J. E. Squires, J. Baumbusch, M. D. Varin, et al.
Can J Aging 2019 Mar 12:1-13
Registered nurses (RNs) and licensed practical nurses (LPNs) provide the skilled component of nursing care in Canadian residential long-term care facilities, yet we know little about this important workforce. We surveyed 309 RNs and 448 LPNs from 91 nursing homes across Western Canada and report descriptively on their demographics and work and health-related outcomes. LPNs were significantly younger than RNs, worked more hours, and had less nursing experience. LPNs also experienced significantly more dementia-related responsive behaviours from residents compared to RNs. Younger LPNs and RNs reported significantly worse burnout (emotional exhaustion) and poorer mental health compared to older age groups. Significant differences in demographics and work- and health-related outcomes were also found within the LPN and RN samples by province, region, and owner-operator model. These findings can be used to inform important policy decisions and workplace planning to improve quality of work life for nurses in residential long-term care facilities.
The 2016 brainXchange webinar “End of Life in LTC Homes” introduced the Seniors – Adding Life to Years (SALTY) project, a pan-Canadian research program in four provinces (NS, ON, AB and BC) examining clinical, social, critical and policy perspectives on quality of life for residents in long term care. Now in its fourth and final year, our researchers will share some of the project’s findings about clinical and social approaches that can support an enhanced quality of life in long term care. Project activities have focused around four themes: evaluating innovative practice, monitoring care practice, mapping care relationships and examining policy context, and researchers will share findings from the first two themes.
K. N. Corazzini, R. A. Anderson, B. J. Bowers, et al.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2019 Feb 27
To support person-centered, residential long-term care internationally, a consortium of researchers in medicine, nursing, behavioral, and social sciences from 21 geographically and economically diverse countries have launched the WE-THRIVE consortium to develop a common data infrastructure. WE-THRIVE aims to identify measurement domains that are internationally relevant, including in low-, middle-, and high-income countries, prioritize concepts to operationalize domains, and specify a set of data elements to measure concepts that can be used across studies for data sharing and comparisons. This article reports findings from consortium meetings at the 2016 meeting of the Gerontological Society of America and the 2017 meeting of the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics, to identify domains and prioritize concepts, following best practices to identify common data elements (CDEs) that were developed through the US National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Nursing Research’s CDEs initiative. Four domains were identified, including organizational context, workforce and staffing, person-centered care, and care outcomes. Using a nominal group process, WE-THRIVE prioritized 21 concepts across the 4 domains. Several concepts showed similarity to existing measurement structures, whereas others differed. Conceptual similarity (convergence; eg, concepts in the care outcomes domain of functional level and harm-free care) provides further support of the critical foundational work in LTC measurement endorsed and implemented by regulatory bodies. Different concepts (divergence; eg, concepts in the person-centered care domain of knowing the person and what matters most to the person) highlights current gaps in measurement efforts and is consistent with WE-THRIVE’s focus on supporting resilience and thriving for residents, family, and staff. In alignment with the World Health Organization’s call for comparative measurement work for health systems change, WE-THRIVE’s work to date highlights the benefits of engaging with diverse LTC researchers, including those in low-, middle-, and high-income countries, to develop a measurement infrastructure that integrates the aspirations of person-centered LTC.
N. Smith, K. Hunter, S. Rajabali, R. Fainsinger and A. Wagg.
J Pain Symptom Manage 2019 Feb 27
Functional dependence at end of life often leaves individuals requiring help for personal care, including maintaining continence. Current continence guidelines offer little direction for end of life continence care, and little is known of the perspectives of people receiving palliative care. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine the continence care preferences of people receiving palliative care to understand what approaches to care and what goals of care are important to them. DESIGN: This is a qualitative descriptive exploratory study with data gathered in individual interviews using a semi-structured interview guide. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen Canadian patients (seven female, seven male) on either a tertiary (6) or hospice palliative care unit (8) who were receiving continence care. RESULTS: From the analysis, three themes were identified: loss of control, finding a way to manage, and caregivers can help and can hinder. Dignity was often lost as a result of having to receive continence care, with most participants following staff recommendations for management approaches as the easiest way. Patients did not recall being asked about their bladder and bowel preferences. CONCLUSIONS: As patients approached end of life they were willing to give up dignity if it was required to address symptoms causing them more distress, like pain. Healthcare professionals and family have an important role in social interactions around continence care. Healthcare professionals should incorporate patient preferences as best they can and explain the options when treating incontinence at end of life.
Specific information in this year’s Alzheimer’s Disease Facts and Figures includes:
• Brain changes that occur with Alzheimer’s disease
• Risk factors for Alzheimer’s dementia
• Number of Americans with Alzheimer’s dementia nationally and for each state
• Lifetime risk for developing Alzheimer’s dementia
• Proportion of women and men with Alzheimer’s and other dementias
• Number of deaths due to Alzheimer’s disease nationally and for each state, and death rates by age
• The impact of caregiving on caregivers
• Number of family caregivers, hours of care provided, and economic value of unpaid care nationally and for each state
• National cost of care for individuals with Alzheimer’s or other dementias, including costs paid by Medicare and Medicaid and costs paid out of pocket
• Medicare payments for people with dementia compared with people without dementia
• Attitudes toward cognitive assessment among seniors and primary care physicians
• Awareness and use of the Medicare Annual Wellness Visit among seniors and primary care physicians
Community-university engagement is still an emerging field, which can make establishing and developing effective partnerships between community movements and academics difficult. Each year, the awards will celebrate outstanding examples of community-university engagement from across the world, highlighting their impact and raising awareness.
Across the globe, innovative collaborations between communities and academia are addressing some of today’s most complex challenges around social justice, community resilience and inequality. The award scheme will offer winning projects a modest financial reward – but, more importantly, the awards will attract national and international publicity and exposure. This will allow participants from around the world to share stories of their combined efforts, deepening the impact of their work locally and helping to raise awareness of community-university partnership work globally.
K. M. Plamondon and J. Pemberton.
Health Res Policy Syst 2019 Mar 4;17(1):24-019-0424-3
The persistence of health inequities is a wicked problem for which there is strong evidence of causal roots in the maldistribution of power, resources and money within and between countries. Though the evidence is clear, the solutions are far from straightforward. Integrated knowledge translation (IKT) ought to be well suited for designing evidence-informed solutions, yet current frameworks are limited in their capacity to navigate complexity. Global health governance (GHG) also ought to be well suited to advance action, but a lack of accountability, inclusion and integration of evidence gives rise to politically driven action. Recognising a persistent struggle for meaningful action, we invite contemplation about how blending IKT with GHG could leverage the strengths of both processes to advance health equity. DISCUSSION: Action on root causes of health inequities implicates disruption of structures and systems that shape how society is organised. This infinitely complex work demands sophisticated examination of drivers and disrupters of inequities and a vast imagination for who (and what) should be engaged. Yet, underlying tendencies toward reductionism seem to drive superficial responses. Where IKT models lack consideration of issues of power and provide little direction for how to support cohesive efforts toward a common goal, recent calls from the field of GHG may provide insight into these issues. Additionally, though GHG is criticised for its lack of attention to using evidence, IKT offers approaches and strategies for collaborative processes of generating and refining knowledge. Contemplating the inclusion of governance in IKT requires re-examining roles, responsibilities, power and voice in processes of connecting knowledge with action. We argue for expanding IKT models to include GHG as a means of considering the complexity of issues and opening new possibilities for evidence-informed action on wicked problems. CONCLUSION: Integrated learning between these two fields, adopting principles of GHG alongside the strategies of IKT, is a promising opportunity to strengthen leadership for health equity action.
D. Sunkersing, F. C. Martin, J. Reed, M. Woringer and D. Bell.
BMC Geriatr 2019 Mar 1;19(1):62-019-1083-5
Frail individuals are at risk of significant clinical deterioration if their frailty is not identified and managed appropriately. Research suggests that any interaction between an older person and a health or social care professional should include an assessment for frailty. Many older care home residents are frail when admitted, but we have little knowledge of whether or how this is assessed. The aim of this paper is to understand and establish the characteristics of the reported ‘assessments for frailty’ used in care homes with nursing (nursing homes) across North-West London. This will help understand what an ‘assessment for frailty’ of care home residents mean in practice in North-West London. METHODS: Telephone contact was made with every Care Quality Commission (CQC) (independent regulator of health and adult social care in England) regulated nursing home across North-West London [n = 87]. An online survey was sent to all that expressed interest [n = 73]. The survey was developed through conversations with healthcare professionals, based on literature and tested with academics and clinicians. Survey responses were analysed using descriptive statistics. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: 24/73 nursing homes completed the survey (33%). Differences in the characteristics of reported ‘assessments for frailty’ across nursing homes were evident. Variation in high level domains assessed (physical, social, mental and environmental) was observed. Nurses were the most common professional group completing assessments for frailty, with documentation and storage being predominantly paper based. A statistically significant difference between the number of assessments used in corporate chain owned nursing homes (3.9) versus independently owned nursing homes (2.1) was observed (U = 21, p = .005). CONCLUSIONS: Great variation existed in the characteristics of reported ‘assessments for frailty’ in nursing homes. Our study suggests that not all physical, social, mental and environmental domains of frailty are routinely assessed: it appears that frailty is still primarily viewed only in terms of physical health. The consequences of this could be severe for patients, staff and healthcare settings. Research illustrates that frailty is a broad, multifactorial health state and, as such, an overall ‘assessment for frailty’ should reflect this.
J. H. Puyat, A. Leclerc, A. Song, et al.
Palliat Med 2019 Feb 28:269216319833248.
Deaths in long-term care (LTC) facilities in Canada have increased over the years, yet the link between exposure to deaths and dying and staff well-being has rarely been investigated. In this study, we examined predictors of staff burnout, focusing specifically on exposure to deaths and dying in LTC.
M. den Ouden, S. M. G. Zwakhalen, J. M. M. Meijers, M. H. C. Bleijlevens and J. P. H. Hamers.
J Clin Nurs 2019 Mar;28(5-6):801-813
To examine the feasibility of DAIly NURSE and a nursing intervention to encourage nursing home residents’ daily activities and independence. BACKGROUND: Nursing home residents are mainly inactive during the day. DAIly NURSE was developed to change nursing behaviour towards encouraging nursing home residents’ activities and independence by creating awareness. It consists of three components: education, coaching-on-the-job and policy. DESIGN: A mixed-method study. METHODS: The feasibility of DAIly NURSE in practice was tested in six psychogeriatric nursing home wards, using attendance lists (reach), evaluation questionnaires (fidelity, dose received and barriers), notes made by the researcher (dose delivered and fidelity) and a focus group interview (dose received and barriers) with nursing home staff (n = 8) at the end of the study. RESULTS: The feasibility study showed that all three components (education, coaching-on-the-job and policy) were implemented in practice. The attendance rate in the workshops was high (average: 82%). Nursing home staff were satisfied with the workshops (mean score 9 out of 10 points) and agreed that DAIly NURSE was feasible in daily nursing care practice. Recommendations to optimise the feasibility of DAIly NURSE included the following: Add video observations of a specific moment of the day to create awareness of nursing behaviour; educate all nursing staff of the ward during the workshops; and organise information meetings for family members before the start of the intervention. Nursing staff were satisfied with the intervention and provided recommendations for adjustments to the content of the three components. The most important adjustment is the use of video observations to create awareness of nursing staff behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: DAIly NURSE, consisting of education, coaching-on-the-job and policy, is feasible in nursing home practice. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: DAIly NURSE might help to change nursing behaviour towards encouraging residents’ daily activities and independence.
N. Lemos Dekker, M. Gysels and J. T. van der Steen.
Palliat Support Care 2018 Aug;16(4):479-486
There are few studies on how professional caregivers apply the Liverpool Care Pathway (LCP) in nursing home care for people with dementia. Further, despite critiques in the United Kingdom, the LCP continues to be used in the Netherlands, while, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have been conducted since its implementation. The purpose of the present study was to analyze professional caregivers’ experiences with the LCP in this context. METHOD: This article draws on an ethnographic study. Data collection was based on 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork in 2015 in 11 psychogeriatric units of a nursing home in a rural area of the Netherlands. Data collection included participant observation and 25 semistructured audiotaped interviews with specialist elderly care physicians, nursing staff, and a nurse practitioner. RESULTS: We found that professional caregivers appreciate the LCP as a communication tool and as a reminder of care goals. However, the document was deemed too complicated and to cause duplication of work. It was also reported that the LCP did not cover the complexity of care needs that emerge in practice. Actual care needs were prioritized over the LCP, which calls its contribution into question. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: Overall, the LCP does not match the context of dementia care in the nursing home. While it could be argued that the LCP does not intend to replace good care, its benefits as a reminder and a communication tool need continued consideration in relation to the amount of work it requires as a bureaucratic obligation.
Y. Au, M. Holbrook, A. Skeens, et al.
Int Wound J 2019 Mar 12
Pressure ulcers (PUs) are a serious health care problem for nursing home residents and a key quality metric for regulators. Three initiatives were introduced at a 128-bed facility to improve PU prevention. First, a Quality Assurance and Performance Improvement project and a Root Cause Analysis were conducted to improve the facility’s wound care programme. Second, a digital wound care management solution was adopted to track wound management. Third, the role of skin integrity coordinator was created as a central point of accountability for wound care-related activities and related performance metrics. Improvements in PU prevention were tracked using Centers of Medicare and Medicaid data, specifically (a) the percentage of long-stay high-risk residents with PUs and (b) the percentage of short-stay residents with PUs that are new or have worsened. PU prevalence for long-stay high-risk residents was 12.99% (Q4 2016), and upon implementation of these initiatives, the facility saw continued reductions in PU prevalence to 2.9% (Q4 2017), while PUs for short-stay residents were maintained at zero throughout this period. This study highlights the power of effective management combined with real-time data analytics, as enabled by digital wound care management, to make significant improvements in health care delivery.
W. L. Mills, C. B. Pimentel, A. L. Snow, et al.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2019 Mar 6
Quality improvement (QI) may be a promising approach for staff to improve the quality of care in nursing homes. However, little is known about the challenges and facilitators to implementing QI interventions in nursing homes. This study examines staff perspectives on the implementation process. DESIGN: We conducted semistructured interviews with staff involved in implementing an evidence-based QI intervention (“LOCK”) to improve interactions between residents and staff through targeted staff behavior change. The LOCK intervention consists of 4 practices: (1) Learn from the bright spots, (2) Observe, (3) Collaborate in huddles, and (4) Keep it bite sized. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We interviewed staff members in 6 Veterans Health Administration nursing homes [ie, Community Living Centers (CLCs)] via opportunistic and snowball sampling. MEASURES: The semistructured interviews were grounded in the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation, Behavior (COM-B) model of behavior change and covered staff experience, challenges, facilitators, and lessons learned during the implementation process. The interviews were analyzed using thematic content analysis. RESULTS: Overall, staff accepted the intervention and appreciated the focus on the positives. Challenges fell largely within the categories of capability and opportunity and included difficulty finding time to complete intervention activities, inability to interpret data reports, need for ongoing training, and misunderstanding of study goals. Facilitators were largely within the motivation category, including incentives for participation, reinforcement of desired behavior, feasibility of intervention activities, and use of data to quantify improvements. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: As QI programs become more common in nursing homes, it is critical that interventions are tailored for this unique setting. We identified barriers and facilitators of our intervention’s implementation and learned that no challenge was insurmountable or derailed the implementation of LOCK. This ability of frontline staff to overcome implementation challenges may be attributed to LOCK’s inherently motivational features. Future nursing home QI interventions should consider including built-in motivational components.
W. B. Weeks, M. K. Mishra, D. Curto, et al.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2019 Mar 8
In nursing homes across the world, and particularly in Spain, there are concerns that psychotropic medications are being overused. For older Spanish nursing home residents who had dementia, we sought to evaluate the association between applying interventions designed to reduce inappropriate psychotropic medication use and subsequent psychotropic use. DESIGN: Retrospective, propensity score-matched, controlled, patient-level observational analysis. SETTING: A total of 45 nursing homes in Spain. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1653 nursing home residents, aged 70 to 99 years, who had dementia and were prescribed an antipsychotic, anxiolytic, or antidepressant medication, 606 of whom received an intervention; the remainder served as propensity score-matched controls. INTERVENTION: Team Rounds, Screening Tool of Older Persons’ Prescriptions (STOPP)/Screening Tool to Alert Doctors to Right Treatment (START) criteria, or a Patient Decision Aid. MEASUREMENTS: At 2 and 4 weeks following intervention: change from baseline drug class-specific milligram-equivalent daily dose (MEDD); at 2 weeks: patient falls and restraint use. RESULTS: Within each intervention/drug-class cohort, intervention patients and matched controls had similar baseline demographic characteristics, Charlson scores, lengths of admission, and drug class-specific MEDDs. Compared to controls, patients exposed to Team Rounds experienced a 23.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 13.9%-32.8%) reduction in antipsychotic and a 23.1% (95% CI = 18.3%-28.0%) reduction in anxiolytic MEDDs; those exposed to Patient Decision Aids had a 24.8% (95% CI = 15.6%-33.9%) reduction in antipsychotic and a 31.8% (95% CI = 25.5%-38.2%) reduction in anxiolytic MEDDs; and those exposed to STOPP/START application had a 27.7% (95% CI = 22.4%-33.0%) reduction in antipsychotic and a 39.5% (95% CI = 35.5%-43.5%) reduction in anxiolytic MEDDs. Intervention-associated antidepressant MEDD reductions were statistically significant but less dramatic. Interventions were associated with higher rates of medication discontinuation, but not higher rates of deaths, patient falls, or physical restraints. CONCLUSION: We found strong evidence that the interventions we studied were associated with reduced psychotropic use without commensurate harms, suggesting that such interventions should be incorporated into Spanish nursing home care models. Public reporting of psychotropic medication use in Spanish care homes may encourage care homes to regularly monitor psychotropic medication use and implement such instruments.
Implement Sci 2019 Mar 6;14(1):23-019-0872-8
To rethink the nature and roles of context in ways that help improvers implement effective, sustained improvement interventions in healthcare quality and safety. DESIGN: Critical analysis of existing concepts of context; synthesis of those concepts into a framework for the construction of explanatory theories of human environments, including healthcare systems. DATA SOURCES: Published literature in improvement science, as well as in social, organization, and management sciences. Relevant content was sought by iteratively building searches from reference lists in relevant documents. RESULTS: Scientific thought is represented in both causal and explanatory theories. Explanatory theories are multi-variable constructs used to make sense of complex events and situations; they include basic operating principles of explanation, most importantly: transferring new meaning to complex and confusing phenomena; separating out individual components of an event or situation; unifying the components into a coherent construct (model); and adapting that construct to fit its intended uses. Contexts of human activities can be usefully represented as explanatory theories of peoples’ environments; they are valuable to the extent they can be translated into practical changes in behaviors. Healthcare systems are among the most complex human environments known. Although no single explanatory theory adequately represents those environments, multiple mature theories of human action, taken together, can usually make sense of them. Current mature theories of context include static models, universal-plus-variable models, activity theory and related models, and the FITT framework (Fit between Individuals, Tasks, and Technologies). Explanatory theories represent contexts most effectively when they include basic explanatory principles. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare systems can usefully be represented in explanatory theories. Improvement interventions in healthcare quality and safety are most likely to bring about intended and sustained changes when improvers use explanatory theories to align interventions with the host systems into which they are being introduced.
O. U. Carlsson and B. Wadensten.
Nurs Open 2018 Jul 13;5(4):593-600
To explore whether professional training contributed to implementation of the national core value system in practice in care of older people and to identify course participants’ perceptions about factors that facilitated or obstructed them in implementing their projects. To identify participants’ perceptions concerning factors that facilitate or obstruct implementation. Design: Descriptive and cross-sectional. Methods: Data were retrieved from 451 participants who had completed the course “Understanding and providing leadership based on the national core value system for older people” at Uppsala University during spring semester and autumn semester of 2018. Quantitative and qualitative data were obtained using a web-based questionnaire. Results: The results showed that the majority (73%) of project plans were initiated, although not always completed and sometimes interrupted. Organizational readiness in terms of management supporting and prioritizing these plans were two principle facilitators chosen by half of the respondents and consequently the absence of these factors was an obstacle. In addition, successful implementation required dedicated co-workers and certain resources, such as time and funds. Surprisingly, factors related to the project leader were reported to be of limited importance.
Bethell, Jennifer and Puts, Martine TE and Sattar, Schroder and Andrew, Melissa K and Choate, Andrew S and Clarke, Barry and Cowan, Katherine and DeAngelis, Carlo and Elliott, Jacobi and Fitch, Margaret I and others.
Canadian Geriatrics Journal 2019;22(1):23-33.
Patient engagement in research priority-setting is intended to democratize research and increase impact. The objectives of the Canadian Frailty Priority Setting Partnership (PSP) were to engage people with lived or clinical experience of frailty, and produce a list of research priorities related to care, support, and treatment of older adults living with frailty. Methods The Canadian Frailty PSP was supported by the Canadian Frailty Network, coordinated by researchers in Toronto, Ontario and followed the methods of the James Lind Alliance, which included establishing a Steering Group, inviting partner organizations, gathering questions related to care, support and treatment of older adults living with frailty, processing the data and prioritizing the questions. Results In the initial survey, 799 submissions were provided by 389 individuals and groups. The 647 questions that were within scope were categorized, merged, and summarized, then checked against research evidence, creating a list of 41 unanswered questions. Prioritization took place in two stages: first, 146 individuals and groups participated in survey and their responses short-listed 22 questions; and second, an in-person workshop was held on September 26, 2017 in Toronto, Ontario where these 22 questions were discussed and ranked. Conclusion Researchers and research funders can use these results to inform their agendas for research on frailty. Strategies are needed for involving those with lived experience of frailty in research.
C. R. Long, R. S. Purvis, E. Flood-Grady, et al.
Health Res Policy Syst 2019 Mar 4;17(1):25-019-0422-5
Although research participants are generally interested in receiving results from studies in which they participate, health researchers rarely communicate study findings to participants. The present study was designed to provide opportunity for a broad group of health researchers to describe their experiences and concerns related to sharing results (i.e. aggregate study findings) with research participants. METHODS: We used a mixed-methods concurrent triangulation design, relying on an online survey to capture health researchers’ experiences, perceptions and barriers related to sharing study results with participants. Respondents were health researchers who conduct research that includes the consent of human subjects and hold a current appointment at an accredited academic medical institution within the United States. For quantitative data, the analytic strategy focused on item-level descriptive analyses. For the qualitative data, analyses focused on a priori themes and emergent subthemes. RESULTS: Respondents were 414 researchers from 44 academic medical institutions; 64.5% reported that results should always be shared with participants, yet 60.8% of respondents could identify studies in which they had a leadership role where results were not shared. Emergent subthemes from researchers’ reasons why results should be shared included participant ownership of findings and benefits of results sharing to science. Reasons for not sharing included concerns related to participants’ health literacy and participants’ lack of desire for results. Across all respondents who described barriers to results sharing, the majority described logistical barriers. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings contribute to the literature by documenting researchers’ perspectives and experiences about sharing results with research participants, which can inform efforts to improve results sharing. Most respondents indicated that health research results should always be shared with participants, although the extent to which many respondents described barriers to results sharing as well as reported reasons not to share results suggests difficulties with a one-size-fits-all approach to improving results sharing.
C. Hand, D. L. Rudman, C. McGrath, C. Donnelly and M. Sands.
Can J Aging 2019 Mar 8:1-9
Participatory action research (PAR) is well suited to research that aims to address social exclusion and inclusion in older age. Illustrations of and reflections on PAR with older adults are scarce, particularly the initiation stage, which sets the stage for the cyclical participatory action that follows. In this article, we describe the initiation of a PAR project with older adults and reflect on the alignment of this process with key participatory principles and fit within typical research structures. Findings point to the tensions between developing relationships over time and time-sensitive calls for funding, how traditional conceptions of research can influence creating equitable partnerships, and the need for development of ethical and publishing guidelines that address participatory approaches. These key insights can be applied to help achieve the potential of PAR: to address issues of concern by collaboratively and equitably working with the people most affected.
Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research Étienne V. Langlois, Karen Daniels, Elie A. Akl October 2018
This guide provides a rationale for synthesizing evidence from health policy and systems research (HPSR) to support health policy-making and health systems strengthening. It introduces key challenges in synthesizing HPSR evidence and provides guidance on addressing these issues, including suggestions for framing a synthesis question, assessing context-sensitive evidence, understanding complexity, addressing health equity, selecting the appropriate synthesis approaches for HPSR questions, presenting the evidence and making sense of the findings for health policy and systems decision-making.
This Guide examines various synthesis methods – quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods – and provides practical guidance to engage decision-makers in evidence synthesis, enhance the policy relevance of syntheses and foster the uptake of review findings in policy and practice.
M. Cleary, T. Raeburn, S. West and C. Childs.
Contemp Nurse 2019 Feb 27:1-9
In the midst of changing environmental conditions and increasing populations aged over 65 years, how best to provide nursing care that promotes mental health and wellbeing within residential aged care facilities is an important concern. AIM/OBJECTIVE: To explore the perceptions of temperature control, thermal comfort and nursing care in a small group of older Australians. DESIGN: Descriptive, qualitative study using thematic analysis. METHODS: Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with a group of older Australians living within an aged care facility. Interviews were taped, transcribed and then analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Five adults participated. Themes emerging included: (1) balancing nursing care and resident autonomy; (2) the importance of mobility to cope with temperature; and (3) reliance on habitual behaviour to cope with temperature. The importance of experiencing a sense of choice and ability to self-regulate personal environment arose as a substantial concern. CONCLUSIONS: The attention of older residents to personal issues related to thermal comfort linked to physical and mental health emphasise the importance of concerns regarding mobility, nursing care and autonomy. For older age residents the interplay between thermal comfort and behaviour adaptation is influenced by nurses and their control of the residential environment.
X. Zhao, D. Zhang, M. Wu, et al.
Psychogeriatrics 2019 Mar 5
The aim of this study was to elucidate whether depressive symptoms mediate the association between insomnia symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and to explore whether insomnia symptoms and depressive symptoms synergistically interact to affect HRQOL among older adults in nursing homes. METHODS: Older adults living in nursing homes (n = 323) completed Athens Insomnia Scale, the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, and the 36-item Short Form Health Survey. PROCESS for SPSS was used in the mediation model. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to obtain odds ratios (OR) for insomnia symptoms, depressive symptoms, and HRQOL. The relative excess risk due to interaction, the attributable proportion due to interaction, and the synergy index were assessed. RESULTS: Insomnia symptoms and depressive symptoms were negatively related to HRQOL. Depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between insomnia symptoms and HRQOL. Compared with the older adults without insomnia symptoms or depressive symptoms, those with only depressive symptoms (OR = 8.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.46-20.18) or insomnia symptoms (OR = 2.24, 95%CI: 1.04-4.83) had a lower HRQOL. Also, the co-presence of insomnia symptoms and depressive symptoms significantly increased the risk of lowering HRQOL (OR = 25.79; 95%CI: 12.72-52.28). The relative excess risk due to interaction, attributable proportion due to interaction, and synergy index were 16.19, 0.63, and 2.88, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms may play a mediating role between insomnia symptoms and HRQOL. Comorbid insomnia symptoms and depressive symptoms synergistically interact to affect HRQOL. It is vital to focus on elderly nursing home residents with insomnia symptoms and/or depressive symptoms and to adopt interventions.
L. Parra-Anguita, I. Sanchez-Garcia, R. Del Pino-Casado and P. L. Pancorbo-Hidalgo.
BMC Geriatr 2019 Mar 4;19(1):63-019-1086-2
Care for people with Alzheimer’s disease or other dementias should be based on up-to-date clinical practice guidelines. The education and training of nurses and other healthcare staff in dementia is a key factor in providing quality care. Knowledge of Alzheimer’s disease can be measured through questionnaires. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a scale to measure Alzheimer’s disease knowledge among both nursing staff and students. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey study undertaken in three stages: 1) development of the questionnaire and item wording; 2) content validation by an expert panel; 3) questionnaire testing with two samples to establish psychometric properties. Sample 1 comprised 361 Registered Nurses, Assistant Nurses and eldercare workers from 24 nursing homes in Jaen (southern Spain). Sample 2 comprised 297 nursing students. The data were analysed through item analysis and a Rasch model. Convergent and construct validity and internal consistency were also examined. RESULTS: The 23-item UJA Alzheimer’s Care Scale shows good outfit and infit values based on the Rasch model. One item presented differential functioning between Registered Nurses and Assistant Nurses. The intraclass correlation coefficient between the UJA Alzheimer’s Care Scale and the Spanish version of the Dementia Knowledge Assessment Tool 2 showed strong agreement among nursing staff (0.63) and students (0.79). The scale is able to distinguish between professionals with low or high knowledge of Alzheimer’s care. The overall Cronbach’s alphas were 0.70 (nursing staff) and 0.82 (nursing students). The intraclass correlation coefficient between the first test and the retest was good (0.84). CONCLUSIONS: The UJA Alzheimer’s Care Scale is a useful tool for measuring knowledge of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia care among nursing professionals or nursing students. The initial validation study obtained good psychometric properties concerning validity and reliability.
S. E. Shune and D. Linville.
Int J Nurs Stud 2019 Feb 8;92:144-153
Person-directed care in nursing homes, also known as the ‘culture-change movement’, aims to enhance dining-related quality of life. However, for residents with dysphagia, it is unclear how to best support this enhancement while balancing eating-related safety/risks. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore the experience of and to define successful, person-centered dining for residents with dysphagia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Grounded theory methodology guided twenty-one 60-90 minute semi-structured interviews with participants across 7 stakeholder groups including residents, family members, and nursing, dietary, and therapy staff. We used a systematic and iterative approach for all data collection, analysis, and generation of theory. RESULTS, DISCUSSION, AND IMPLICATIONS: A theory emerged from the data that highlighted how individualization and socialization are the central tenants for improving residents’ dining experiences and success, or ‘focusing on the person: individualization and socialization during mealtimes’. We identified multiple facilitators and barriers to successful dining for residents with dysphagia such as the importance of positive social connections and invested, knowledgeable, and aware care team members. The focus of care was a salient theme suggesting that individualization of care that promotes residents’ quality of life is a key facilitator of successful dining experiences. A social-ecological model for successful dining with dysphagia is ultimately proposed: optimizing health and well-being for these residents through successful dining experiences requires collaborative and coordinated care to address a variety of interrelated individual-, interpersonal-, and organizational-level facilitators and barriers.
C. E. Garabedian.
Dementia (London) 2019 Mar 7:1471301219835078
Music cannot only provide comfort and reduce agitation associated with dementia, but can also generate connections between all who are present. This article describes an ’emergency’ music intervention conducted by the author during doctoral fieldwork, which illustrates how music was used as a medium for connection and comfort with a highly agitated person with advanced dementia. This experience provides strong support for increasing the training of musicians towards providing music for people living with dementia – particularly when other nonpharmaceutical methods are not proving effective.
R. Granbo, E. Boulton, I. Saltvedt, J. L. Helbostad and K. Taraldsen.
BMC Geriatr 2019 Mar 6;19(1):75-019-1090-6
To explore informal caregivers’ perspectives and perceived needs related to health care services/activities for older adults with dementia, in order to understand barriers and facilitators to participation. The study represents a first step, and explores challenges to overcome, in order to design new activities and services adapted to older adults with dementia. METHODS: We used a qualitative approach where eight caregivers of people with a dementia diagnosis were included. We recruited participants from a counselling service centre, for home dwelling people with dementia and their families, in a Norwegian municipality. We transcribed data from two focus group interviews and completed analyses by use of Systematic Text Condensation method. RESULTS: The findings indicate that current health care services for people with dementia do not meet the needs of either the people with dementia or their caregivers. The few activities/services offered are characterised by passivity and lack of individual and personalised care. Existing health care services and new activities should consider each individual’s resources, interests, and physical function to ensure that both people with dementia and their caregivers want to accept support. CONCLUSIONS: To develop health care services and activities for people with dementia, participation and involvement from both people with dementia and their caregivers is necessary. People with dementia are more than their diagnosis. Future health care providers have to widen their focus and consider the individual person with dementia.
E. Cousins, V. Tischler, C. Garabedian and T. Dening.
Gerontologist 2019 Mar 6
The current evidence base for the arts and dementia has several limitations relating to the description, explanation, communication, and simplification of arts interventions. Research addressing these challenges must be multidisciplinary, taking account of humanities and science perspectives. Consequently, this research aimed to produce a taxonomy, or classification, of arts interventions for people with dementia as a contribution to this growing field. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This research was underpinned by taxonomy and realist methodology. Taxonomy, the science of classification, produces a common language to name, define, and describe the world around us. Realist theory explains how interventions “work” and produce their effects. The main findings in this paper were generated from a case study and a Delphi study. RESULTS: An arts and dementia taxonomy of 12 dimensions was developed: Art Form, Artistic elements, Artistic focus, Artistic materials, Arts activity, Arts approaches, Arts facilitators, Arts location, Competencies, Complementary arts, Intervention context, Principles. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Arts interventions can be classified according to their contexts, mechanisms, and outcomes. A range of stakeholders could benefit from the taxonomy, including people with dementia, artists, practitioners, carers, care staff, funders, commissioners, researchers, and academics. Language relating to the arts and dementia can be adapted depending on the audience. This is a foundational model requiring further development within the arts and dementia community.
B. Crosbie, M. Ferguson, G. Wong, D. M. Walker, S. Vanhegan and T. Dening.
BMC Med 2019 Mar 4;17(1):54-019-1286-9
Managing hearing communication for residents living with hearing loss and dementia in long-term care settings is challenging. This paper explores how care can be effective in optimising hearing communication for residents living with dementia. We argue that the underlying notion of permission or authorisation allows care staff to do what they know will be effective in providing person-centred care that enhances hearing communication. The paper also indicates that this notion of permission can usefully be applied to other areas of care home practice. METHODS: To address hearing-related communication in care homes, we conducted a realist synthesis (RS). As a theory-driven approach to reviewing literature, it also uses expert opinion to understand complex health situations. Using RS, we developed a theory surrounding the management of hearing-related communication in care homes. Applying formal processes to the literature search and data extraction, the analysis uncovered relevant mechanisms and contexts to help confirm, refute or refine our understanding of how hearing communication could be improved. RESULTS: Forty-three papers were selected for the realist synthesis. The documents were analysed to construct five context-mechanism-outcome configurations (CMOCs). The CMOCs represent possible care interventions to optimise hearing-related communication in care homes for person living with dementia and hearing loss (PLWDHL). They include leadership promoting positive regard and empathy through person-centred care, communication training for staff, ‘knowing the person’ and relationship building for responsive awareness of residents’ hearing needs, maintaining and monitoring hearing communication through care planning, and managing noise in the care home environment. CONCLUSIONS: Leadership that provides appropriate training and resources is likely to enhance knowledge and skills, leading to staff feeling able and equipped to respond to the hearing-related communication needs of PLWDHL. Collaboration with local hearing services is likely to raise awareness of hearing loss among care home staff. Importantly, care staff require a sense of permission from leadership, to work with knowledge and autonomy in the interest of residents living with dementia and hearing loss.
L. Loomer, B. Downer and K. S. Thomas.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2019 Mar;67(3):553-557
Improving function is an important outcome of postacute care in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), but cognitive impairment can limit a resident’s ability to improve during a postacute care stay. Our objective was to examine the association between residents’ cognitive status on admission and change in self-care and mobility during a Medicare-covered SNF stay. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of Medicare beneficiaries who had a new SNF stay between January and June 2017. SETTING: SNFs in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Newly admitted residents with Medicare-covered SNF stays between January and June 2017 (n = 246 395). MEASUREMENTS: Residents’ self-care and mobility at SNF admission and discharge were determined using items from Section GG (eating, oral hygiene, toileting hygiene, sit to lying, lying to sitting, sit to stand, chair/bed transfer, and toilet transfer) of the Minimum Data Set. Residents were classified as cognitively intact, mildly impaired, moderately impaired, or severely impaired, according to the Cognitive Function Scale. Multivariable regression models controlling for residents’ demographic and clinical characteristics and SNF fixed effects were used to identify residents whose discharge scores for self-care and mobility were better or the same as expected according to their cognitive status on admission. RESULTS: Residents who were cognitively impaired on admission had lower functional status on admission and were less likely to improve in self-care and mobility compared with residents who were cognitively intact. Approximately 63% of residents who were cognitively intact had discharge scores for self-care and mobility that were better or the same as expected compared with 45% of residents with severe cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive impairment is associated with poorer self-care and mobility function among SNF residents. These findings have important implications for clinicians, who may need additional support when caring for residents with cognitive impairment to make the same improvements in functional status as residents who are cognitively intact.
K. H. Halvorsen, S. Kucukcelik, B. H. Garcia and K. Svendsen.
Pharmacy (Basel) 2019 Mar 5;7(1):10.3390/pharmacy7010026
Nursing home residents often have several conditions that necessitate the use of multiple medicines. This study investigates the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) and its associations with sex, age, number of medicines, and study location (rural/urban). Methods: A cross-sectional study of long-term care residents from six nursing homes. Data was collected from medical records. We identified PIMs by applying the NORGEP-NH criteria. We conducted a Poisson regression analysis to investigate the association between the number of PIMs and sex, age, number of medicines, and study location. Results: We included 103 (18.4%) of 559 residents (68.0% women; mean age 83.2 years, mean number of daily used medicines 7.2 (SD = 3.6)). We identified PIMs in 56% of the residents (mean number = 1.10, SD = 1.26). In adjusted analyses, residents >/=80 years had 0.43 fewer PIMs compared to residents <80 years (p < 0.05). Residents using 4(-)6, 7(-)9, and 10+ medicines had on average 0.73, 1.06, and 2.11 more PIMs compared to residents using 0(-)3 medicines (p < 0.001), respectively. Conclusion: PIM use is prevalent among nursing home residents and is significantly associated with age and number of medicines. Our findings suggest a modest decrease in residents using PIMs compared to previous studies. Nevertheless, prescribing quality in nursing home residents in both urban and rural areas is still of great concern.
G. Haugan, E. Rinnan, G. A. Espnes, J. Drageset, T. Rannestad and B. Andre.
Scand J Caring Sci 2019 Mar 13
To develop and psychometrically test the Joy-of-Life Scale. The research question addressed evidence related to the dimensionality, reliability and construct validity, all of which considered inter-related measurement properties. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were collected during 2017-2018, in 27 nursing homes representing four different Norwegian municipalities, located in Western and Mid-Norway. The total sample comprised 188 of 204 (92% response rate) long-term nursing home patients who met the inclusion criteria: (i) local authority’s decision of long-term nursing home care; (ii) residential time 3 months or longer; (iii) informed consent competency recognised by responsible doctor and nurse; and (iv) capable of being interviewed. RESULTS: Exploratory and confirmative factor analyses clearly suggested a unidimensional solution. Five of the original 18 items showed low reliability and validity; excluding these items revealed an acceptable model fit for the one-dimensional 13-item measurement model. Reliability and construct validity were acceptable, indicating good internal consistency. CONCLUSION: Significant factor loadings, several goodness-of-fit indices and significant correlations in the expected directions with the selected constructs (anxiety, depression, self-transcendence, meaning-in-life, sense of coherence, nurse-patient interaction and quality of life) supported the psychometric properties of the Joy-of-Life Scale. IMPACT: The ‘Joy-of-Life-Nursing-Home’ is a national strategy for promoting quality of life, meaning and quality of life among nursing home patients in Norway. Therefore, exploring the essence of the Joy-of-Life phenomenon and developing a measurement scale assessing joy-of-life in this population is important for the further development of care quality in nursing homes.
M. Mileski, M. Brooks, A. Kirsch, F. Lee, A. LeVieux and A. Ruiz.
Clin Interv Aging 2019 Feb 12;14:301-319
The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability and effectiveness of the use of music in providing for positive physical and mental outcomes in nursing facilities. Problem: Lack of quality of life (QOL) has been a significant issue within nursing facilities. With the rise in census due to Baby Boomers, it has become imperative to find ways to increase overall QOL. Methods: The research team participants conducted a literature review via Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PubMed (MEDLINE), and Academic Search Ultimate to collect data regarding the use of music to provide for positive physical and mental outcomes in nursing facilities. Results: The most common facilitator mentioned was increased socialization or communication (18%), followed by reduced depression (12%), improved physical health (11%), and reduced agitation or behavior problems (9%). The most common barriers were as follows: cannot isolate effects of music (26%), cost prohibitive (11%), difficult to implement (11%), and no significant improvements in QOL or well-being (11%). Conclusion: The use of music showed positive outcomes for residents in nursing facilities and should be considered for implementation as part of the normal culture within such facilities.
C. Nesbitt, A. Gupta, K. Maly, H. R. Okhravi and S. Jain.
CNS Spectr 2019 Feb;24(1):181
Wearable sensors have become increasingly accurate in measuring various aspects of health monitoring in humans. Persons with dementia (PWD) often experience problematic behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). These behaviors can include kicking, hitting, biting, screaming, pushing and are stressful and dangerous for the PWD as well as for caregivers both formal paid caregivers and informal family caregivers. There are many proven methods to intervene during agitated behavior outburst and the earlier these methods are used the better the results. Such methods include redirection, one-on-one socialization, music therapy, pet assisted therapy, etc. These types of effective methods are preferred over routine or as needed medications to control the behaviors. The medications currently used have well documented adverse side effects, especially in aging adults.This IRB approved study used a convenience sample of eight PWD who had a history of BPSD in an assisted living facility specializing in the care of PWD. We evaluated the use of off-the-shelf smart watch technology to measure limb movements, vocalizations, heart rate and location in a facility. The research goal was to determine the feasibility of using this technology to accurately measure patient data which in turn will allow clinicians to promptly detect agitation and provide early intervention. Output data from the watch was compared to data recorded by trained observers using the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI). Data was collected in four-hour blocks of time over a two-day period.RESULTSAll the participants wore the devices without difficulty. Observations were then compared to the information obtained from the smart watch technology. Limb movements and heart rate increases correlated well with observers’ measurements of agitation. True positive measures were greater than 60% (data streams from devices correlated with observations). The voice measures of tone, volume and words used did not correlate well due to background noise in this communal environment.CONCLUSIONSData streams did correlate with observations. This technology could be useful in quickly identifying, and potentially anticipate, agitation in PWD. Further research is pending that will fine tune our software developed to measure the data streams and enhance accuracy. Also, improvements are being made in the ability to use voice recognition technology to capture the vocalizations associated with agitation. This technology can be used to quickly identify and prevent escalation of some BPSD by allowing early application of non-pharmacologic methods to treat agitation. Further study will also evaluate the impact this may have on the quality of life for caregivers and PWD
C. E. Stephens, L. J. Hunt, N. Bui, E. Halifax, C. S. Ritchie and S. J. Lee.
JAMA Intern Med 2018 Jan 1;178(1):141-142.
This study identifies which nursing home residents are eligible for palliative care services, describes their characteristics, and delineates resident and family perceptions regarding symptoms and quality of life.
Personal care homes (PCHs) provide care to people who face significant and multiple challenges. Strategies are needed to help care providers continually improve the quality of the medical and social care in PCHs, and to help Manitobans identify facilities where they may like to live. The purpose of this study was two-fold. First, we identified clinical quality indicators (QIs) that providers and planners feel are most appropriate to use in PCHs. We compared these QIs across facilities in ways that help stakeholders identify residents for whom quality of care is good and also where improvements may be needed. Second, by reviewing existing websites and the academic literature, we developed a list of recommendations for developing a PCH report card website in Manitoba. This website should be designed to help people identify PCHs where they or their loved ones would like to live, and to facilitate discussions between residents and providers about the goals of PCH care.
Are you a healthcare provider, quality officer, healthcare manager or someone involved in the healthcare system looking to make change happen and improve quality of care? Are you already using audit (quality indicators) and feedback (benchmark reports or dashboards) and want to learn how to improve design, delivery and achieve better outcomes? Are you a researcher wanting to learn more about the science and evidence of audit and feedback and what the international community is working on?
The 4th Annual International Audit & Feedback meeting will have something for everyone at every stage of the audit and feedback process. From those with new interests to seasoned experts, this meeting will help you learn about audit and feedback and generate new connections with international leaders in the field. A mix of theory-based principles and evidence-based best practices will provide you, in one day, with knowledge that you can directly bring back to your own practice.
Ottawa ON 4-6 June
Instructors: Jamie Brehaut, Jeremy Grimshaw, Justin Pressau
What is knowledge translation?
The scientific study of methods to promote the uptake of research findings into routine healthcare
Who is this course for?
Students, researchers and professionals interested in drawing upon cognitive and behaviour change theories to promote changing practice to improve healthcare delivery (no prior experience required).
Three consecutive full day sessions (9am-5pm) involving interactive lectures, student presentations, small group work, case studies and 1-1 faculty meetings. Core reading to be completed prior to the course.
This tool was developed to test knowledge and skills required for evidence-informed decision making (EIDM) and provide resources to help fill identified gaps. Topics covered by the tool include critical appraisal of evidence, interpreting research results and strategies for knowledge translation. The examples included are directly relevant to public health.