abilities and Antibiotic Use in Long-Term Care.
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F. E. Saxena, S. E. Bronskill, K. A. Brown, et al.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2019 Jan 28
To determine whether decreased communication ability among long-term care residents is associated with increased antibiotic exposure. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: All long-term care homes in Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: All adults aged 66 years or older residing in long-term care and undergoing a full assessment between January 1 and December 31, 2016 (N = 87,947). MEASUREMENTS: Data were obtained from linkable, population-wide administrative data sets. Residents were identified, and characteristics were abstracted from the Resident Assessment Instrument Minimum Dataset version 2.0. The primary predictors of interest were residents’ ability to make themselves understood and ability to understand others. The primary outcome was antibiotic days of treatment per 1000 resident days in the 90 days following assessment (obtained from the Ontario Drug Benefits Database). RESULTS: Those who were sometimes/rarely/never able to make themselves understood received 50.7 antibiotic days per 1000 person-days of follow-up, compared to 62.1 received by those who were able to make themselves understood. Those who were sometimes/rarely/never able to understand others received 50.0 antibiotic days per 1000 person-days of follow-up, compared to 61.4 by those who were able to understand others. Multivariable Poisson regression, accounting for resident characteristics, confirmed that compared to those with highest levels of communication ability, those who could sometimes/rarely/never make themselves understood had significantly fewer days on antibiotics (rate ratio [RR] = 0.76; confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.73-0.79) as did those who could sometimes/rarely/never understand others (RR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.74-0.79). CONCLUSION: Poor resident communication ability is not a driver of antibiotic overuse in long-term care. In fact, lower ability to understand others and/or be understood by others is associated with less antibiotic exposure. Further work is needed to optimize antibiotic use in long-term care residents across the entire spectrum of communication skills.

Dementia care model: Promoting personhood through co-production.
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A. Bosco, J. Schneider, D. M. Coleston-Shields and M. Orrell.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2018 Nov 16;81:59-73
Despite robust evidence on its effectiveness, current approaches that aspire to person-centred care (PCC) frequently locate people with dementia as passive recipients rather than as active agents in the care process. We define active involvement in care as ‘co-production’. In order to investigate co-production, we set out to review the evidence concerning personhood and dignity in dementia care. METHOD: We adopted a meta-ethnographic approach to synthesise the predominantly- qualitative literature on personhood and dignity in dementia care using EMBASE, PsycINFO, and ASSIA databases. We also included relevant policy documents. Members of Patient and Public Involvement (PPI) group were consulted throughout. RESULTS: A total of 14 empirical studies were subjected to content analysis. Three themes were identified: dignity and personhood, coping with dementia, and barriers to dignity in care. The findings suggest that positive strategies and coping mechanisms are associated with superior outcomes in relation to: sense of self, dignity and quality of care. The 22 policy documents yielded six themes pertaining to co-production: the part played by the person with dementia, family, environment, behaviour, governance and law, and health care partnership. CONCLUSION: Personhood in dementia care is enhanced through co-production, by actively participating in social, civic and political life. This is promoted through behavioural changes at the micro and macro levels of society, including providers of care being trained in co-producing care and policy makers creating opportunities with, rather than for people with dementia.

Who will become my co-residents? The role of attractiveness of institutional care in the changing demand for long-term care institutions.
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P. Alders, D. J. H. Deeg and F. T. Schut.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2018 Dec 1;81:91-97
In several OECD countries the percentage of people over 80 in LTC institutions has been declining for more than a decade, despite population ageing. The standard model to explain healthcare utilization, the Andersen model, cannot explain this trend. We extend the Andersen model by including proxies for the relative attractiveness of community living compared to institutional care. Using longitudinal data on long-term care use in the Netherlands from 1996 to 2012, we examine to what extent a decline in institutional care is associated with changes in perceived attractiveness of institutional LTC care compared to community living. METHODS: With a Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition regression, we decomposed the difference in admission to LTC institutions between the period 1996-1999 and 2009-2012 into a part that accounts for differences in predictors of the Andersen model and an “unexplained” part, and investigate whether the perceived attractiveness of institutional care reduces the size of the unexplained part. RESULTS: We find that factors related to the perceived attractiveness of institutional care compared to community living explains 12.8% of the unexplained negative time trend in admission rates over the total period (1996-2012), and 19.1-19.2% over shorter time frames. DISCUSSION: Our results show that changes in the perceived attractiveness of institutional LTC may explain part of the decline in demand for institutional care. Our findings imply that policies to encourage community living may have a self-reinforcing effect.


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Webinar Person-Centred Language Matters!

Tuesday 19 February 10:00-11:00
Presenters: Kate Ducak, Gagan Gill, Tina Kalviainen
The Person-Centred Language Commitment Statements, informed by the authentic voice of persons with lived experience, were created to promote the consistent use of person-centred language that is appropriate, respectful, life-affirming and inclusive when talking with and referring to older adults presenting with or at risk for responsive behaviours/ personal expressions that may be associated with dementia, complex mental health, substance use and/or other neurological conditions and their care partners. Learn about Behavioural Supports Ontario’s Person-Centred Language Initiative and engage in self-reflection and discussion on why we need appropriate language and explore ways to transfer, translate and implement the concepts included in the report which was released in October of 2018

Webinar AGREE Ecosystem – tools to support the practice guideline enterprise

10:00-11:00 MT Thursday 14 February
Presenter: Melissa Brouwers
Learning objectives:
1. To present philosophy and methods used to create and shape the AGREE programs of research.
2. To provide an overview of the AGREE tools and how can they can be used as a tool to improve patient experience and care and strengthen the health care system.
3. To promote discussion and critical debate about the guideline enterprise as a whole.

Webinar Sequential Designs for Mixed Methods Research

Tuesday February 19, 13:00-14:00
Presenter: David Morgan
This webinar begins by briefly comparing sequential designs to other, non-sequential (i.e., concurrent) designs. It then concentrates on the practical aspects of the four major sequential designs. First, “sequential exploratory” designs (qual –> QUAN) use qualitative methods to develop the content for quantitative studies. Second, “sequential explanatory” designs (QUAN –> qual) use qualitative methods to investigate the results from quantitative studies. Third, “sequential sampling” designs (quan –> QUAL) use quantitative methods to select data sources for qualitative studies. Finally, “sequential extension” designs (QUAL –> quan) use quantitative methods to broaden the results of qualitative studies.


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Online Course: Partnering with the Public and Patients in Medical Research

Stanford University, Free, 15 Feb-31 March
There are many benefits to partnering with patients in medical research. Yet despite much to be gained, patients and researchers often fail to meaningfully partner to advance medical science. How might we create trusting relationships between patients and researchers? What models might exist to enable inclusivity and respect of all relevant stakeholders in the medical research enterprise? These are just some of the topics we will cover in this Stanford Online course.

Collective Impact: Leading Theory to Action A Train-the-Trainer Workshop

19-20 March Toronto, ON Tamarack Institute $750-$850
Are you a community changemaker who is leading, or preparing to lead, a Collective Impact initiative? This workshop is designed to build your capacity to mobilize, launch and sustain Collective Impact initiatives by providing you with theory, resources and opportunities to practice with – and learn from – your peers. Over two days, you will be equipped with tools and best practices designed to help you bring your training back to your community and build local Collective Impact capacity in your organizations and roundtables.

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The Public Engagement Evaluation Toolkit

The Public Engagement Evaluation Toolkit is designed to make it easy to evaluate the design, execution and impact of public engagement with research. Find out how to design an evaluation and discover tools that will enrich your engagement whilst providing you with opportunities to evaluate what works.

What Works: Engaging the public through social media

From National Co-ordinating Centre for Public Engagement (NCCPE), this guide goes through some strategies to engage the public through social media.

Dementia Dialogue Podcast

These podcasts are based on a research project titled Mapping the Dementia Journey. This is led by Dr. Elaine Wiersma (associate professor and director of the Centre for Education and Research on Aging & Health at Lakehead University in Sudbury, Ontario) along with colleagues Dr. Pauline Sameshima (Lakehead University) and Dr. Sherry Dupuis (University of Waterloo and the Alzheimer Society of Ontario). Dr. Wiersma’s research is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

King’s Improvement Science glossary of terms used in improvement and implementation

Do you know the difference between inputs, outputs and outcomes? Can you describe the differences between outcome evaluations and process evaluations? King’s Improvement Science (KIS) – a team of researchers and quality improvement experts at CLAHRC South London have produced a free glossary of terms used in improvement and implementation that could help you.

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Zip code better predictor of health than genetic code

How Indigenous languages apps can benefit First Nations older adults living with dementia

Aging well at the heart of new national innovation hub at
SFU’s Surrey campus

Making Pragmatic Trials Pragmatic in Post-acute and Long-term Care Settings

Dementia‐Capable Healthcare: One Step Closer

How Focusing on What Matters Simplifies Complex Care for Older Adults

“They Want Docile” How Nursing Homes in the United States Overmedicate People with Dementia

Hospitals Stopped Readmitting So Many Medicare Patients. Did That Cost Lives? (US)

New research says some straightforward interventions are effective in addressing faculty workload disparities.

Kindness Is a Skill Practical tips for fighting a culture of savagery.

Doing it right – quality standards to improve care

To Improve Care, Empower Frontline Staff to Create Solutions

In the dark: The cost of Canada’s data deficit

Réduction des antipsychotiques en centre d’hébergement et de soins de longue durée – La ministre Marguerite Blais annonce des résultats positifs pour la phase 1 du projet OPUS – AP et la poursuite de la démarche

How to get started in quality improvement

Focus Your Time and Energy on What Matters Most with Pareto Charts

The Art of Evidence-Based Medicine

Marketplace: Crying out for care (episode on LTC staffing issues in Canada)

‘What my dad’s dementia taught me’

Simcoe County has three nurse practitioners among four long-term-care homes

‘Bright young scientists won’t come to join us in UK’

Global Research Hubs tackle world’s toughest challenges

Pay and PhD requirements ‘stopping’ nurses entering academia

It’s time to address the stigma of dementia

Why has submitting a manuscript to a journal become so difficult? A call to simplify an overly complicated process

Ottawa senior with dementia waited more than a year in hospital for long-term care bed

Dementia whiteboard ‘touches hearts’ around the world

Making Pragmatic Trials Pragmatic in Post-acute and Long-term Care Settings.

Inclusion of Older Adults in Research: Ensuring Relevance, Feasibility, and Rigor

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Post-Doc Scholar in Implementation Science Research – Embedded Researcher in Alberta Health Services

DEADLINE: 20 February
Contributing to the advancement of a large-scale learning health system through research and development of an ‘implementation science lab’ (a research team integrated into the health system undertaking research in implementation science that is aligned with health system priorities). This position is part of CIHR’s 2019 Health System Impact Fellowship Competition. If interested, please submit a cover letter and CV electronically to both Debbie.Mcneil@albertahealthservices.ca and Judy.Seidel@albertahealthservices.ca

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