June 11, 2019

Grants & Awards


New TREC article
Factors associated with the responsive behaviours of older adults living in long-term care homes towards staff: a systematic review protocol.
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Y. Song, M. Hoben, L. Weeks, et al.
BMJ Open 2019 May 28;9(5):e028416-2018-028416
In the last decade, increasing research interest has been expressed in responsive behaviours of older adults living in long-term care (LTC) homes, including nursing homes and assisted living facilities. Responsive behaviours are not only a sign of underlying unmet needs, but when directed against (towards) paid staff can lead to decreased quality of work life, and may contribute to lower quality of care. In this systematic review, we aim to synthesise empirically based quantitative and qualitative evidence on factors and stakeholder (eg, staff and family members) experiences of factors associated with the responsive behaviours of people living in LTC directed towards staff. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study will be a systematic review of published and ‘grey’ literature. Twelve bibliographical databases will be searched, and for each database, we will use appropriate subject headings and keywords that cover two concepts: LTC and responsive behaviour. No publication date or language filter will be used. The title and abstract of each extracted record will be screened, followed by screening of full text of included papers. Then data extraction and quality assessments will be undertaken. Each stage will be completed independently by pairs of authors. For quantitative studies, meta-analysis will be conducted if pooling is possible; otherwise, a critical narrative analysis will be conducted. For qualitative studies, thematic analysis will be conducted. Factors will then be organised at the individual, interpersonal, institutional and larger societal levels. Sensitivity analysis will be conducted to explore the influence of risk of bias and publication bias on the results. Subgroup analysis will be conducted for people who live with dementia and those who do not. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not required for this systematic review. The results of this study will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publication and presentation at professional conferences.

New article by Les Hayduk, Carole Estabrooks, and Matthias Hoben
Fusion Validity: Theory-Based Scale Assessment via Causal Structural Equation Modeling

Leslie A. Hayduk, Carole A. Estabrooks and Matthias Hoben.
Frontiers in Psychology 2019;10:1139
Fusion validity assessments employ structural equation models to investigate whether an existing scale functions in accordance with theory. Fusion validity parallels criterion validity by depending on correlations with non-scale variables but differs from criterion validity because it requires at least one theorized effect of the scale, and because both the scale and scaled-items are included in the model. Fusion validity, like construct validity, will be most informative if the scale is embedded in as full a substantive context as theory permits. Appropriate scale functioning in a comprehensive theoretical context greatly enhances a scale’s validity. Inappropriate scale functioning questions the scale but the scale’s theoretical embedding encourages detailed diagnostic investigations potentially challenging specific items, the procedure used to calculate scale values, or aspects of the theory, but also possibly recommends incorporating additional items into the scale. The scaled items should have survived prior content and methodological assessments but the items may or may not reflect a common factor because items having diverse causal backgrounds can sometimes fuse to form a unidimensional entity. Though items reflecting a common cause can be assessed for fusion validity, we illustrate fusion validity in the more challenging context of a scale comprised of diverse items and embedded in a complicated theory. Specifically we consider the Leadership scale from the Alberta Context Tool with care aides working in Canadian long-term care homes.

The CFN led Frailty Outcomes Consensus (FOCUS) Project is looking for your input!
The Frailty Outcomes Consensus (FOCUS) Project

The Frailty Outcomes Consensus (FOCUS) Project is a multi-year CFN-led initiative to develop Common Outcome Measures (COMs) and Common Data Elements (CDEs), which will enable findings from research and translational studies to be collectively analyzed to better inform patient care. FOCUS aims to standardize research studies so that COMs and CDEs are captured in all frailty studies.

To date, the FOCUS project has included the completion of a systematic review of frailty outcomes in the published literature. We have also surveyed persons living with frailty and their family/friend caregivers, both living in the community as well as long term care, to ensure we are including outcomes important to persons living with frailty and their caregivers in our consensus process.

Based on this preliminary work, we have identified several COMs and CDEs that will be voted on through a Delphi consensus process. We would greatly appreciate your participation in identifying any further COMs and CDEs that may not have been identified through our preliminary work.

New article by Greta Cummings
The evaluation of evidence-informed changes to an internationally educated nurse registration process.
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J. A. Kwan, M. Wang, G. G. Cummings, et al.
Int Nurs Rev 2019 May 27
To evaluate effectiveness of specific policy and practice changes to the process of registration for internationally educated nurses. BACKGROUND: Little research exists to inform registration policy for internationally educated health professionals. INTRODUCTION: Internationally educated nurse employment can help address nursing shortages. Regulators assess competencies for equivalency to Canadian-educated nurses, but differences in health systems, education and practice create challenges. METHODS: The study setting was a Canadian province. We used a mixed methods approach, with a pre-post-quasi-experimental design and a qualitative evaluation. Previous analysis of relationships between applicant variables, registration outcomes and timelines informed changes to our registration process. Implementation of these changes composes the intervention. Comparisons between pre- and post-implementation exemplar subgroups and timeline analyses were conducted using descriptive statistics, univariate analysis and non-parametric tests. Data were collected from complete application files before (n = 426) and after (n = 287) implementation of the intervention. Interviews, focus groups and consultations were completed with various stakeholders. FINDINGS: The time between steps in the process was significantly reduced following implementation. Stakeholders reported an increase in perceived efficiency, transparency and use of evidence. DISCUSSION: Results indicated that initial impacts of the policy changes streamlined the process for applicants and staff. CONCLUSION: Maintaining a consistent and systematic review of an organization’s data coupled with implementation of findings to effect policy and practice change may have an important impact on regulatory policy. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING POLICY: These findings represent the beginning of an international policy conversation. Policy changes based on organizational data can underlie major process improvement initiatives. Ongoing nursing shortages across the globe and increasing mobility of nurses make it important to have efficient and transparent regulatory policy informed by evidence.

New article by Janet Squires
Development and psychometric testing of the 5Senses screening tool for long-term care: a study protocol.
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C. Backman and J. E. Squires.
BMJ Open 2019 Jun 1;9(5):e027720-2018-027720
As adults age, their senses tend to decline and a large portion of those most affected by sensory decline reside in long-term care. At present, the creation of a sense-sensitive environment in long-term care is a difficult task as there is minimal evidence or tools available to guide this process. The 5Senses screening tool was developed to measure the sense-sensitivity of a particular environment, with a focus on long-term care. The purpose of this paper is to describe a study protocol to assess the psychometric properties of the newly developed 5Senses screening tool. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a psychometric evaluation of the 5Senses screening tool in long-term care based on the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing Framework. In phase I, we will seek input from international content experts (n=20) to assess the content validity of all sections of the tool. In phase II, we will invite auditors (n=3-9), residents (n=3-9) and staff (n=3-9) to partake in think-aloud sessions to assess response process validity. In phase III, we will conduct field testing of the revised 5Senses screening tool with auditors (n=100), residents (n=100) and staff (n=100) to evaluate additional measures including acceptability, inter-rater reliability, internal structure validity and internal consistency reliability, where possible. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained from the University of Ottawa Research Ethics Board. Findings will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed manuscript, through a dedicated website, through presentations in long-term care communities and through presentations at research conferences.

New article by Kim Fraser
Factors That Influence Home Care Case Managers’ Work and Workload.
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K. Fraser, L. G. Baird, D. Laing, J. Lai and N. S. Punjani.
Prof Case Manag 2019 Jul/Aug;24(4):201-211
Home care services are increasing across Canada and in other developed nations. There has been increased pressure on home care programs to not only accept more clients more rapidly but also work more efficiently. Case management is an approach through which clients access and receive home care. With both rising numbers of clients and growing complexity among them, case managers’ work and workload are also increasing. The demands on case managers and expansion in caseloads are happening without an increase in resources or funding. With case manager work increasing steadily, an understanding of the factors that influence their work and workload is vital. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore what factors influence case managers’ work and workload. METHODS: This study used an ethnographic approach. It took place in Alberta, Canada, in 3 home care offices in urban and suburban geographic areas. Purposive sampling was used, and participants included 28 home care case managers with predominantly long-term clients (>3 months on home care), 3 site managers, and 1 project lead. Data collection methods included semistructured interviews, nonparticipant observation, participant journaling, and focus groups. RESULTS: Case manager works were portrayed in 2 key ways: the number and type of tasks a case manager was required to complete and the amount of time and energy needed to complete a task. The factors that influence case manager work and workload fall into 3 overarching categories: structural, operational, or individual factors. DISCUSSION: The 3 overarching categories, as well as interactions between various factors, contribute to what is known about case managers’ work and workload. Participants found it difficult to discuss the factors in isolation because the interaction and “messiness” of the factors were inherent in their actions and stories about their work and workload. Workload includes not only the easily captured work such as direct care and specific activities such as assessment but also diverse forms of invisible work such as problem solving, rapport building, and caseload management, as well as emotional work such as coping, stress management, and team support. IMPLICATIONS FOR CASE MANAGEMENT: Case managers’ work and workload in home care are important phenomena. In a climate of budgetary restraint and an aging population, which seemingly prefer home care as much as the system desires to provide it as a main option for care, it is important to capture, recognize, and legitimize an understanding of case managers’ work and workload. Increased knowledge in this area could, in turn, transforms both home care and case management.


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Grants & Awards

SPOR Evidence Alliance 2019 Seed Grant Competition: Advancing the Science of Patient Engagement in Research

The SPOR Evidence Alliance Seed Grant aims to foster a culture of learning and innovation for graduate trainees and early career investigators in the areas of knowledge synthesis, clinical practice guidelines, and knowledge translation in a patient-oriented research environment.

Up to two awards are available at a value of $10,000 for one year
Each applicant will be assessed on the following three assessment criteria: Academic Excellence, Research Impact, and Study Feasibility

2019-2020 Banting Postdoctoral Fellowships Competition

DEADLINE 18 September
The Banting Postdoctoral Fellowships program is designed to support world-class postdoctoral researchers. The fellowship provides $70,000 per year for two years. The program is open to both Canadian and international researchers who have recently completed a PhD, PhD- equivalent, or health professional degree. Applications must be completed in full collaboration with the proposed host institution


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Health Care Administration and Organization
Health Care Innovation and Quality Assurance
Research Practice and Methodology


A conceptual framework for patient-directed knowledge tools to support patient-centred care: Results from an evidence-informed consensus meeting.
Non UofA Access

D. Dreesens, A. Stiggelbout, T. Agoritsas, et al.
Patient Educ Couns 2019 May 4
Patient-directed knowledge tools are designed to engage patients in dialogue or deliberation, to support patient decision-making or self-care of chronic conditions. However, an abundance of these exists. The tools themselves and their purposes are not always clearly defined; creating challenges for developers and users (professionals, patients). The study’s aim was to develop a conceptual framework of patient-directed knowledge tool types. METHODS: A face-to-face evidence-informed consensus meeting with 15 international experts. After the meeting, the framework went through two rounds of feedback before informal consensus was reached. RESULTS: A conceptual framework containing five patient-directed knowledge tool types was developed. The first part of the framework describes the tools’ purposes and the second focuses on the tools’ core elements. CONCLUSION: The framework provides clarity on which types of patient-directed tools exist, the purposes they serve, and which core elements they prototypically include. It is a working framework and will require further refinement as the area develops, alongside validation with a broader group of stakeholders. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The framework assists developers and users to know which type a tool belongs, its purpose and core elements, helping them to develop and use the right tool for the right job.

Nurses’ Use of Evidence-Based Practice at Point of Care: A Literature Review.
Non UofA Access

I. McKinney, R. A. DelloStritto and S. Branham.
Crit Care Nurs Q 2019 Jul/Sep;42(3):256-264
The article reports results of an interrogative literature review designed to study the acquisition of research-based knowledge among practicing nurses who provide direct patient care for decision making at the point of care. Findings reveal that despite the amount of research done on the use of evidence-based practice among nurses, gaps continue to exist between what is known and what is done in practice. Nurses often cite the lack of time and support and the lack of knowledge as predominant factors that keep them from using evidence-based practice at the point of care. The past research has primarily been completed using a retrospective approach. There is a paucity of research that evaluates specific nursing behaviors that support evidence-based practice in daily patient care.

Implementation Science: Fidelity Predictions and Outcomes (US)

Dean L Fixsen, Melissa Van Dyke, Karen A Blase
2019 Chapel Hill, NC: Active Implementation Research Network
In the following examples, note that the prediction that the use of innovations with fidelity improves outcomes is confirmed repeatedly in a broad range of programs, human service domains, countries, and circumstances (“generalizable and robust”). Also note the information related to how fidelity is produced and supported (“move the problem of explanation”) by assuring Usable Innovations and using Implementation Drivers, Implementation Stages, Improvement Cycles, Implementation Teams, and Systemic Change (i.e., the Active Implementation Frameworks). This small sample of many studies confirms Implementation Science as a science that can help improve the wellbeing of people in every country.


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Health Care Administration and Organization

The Impact of Leadership and Psychosocial Work Environment on Recipient Satisfaction in Nursing Homes and Home Care.
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D. Lundgren, M. Ernsth Bravell, U. Borjesson and I. Kareholt.
Gerontol Geriatr Med 2019 Apr 18;5:2333721419841245-Dec
This study examines the association between nursing assistants’ assessment of leadership, their psychosocial work environment, and satisfaction among older people receiving care in nursing homes and home care. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted with nursing assistants (n = 1,132) and people receiving care (n = 1,535) in 45 nursing homes and 21 home care units. Direct leadership was associated with the psychosocial work environment in nursing homes and home care. Furthermore, better leadership was related to higher satisfaction among nursing assistants and older people in nursing homes. Thus, indirect leadership had no effect on recipients’ satisfaction in either nursing homes or home care. The path analysis showed an indirect effect between leadership factors and recipient satisfaction. The findings suggest that the psychosocial work environment of nursing assistants and recipient satisfaction in nursing homes can be increased by improving leadership.

The Association Between Psychosocial Work Environment and Satisfaction With Old Age Care Among Care Recipients.
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D. Lundgren, M. Ernsth Bravell, U. Borjesson and I. Kareholt.
J Appl Gerontol 2018 Jun 1:733464818782153
This study examines the association between nursing assistants’ perceptions of their psychosocial work environment and satisfaction among older people receiving care in nursing homes and home care. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted among people receiving care ( N = 1,535) and nursing assistants ( N = 1,132) in 45 nursing homes and 21 home care units within municipal old-age care. Better psychosocial work environment was related to higher satisfaction in old-age care among the recipients. Significant and stronger associations were more common in nursing homes than in home care. Perception of mastery and positive challenges at work were associated with higher recipient satisfaction both in home care and in nursing homes: social climate, perception of group work, perception of mastery, and positive challenges at work only in nursing homes. Findings suggest that recipient satisfaction may be increased by improving the psychosocial work environment for nursing assistants, both in nursing homes and in home care.

Leadership and the psychosocial work environment in old age care.
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D. Lundgren, M. Ernsth-Bravell and I. Kareholt.
Int J Older People Nurs 2016 Mar;11(1):44-54
To study leadership factors and their associations with psychosocial work environmental among nursing assistants who are engaged in old age care and to analyse (i) differences in the assessment of leadership factors and the assessment of psychosocial work environmental in nursing homes and home help services and (ii) the association between the psychosocial work environment and factors that are related to leadership in nursing homes and home help services. BACKGROUND: Leadership factors are an important element of the psychosocial work environment in old age care. The physical distance between leaders and nursing assistants is larger in home help services than in nursing homes. Therefore, it is important to study leadership separately in nursing homes and home help services. DESIGN: Assessments from 844 nursing assistants in nursing homes and 288 in home help services (45 nursing homes and 21 home help service units) were analysed. METHODS: The data were analysed using linear regression. Age, gender, number of staff at the unit, number of years at the current working unit and educational level were controlled in Model 1. Summarised indexes that were based on all independent variables except the main independent variable were additionally controlled in Model 2. RESULTS: Psychosocial work environment was related to leadership factors, but stronger associations occurred more frequently in nursing homes than in home help services. Empowering leadership, support from superiors, the primacy of human resources and control over decisions were associated with higher assessments on all the variables that were related to the psychosocial work environment in both the nursing homes and home help services. CONCLUSIONS: Organisational differences in conducting leadership in old age care must be considered. Some leadership characteristics are better prerequisites for creating and maintaining a positive psychosocial work environment for nursing assistants in nursing homes and home help services. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Due to the differences in organisational settings, it is important to consider the differences in prerequisites in conducting leadership. To influence nursing assistants’ performance and to increase quality in old age care in the long term, appropriate leadership is necessary

A qualitative interview study comparing and contrasting resident and staff perspectives of engaging in meaningful activity in a UK care home.
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N. Clarke, R. Smith, J. Wood, S. Koskela, F. Jones and M. Hurley.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2019 Jul – Aug;83:257-262
The provision of meaningful activities in care homes is essential for maintaining residents’ mental and physical health, yet many do not get adequate opportunities to participate. This qualitative study explored resident and staff perceptions of engaging in meaningful activities in a residential care home for older people (aged over 65 years) in South London, UK. Nine residents and eleven staff members were recruited and their experiences explored through semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed thematically, and three themes emerged. (1) Appreciation of activity: both staff and residents were aware of the benefits of activity to physical and mental health, yet there was a lack of provision within the home. (2) Residents’ desire for engagement: residents perceived themselves as active individuals who had previously enjoyed activities, and had goals that they wanted to achieve. This was in contrast to views of care staff, who perceived residents as inactive, lacking in motivation and sedentary due to intrinsic factors such as their age. (3) Impact of care home culture and physical space: staff and residents perceived different barriers to activity; staff reported they were often expected to take on multiple roles within the home leading to a lack of time to engage residents in activities, whilst residents perceived that the layout and design of the home hindered provision. It was concluded that comparing and contrasting views of residents and staff could assist residential homes to reach greater levels of shared understanding of activity provision and highlight particular areas to target for increasing activity engagement.

Complementary and Integrative Medicine in Nursing Homes: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study in Residents and Caregivers.
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M. Ortiz, K. Schnabel, S. Binting, et al.
Complement Med Res 2019 May 29:1-12
Some nursing homes for the elderly in Germany integrate complex complementary and integrative medicine interventions in the form of hydrotherapy, herbal and mind-body therapies, physical activities, and healthy eating, known as Kneipp therapy (KT), in care. This pilot study explored health- and work-related characteristics and acceptance of KT amongst residents and caregivers. METHODS: Within a mixed-methods cross-sectional study in nursing homes who had integrated KT, we assessed work ability, psychosocial burden at work and health-related quality of life of caregivers, as well as a broad selection of health-related data of residents by questionnaires and assessments. Data were analyzed descriptively. RESULTS: The data from 29 female caregivers (42.0 +/- 11.7 years) and 64 residents (83.2 +/- 8.1 years) were analyzed. Both caregivers (96%) and residents (89%) considered KT to be beneficial for health and well-being. Ninety percent of the caregivers indicated an improved relationship to residents since implementing KT. Caregivers showed a good work ability and quality of life. Residents attained remarkable ratings in social relation and affect-related aspects of quality of life. CONCLUSION: The results of this cross-sectional study indicate a high acceptance of integrating KT by residents and caregivers. The effectiveness and safety of KT should be explored in further comparative studies.

Substituting physicians with nurse practitioners, physician assistants or nurses in nursing homes: a realist evaluation case study.
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M. H. Lovink, M. G. Laurant, A. J. van Vught, et al.
BMJ Open 2019 May 24;9(5):e028169-2018-028169
This study aimed to gain insight into how substitution of elderly care physicians (ECPs) by nurse practitioners (NPs), physician assistants (PAs) or registered nurses (RNs) in nursing homes is modelled in different contexts and what model in what context contributes to perceived quality of healthcare. Second, this study aimed to provide insight into elements that contribute to an optimal model of substitution of ECPs by NPs, PAs or RNs. DESIGN: A multiple-case study was conducted that draws on realist evaluation principles. SETTING: Seven nursing homes in the Netherlands PARTICIPANTS: The primary participants were NPs (n=3), PAs (n=2) and RNs (n=2), working in seven different nursing homes and secondary participants were included; ECPs (n=15), medical doctors (MDs) (n=2), managing directors/managers/supervisors (n=11), nursing team members (n=33) and residents/relatives (n=78). DATA COLLECTION: Data collection consisted of: (1) observations of the NP/PA/RN and an ECP/MD, (2) interviews with all participants, (3) questionnaires filled out by the NP/PA/RN, ECPs/MDs and managing directors/managers and (4) collecting internal policy documents. RESULTS: An optimal model of substitution of ECPs seems to be one in which the professional substitutes for the ECP largely autonomously, well-balanced collaboration occurs between the ECP and the substitute, and quality of healthcare is maintained. This model was seen in two NP cases and one PA case. Elements that enabled NPs and PAs to work according to this optimal model were among others: collaborating with the ECP based on trust; being proactive, decisive and communicative and being empowered by organisational leaders to work as an independent professional. CONCLUSIONS: Collaboration based on trust between the ECP and the NP or PA is a key element of successful substitution of ECPs. NPs, PAs and RNs in nursing homes may all be valuable in their own unique way, matching their profession, education and competences.

‘We have no crystal ball’ – advance care planning at nursing homes from the perspective of nurses and physicians.
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L. Kastbom, A. Milberg and M. Karlsson.
Scand J Prim Health Care 2019 Jun;37(2):191-199
To investigate clinicians’ perspectives on the factors that shape the process of advance care planning in a nursing home context. Design: Interviews. Latent qualitative content analysis. Setting: Nine nursing homes in Sweden. Subjects: 14 physicians and 11 nurses working at nursing homes. Main outcome measures: Participants’ views on advance care planning (ACP) at nursing homes. Results: The analysis of the interviews resulted in four manifest categories: Exploration of preferences and views, e.g. exploring patient wishes regarding end-of-life issues and restrictions in care at an early stage, and sensitivity to patient’s readiness to discuss end-of-life issues; Integration of preferences and views, e.g. integration of patient’s preferences and staff’s and family member’s views; Decision & documentation of the ACP, e.g. clear documentation in patient’s medical records that are up-to-date and available for staff caring for the patient, and Implementation & re-evaluation of the ACP, e.g. nurse following up after ACP-appointment to confirm the content of the documented ACP. The latent theme, Establishing beneficence – defending oneself against tacit accusations of maleficence, emerged as a deeper meaning of all the four (manifest) parts of the ACP-process Conclusion: This study stresses the importance of involving patients, family members, and the team in the work with advance care planning in nursing homes. In addition, clear medical record documentation and proficiency in end-of-life communication related to advance care planning for physicians as well as nurses may also be factors that significantly shape advance care planning in a nursing home context. Key Points Advance care planning can help patients to receive care in line with their preferences and can positively impact quality of end-of-life care. Our results describe a process consisting of four manifest categories and one latent theme constituting the process of advance care planning, that may be considered in education in advance care planning. The significance of nurses and physicians perceiving beneficence as well as fear of accusations of maleficence are important factors to contemplate. The study has implications for healthcare staff caring for patients near the end of their lives, in particular patients in nursing homes.

The Impact of Chain Standardization on Nursing Home Staffing.
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J. Banaszak-Holl, O. Intrator, J. Li, et al.
Med Care 2018 Dec;56(12):994-1000
Standardization in production is common in multientity chain organizations. Although chains are prominent in the nursing home sector, standardization in care has not been studied. One way nursing home chains may standardize is by controlling the level and mix of staffing in member homes. OBJECTIVES: To examine the extent to which standardization occurred in staffing, its relative presence across different types of chains, and whether facilities became more standardized following acquisition by a chain. RESEARCH DESIGN: We estimated predictors of the difference between facility and chain staffing using Generalized Estimating Equations with 2000-2010 data. SUBJECTS: This study included nursing homes nationally, excluding hospital-based homes and homes in Alaska, Hawaii, and the District of Columbia. MEASURES: Chain ownership was coded from text identifying chain names. Two nurse staffing measures were used: staff hours per resident day and staff mix. RESULTS: Very large for-profit chain nursing homes and large nonprofits had less variation in staff hours per resident day (P<0.001) but greater variation in staffing mix (P<0.001) compared with the chain average nationally. Large for-profit chains and medium nonprofit chains had greater dispersion on staff hours per resident day (P<0.001), while large nonprofit chains had greater dispersion in staffing mix (P<0.001). The difference between facility and chain staffing decreased over time. CONCLUSIONS: The largest chains (for-profit and nonprofit) had less staffing variation compared with national standards, suggesting they were best at implementing corporate practices. Following ownership changes, staffing converged towards chain averages over time, suggesting standardization takes time to implement.

Knee pain in nursing home workers after implementation of a safe resident handling program.
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J. E. Gold, A. Kurowski, R. J. Gore, ProCare Research Team and L. Punnett.
Am J Ind Med 2018 Oct;61(10):849-860
Approximately 25-30% of nursing personnel experience knee pain (KP). We sought to identify physical and psychosocial work exposures, and personal factors related to prevalent, incident, and persistent KP 5-8 years after safe resident handing program (SRHP) implementation in nursing homes. METHODS: Health and exposure information was obtained from worker surveys 5-6 years (“F5”) and 7-8 years (“F6”) post-SRHP implementation. Prevalent KP correlates were examined at F5; persistent and incident KP predictors were analyzed at F6, utilizing robust Poisson multivariable regression. RESULTS: F5 KP prevalence (19.7%) was associated with combined physical exposures, and with either high job strain or low social support, in separate models. Two-year persistent KP was similarly associated with these psychosocial exposures. Being overweight was associated with KP in all analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The SRHP program did not eliminate knee physical loading, which should be reduced to prevent nursing home worker KP. Workplace psychosocial exposures (high job strain, low social support) also appeared germane.

Providing Behavioral Health Services in Nursing Homes Is Difficult: Findings From a National Survey.
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J. Orth, Y. Li, A. Simning and H. Temkin-Greener.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2019 Jun 5
Behavioral health (BH) disorders affect 65% to 90% of nursing home (NH) residents. Access to BH services in NHs has been generally considered inadequate, but the empirical evidence is sparse. We examined the availability of BH services and identified facility-level factors associated with the difficulty of providing BH services in NHs. DESIGN: A national random sample of 3996 NHs was identified. Two structured surveys with questions about BH service availability, quality, satisfaction, staffing, staff education, turnover, and service barriers were mailed to administrators and directors of nursing in each NH between July and December 2017. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Completed surveys were obtained from 1079 NHs (27% response rate). Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regressions were employed. MEASUREMENTS: Four outcome measures were based on five-point Likert scales: (1) adequacy of BH staff education; (2) ability to meet resident BH service needs; (3) adequacy of coordination/collaboration between NH/community providers; and (4) availability of necessary facility infrastructure. RESULTS: BH service needs were unmet in one third of NHs; almost half lacked appropriate staff BH education. Over 30% reported having inadequate coordination of care between NH and community providers, and 26.2% had inadequate infrastructure for residents’ referrals/transport. Staff BH education was less problematic in NHs with Alzheimer disease units (odds ratio [OR] = 0.6; P < .05), lower registered nurse (RN) turnover (OR = 0.7; P < .05), and more psychiatrically trained RNs (OR = 0.5; P < .001) and social workers (OR = 0.6; P < .05). Lower RN turnover (OR = 0.7; P < .05) and more psychiatrically trained RNs (OR = 0.6; P < .05) were associated with fewer NHs reporting being unable to meet BH service needs. Having more psychiatrically trained RNs (OR = 0.6; P < .05) was associated with fewer NHs reporting inadequate coordination with community providers. CONCLUSION: Inadequate BH education and psychiatric training among NH staff were associated with subpar provision of BH services in this care setting. New initiatives that increase access to BH providers and services and improve staff education are urgently needed in NHs.

Staff responses to residents exposing their genitals in public in long-term care settings: The gap between common and perceived best practices.
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F. Villar, M. Celdran, R. Serrat, J. Faba and T. Martinez.
J Clin Nurs 2019 Jun 4
To explore staff reactions to residents’ behavior consisting in exposing their genitals in public, and to differentiate between what is perceived as common practice (what most staff do) and best practice (the best possible approach). BACKGROUND: the presence of inappropriate sexual behaviors (ISBs) in long-term care facilities poses practical and ethical dilemmas since they may impinge on the rights of others (staff and residents) and thus need to be adequately monitored and managed. However, no studies have focused on how staff handle ISBs, and particularly exposing oneself in public. METHODS: 2,175 people working in 152 Spanish LTC facilities participated in the study. They were presented with a vignette describing a resident exposing his/her genitals in public, and they were asked what they think most of their workmates would do and what they think should be done in that situation. The STROBE checklist was used to enhance the quality and transparency of the research. RESULTS: approximately one-third of participants (32.4%) reported having experienced behaviors such as the one described in the vignette. Staff reactions underline the predominance of restrictive practices. However, if prompted to think in terms of best practice, supportive reactions increased in frequency. Finally, factors such as work position have an influence on perceived common and best practices, with care assistants generally holding more restrictive views than directors or technical staff. CONCLUSIONS: around one third of staff members, and particularly those in managerial or technical positions, had witnessed residents exposing their genitals in public. However, there is no common ground among staff regarding the best way to handle the situation. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: our findings stress the importance of organizational policies and workplace training in the management of challenging behaviors such as exposing oneself. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Exploring a Nursing Home-Specific Interdisciplinary Approach: Toward Palliative Care for the Demented and Complex-Disabled Elderly.
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M. S. Park, S. J. Lee and S. O. Chang.
J Hosp Palliat Nurs 2019 May 30
The number of elderly suffering from dementia and complex disabilities is gradually increasing in nursing homes, and they form a differentiated group that requires palliative care provided by practitioners in various disciplines from the time of their admission to improve the quality of their remaining lives. The purpose of this study was to explore an interdisciplinary care approach by nurses and related practitioners for the demented and complex-disabled elderly in nursing homes that focuses on palliative care based on an ethical point of view. A qualitative thematic analysis was conducted through in-depth interviews of 29 interdisciplinary practitioners working at 5 nursing homes. From them, 3 themes and 9 subthemes were extracted as the key results. First, practitioners set up cooperative care plans based on constantly tracking down clues to gradual functional deteriorations. Second, practitioners establish a cooperative committee to link residents and practitioners for responding to the subtle expressions of the elderly. Finally, practitioners maximize the opportunities for improving the quality of the elderly’s remaining lives. These results can be the basis for the first prototype in developing interdisciplinary practical guidelines for nursing home-specific palliative care and can provide new insights for the practical care concept of palliative care.

Adherence to “No Transfer to Hospital” Advance Directives Among Nursing Home Residents.
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L. Nemiroff, E. G. Marshall, J. L. Jensen, B. Clarke and M. K. Andrew.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2019 May 27
Many older adults in long-term care (LTC) experience acute health crises but are at high risk of transfer distress and in-hospital morbidity and mortality. Residents often complete advance directives (ADs) regarding future care wishes, including directives for hospital transfers. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of, and adherence to, “no transfer to hospital” ADs in LTC, and to explore the circumstances leading to transfers against previously expressed directives. DESIGN: We conducted a mixed methods study in 10 nursing homes in Nova Scotia, Canada. A total of 748 resident charts and Emergency Health Services (EHS) database notes were reviewed from 3 time periods spanning implementation of a new primary care model, Care by Design (CBD). MEASURES: ADs were divided into those requesting transfer to hospital vs on-site management only, which were then analyzed in relation to actual hospital transfers. Reasons for EHS calls, management, and qualitative data were derived from the EHS database. Resident variables were obtained from LTC charts. Measures were compared between time periods. RESULTS: ADs were complete in 92.4% of charts. Paramedics were called for 80.5% of residents, and 73.6% were transferred to hospital, 51.3% of whom had explicit ADs to the contrary. The majority of those were transferred for fall-related injuries, followed by medical illness. Unclear care plans, symptom control, and perceived need for investigations and procedures all influenced transfer decisions. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: The use of “no transfer to hospital” directives did not appear to impact the number of residents being transferred to acute care. Half of those transferred to hospital had explicit ADs to the contrary, largely driven by fall-related injury. The high incidence of injury-related transfers highlights an important gap in advance care planning. Clarifying transfer preferences for injury management in advance directives may lead to better end-of-life experiences for residents and improve effective resource utilization.

The challenges of shared decision making in dementia care networks.
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L. Groen-van de Ven, C. Smits, M. Span, et al.
Int Psychogeriatr 2018 Jun;30(6):843-857
Decision making is an important part of managing one’s life with dementia. Shared decision making is the preferred way of involving people in decisions. Our study aimed to describe the challenges of shared decision making in dementia care networks. METHODS: A multi-perspective qualitative study using face-to-face interviews with 113 respondents in 23 care networks in the Netherlands consisting of 23 people with dementia, 44 of their informal caregivers, and 46 of their professional caregivers. The interview guide addressed the decision topics, who were involved in the decision making and their contributions to the decision making. We used content analysis to delineate categories and themes. RESULTS: The themes and categories that emerged are: (1) adapting to a situation of diminishing independence, which includes the continuous changes in the care network, resulting in shifting decision-making roles and the need for anticipating future decisions; and (2) tensions in network interactions which result from different perspectives and interests and which require reaching agreement about what constitutes a problem by exchanging information in the care network. CONCLUSION: The challenges in dementia care networks relate to all dimensions of social health. They have implications for a model of shared decision making in dementia care networks. Such a model requires flexibility regarding changing capabilities to preserve the autonomy of the person with dementia. It needs working towards a shared view about what constitutes a problem in the situation. It asks for professionals to advocate for the involvement of people with dementia by helping them participate in ways that strengthen their remaining capacities.

A Preference-Based Model of Care: An Integrative Theoretical Model of the Role of Preferences in Person-Centered Care.
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K. Van Haitsma, K. M. Abbott, A. Arbogast, et al.
Gerontologist 2019 Jun 1
Knowledge of individuals’ everyday preferences is a cornerstone of person-centered care (PCC). Initial evidence demonstrates the positive impact of honoring preferences in care for older adults receiving long-term services and supports (LTSS). Yet, the mechanisms through which preference-based care affects individual well-being remain poorly understood. This article proposes a theoretical model of PCC entitled the Preference-Based Model of Care that integrates the Theory of Human Motivation, Self-determination Theory, the Competence-Press Model of person and environment fit, the Living Systems Framework, and the Broaden-and-Build theory of positive emotions to deepen our understanding of the processes through which preference-based care affects well-being among older adults receiving LTSS. The Preference-Based Model of Care illustrates how goal-directed behaviors facilitate need fulfillment through the expression of individual preferences and how these behaviors mediate the relationship between person-environment fit and affect balance within a particular social, cultural, and political context. The Preference-Based Model of Care can advance research on PCC in LTSS and can inform LTSS clinical practice guidelines for older adults, regardless of functional or cognitive capacity.

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Health Care Innovation and Quality Assurance

A critical assessment of the wicked problem concept: relevance and usefulness for policy science and practice
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Catrien J. A. M. Termeer, Art Dewulf and Robbert Biesbroek.
Policy and Society 2019 05/17:1-13
The concept of wicked problems has served as an inspiration for research in a variety of research fields but has also contributed to conceptual confusion through the various ways in which it has been defined and used. In this special issue, a number of ontological, theoretical and methodological issues are discussed. First, while its use as a buzzword has undermined precise conceptual definition, recent work goes beyond the wicked versus tame dichotomy and conceptualizes wickedness as a matter of degree, differentiates between dimensions of wickedness and emphasizes the relational character of problem definitions. Second, new and existing governance approaches have often been unproblematically proposed as ways to solve wicked problems, while only imperfect solutions, partial solutions or small wins are achievable in practice. Third, the concept of wicked problems has had little direct impact on policy theories, and while some argue that the analysis of wicked problems should be mainstreamed in public policy thinking, others propose to reject the concept and rely on existing policy theories. Fourth, as a concept used in policy practice, wicked problems tend to provoke either paralysis or an overestimation of what policy can do about wicked problems. Possible ways forward include (1) leaving the concept behind; (2) using the wicked problems literature as knowledge base to understand when and why policy and governance approaches fail; and (3) developing dimensions of wicked problems (i.e. conflict, complexity and uncertainty) into more analytically precise research tools and linking them with more closely with contemporary policy science developments.

“Would you like to join me for a walk?” The feasibility of a supervised walking programme for people with dementia who wander.
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M. MacAndrew, A. Kolanowski, E. Fielding, et al.
Int J Older People Nurs 2019 May 24:e12244
Five of the eight focus areas of Bowen’s Feasibility Framework were utilised to assess the feasibility of implementing the Safe Walking Program (SWP) with people with severe dementia who wander in long-term care (LTC). BACKGROUND: Dementia-related wandering in LTC is associated with adverse outcomes related to intensity (malnutrition, exhaustion and pain, injury) and type of walking (sleep deprivation, resident violence and elopement, death). There is little evidence guiding best practice for managing wandering in LTC. DESIGN: The SWP involved a three-week trial of taking residents (n = 7) for a 30-min supervised walk, 30 min before individual peak walking activity periods (PWAP), outside the care facility. Quantitative (real-time observation and 24/7 Actigraph data: not reported here) and qualitative data were collected pre-, during and postintervention. METHODS: Feasibility to implement the SWP protocol was evaluated using a protocol fidelity checklist completed at the end of each scheduled intervention. Acceptability and sustainability of the programme were evaluated through staff interviews. RESULTS: Eighty per cent of scheduled walks commenced and were completed, with 91% of walks lasting the full 30 min. Care staff reported benefits for participants and care staff. The perceived sustainability of the SWP in the LTC setting was impacted by the strict timing of the walk to coincide with participant’s individual PWAP. The use of care staff to lead some scheduled walks was seen as interfering with care routines. CONCLUSIONS: To enhance the acceptability/sustainability of the SWP in LTC, further testing of the importance of dose and timing is required. Consideration needs to be given to suggested modifications to the protocol. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The SWP is an acceptable and enjoyable activity for people with severe dementia who wander. Utilising walking tracks around the neighbourhood was perceived as being an important element of the programme.

TIME to reduce agitation in persons with dementia in nursing homes. A process evaluation of a complex intervention.
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B. Lichtwarck, J. Myhre, G. Selbaek, et al.
BMC Health Serv Res 2019 May 31;19(1):349-019-4168-0
The Targeted Intervention Interdisciplinary Model for Evaluation and Treatment of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms (TIME) has recently in a three-month cluster randomised controlled trial demonstrated reduction in agitation in nursing home residents with dementia. To ease replication and future implementation, and to clarify possible causal mechanisms, we performed a process evaluation of the intervention based on the RE-AIM framework (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance). METHODS: An exploratory and a quasi-experimental design with mixed methods were used. The RE-AIM dimensions were explored by questionnaires to 807 staff members and 46 leading ward nurses in both the intervention nursing homes (INH) and the control nursing homes (CNH), before the start of the trial (baseline), and six and 12 months later. These questionnaires assessed data regarding the reach, effectiveness (staff level) and adoption dimensions. To assess implementation, we used a checklist for performance of the main components in TIME and analysed the minutes from 84 case conferences in the INH. To explore adoption and maintenance, five focus group interviews with 32 participants from the staff in the INH were conducted three to 6 months after the end of the trial. RESULTS: Reach: On average 61% (SD 22) of the staff in each ward in the INH attended the training sessions. Effectiveness at staff level: There were no between-group differences throughout the study period for attitudes towards dementia, perceived competence or perception of mastery and social interaction. Adoption: 16 of the 17 INH completed the intervention. IMPLEMENTATION: 75% or more of the components of TIME were performed for 91% of the included residents. Maintenance: Most of the nursing homes used TIME three to 6 months after the end of the trial. An easy to grasp model and an engaged leadership facilitated the intervention and maintenance. CONCLUSIONS: A high degree of reach, adoption, implementation and maintenance contributed to the effectiveness of TIME at resident level. One other causal assumption of the effectiveness of TIME is the development in the staff of a new, shared and situated knowledge about each individual resident, not reflected by measurements in general knowledge and attitudes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered January 6, 2016 with ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT02655003 ).

Evaluation of person-centeredness in nursing homes after a palliative care intervention: pre- and post-test experimental design.
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C. Bokberg, L. Behm, B. Wallerstedt and G. Ahlstrom.
BMC Palliat Care 2019 May 31;18(1):44-019-0431-8
The needs of care based on palliative principles are stressed for all people with progressive and/or life-limiting conditions, regardless of age and the place in which care is provided. Person-centred palliative care strives to make the whole person visible and prioritizes the satisfaction of spiritual, existential, social, and psychological needs to the same extent as physical needs. However, person-centred palliative care for older persons in nursing homes seems to be sparse, possibly because staff in nursing homes do not have sufficient knowledge, skills, and training in managing symptoms and other aspects of palliative care. METHODS: This study aimed to evaluate whether an educational intervention had any effect on the staff’s perception of providing person-centred palliative care for older persons in nursing homes. METHODS: A knowledge-based palliative care intervention consisting of five 2-h seminars during a 6-month period was implemented at 20 nursing homes in Sweden. In total, 365 staff members were participated, 167 in the intervention group and 198 in the control group. Data were collected using two questionnaires, the Person-centred Care Assessment Tool (P-CAT) and the Person-Centred Climate Questionnaire (PCQ-S), answered before (baseline) and 3 months after (follow-up) the educational intervention was completed. Descriptive, comparative, and univariate logistical regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Both the intervention group and the control group revealed high median scores in all subscales at baseline, except for the subscale amount of organizational and environmental support in the P-CAT. The staff’s high rating level of person-centred care before the intervention provides limited space for further improvements at follow-up. CONCLUSION: This study shows that staff perceived that managers’ and the organization’s amount of support to them in their everyday work was the only area for improvement in order to maintain person-centred care. The experiences among staff are crucial knowledge in understanding how palliative care can be made person-centred in spite of often limited resources in nursing homes. The dose and intensity of education activities of the intervention model need to be tested in future research to develop the most effective implementation model. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02708498 . Date of registration 26 February 2016.

Implementing Frailty Measures in the Canadian Healthcare System.
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D. B. Rolfson, G. A. Heckman, S. M. Bagshaw, D. Robertson and J. P. Hirdes.
J Frailty Aging 2018;7(4):208-216
Canadian healthcare is changing to include individuals living with frailty, but frailty must be better operationalized and better framed by sound data standards and policy. Frailty results from deficit accumulation in multiple body systems, with exaggerated vulnerability to external stressors. A growing consensus on defining frailty sets the stage for consensus on operationalization and widespread implementation in care settings. Frailty measurement is not yet integrated into daily clinical practice in Canada. Here, we will present how this integration might occur. We hope to demonstrate that implementation must appeal to inter-professional practice needs in different settings or circumstances. In some settings, methods for frailty case finding are expected to evolve as deemed to be most appropriate to the front-line users. In this “hands-off” approach, care providers, supported by emerging knowledge translation on frailty operationalization, would be informed by their setting and local practices to establish patterns of ad hoc case finding and component definition of frailty. This more nimble case finding strategy would be opportunistic, and would appeal to expert clinicians and self-directed teams who emphasize an individualized health care experience for their patients. In other settings, we can shape frailty case finding by building care algorithms around existing standardized practices and data repositories, leading to a systematic application of frailty measures and a more coordinated process of component definition and care protocols. Here, recommended instruments and data standards must be endorsed by health networks locally, provincially and nationally. The interRAI suite of assessment instruments has pan-Canadian standards in place and its pervasiveness makes it the most obvious starting point, especially in home care and long-term care. We anticipate the evolution of an integrated model informed by stakeholders and settings, where policy makers focus on system supports for frailty case finding, while front-line clinicians use case finding strategies to pinpoint and act on key frailty components.

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Research Practice and Methodology

Scanning the horizon: a systematic literature review of methodologies.
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P. Hines, L. Hiu Yu, R. H. Guy, A. Brand and M. Papaluca-Amati.
BMJ Open 2019 May 27;9(5):e026764-2018-026764
Society is confronted with the rapid emergence of innovation in science and technology. To manage this, horizon scanning is being adopted globally to identify, assess and prioritise innovations and trends at an early stage of their development. This enables decision-makers to be better informed and to prepare for change. The aim of this paper is to systematically identify and evaluate horizon scanning methodologies employed in the healthcare and biomedical fields. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed using PubMed and Embase and was supplemented with grey literature searches (2008-2018). The principal methodologies used in horizon scanning were extracted. RESULTS: Approximately 100 articles were summarised in a literature map. The search revealed many examples of horizon scanning across disciplines. Challenges, such as the need to refine prioritisation criteria, manage uncertainty inherent in the findings and improve the dissemination of identified issues, have been highlighted. CONCLUSION: Horizon scanning, when performed appropriately, is a flexible and potentially reliable tool, with a wide variety of methods. Horizon scanning can inform and influence decision-making, through identifying opportunities and challenges, from an organisational to an international level. Further research to identify the most effective methodologies available would add depth to this landscape and enable the evolution of best practice to most efficiently anticipate novel developments and innovations.

Defining certainty of net benefit: a GRADE concept paper.
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B. S. Alper, P. Oettgen, I. Kunnamo, et al.
BMJ Open 2019 Jun 4;9(6):e027445-2018-027445
Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology is used to assess and report certainty of evidence and strength of recommendations. This GRADE concept article is not GRADE guidance but introduces certainty of net benefit, defined as the certainty that the balance between desirable and undesirable health effects is favourable. Determining certainty of net benefit requires considering certainty of effect estimates, the expected importance of outcomes and variability in importance, and the interaction of these concepts. Certainty of net harm is the certainty that the net effect is unfavourable. Guideline panels using or testing this approach might limit strong recommendations to actions with a high certainty of net benefit or against actions with a moderate or high certainty of net harm. Recommendations may differ in direction or strength from that suggested by the certainty of net benefit or harm when influenced by cost, equity, acceptability or feasibility.

Best practices and inclusion of team science principles in appointment promotion and tenure documents in research intensive schools of nursing.
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A. A. Brody, A. L. Bryant, G. A. Perez and D. E. Bailey.
Nurs Outlook 2019 Mar – Apr;67(2):133-139
Nurse scientists are highly sought after and find satisfaction in serving as members of interdisciplinary research teams. These teams also tend to be highly productive. However, nurse scientists in academia also have to reach certain productivity milestones to be promoted and receive tenure that may be incongruent with team science principles. PURPOSE: This study therefore sought to examine whether APT documents in research intensive nursing schools incorporate team science principles. METHODS: Qualitatively analyzed the appointment, promotion and tenure documents of 18 U.S. based research intensive schools of nursing with over $2 million in NIH funding in fiscal year 2014. FINDINGS: The study found that only 8 of 18 documents included any reference to team science principles and even these mentions were largely negligible. There were few best practices to recommend across documents. By not recognizing team science within these documents, nursing risks marginalization within the larger scientific community by limiting mentorship and learning opportunities for early career nurse scientists. DISCUSSION: Schools of nursing should revisit their promotion and tenure criteria and include a greater commitment to encouragement of team science.

Research productivity following nursing research initiative grants.
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S. Munro, C. C. Hendrix, L. J. Cowan, et al.
Nurs Outlook 2019 Jan – Feb;67(1):6-12
In 1995, VA’s Office of Research and Development launched the Nursing Research Initiative (NRI), to encourage nurses to apply for research funding and to increase the role of nurse investigators in the VA’s research mission. This program provides novice nurse researchers the opportunity to further develop their research skills with the guidance of a mentor. PURPOSE: Since the NRI’s inception, its impact on the research career trajectory of budding nurse researchers had never been fully explored. METHODS: An electronic quality improvement survey was developed to collect information about the scope of work and research trajectory of VA nurse researchers undertaken since they received NRI funding. FINDINGS: NRI awardees demonstrated research productivity in several areas including research funding, peer-reviewed publications; participation on journal editorial boards and grant review committees; and mentorship. The majority of past NRI grant recipients (78%) have maintained employment within the VA system and benefit from the expertise, mentoring, and support of other nurse researchers. NRI grant recipients confirm the value of the VA NRI mentored grant funding mechanism and its association with a productive research trajectory with survey respondents demonstrating an average return on investment of $7.7 million in research funding per person. CONCLUSION: The experiences derived from the NRI accelerated the professional growth and research productivity of this group and it guided future opportunities to design, implement, and test nurse-led interventions.

The many shades of co-produced evidence (UK)

Pippa Coutts, The Carnegie UK Trust, 2019
This report by the Carnegie UK Trust, a philanthropic organization whose goal is to promote the dissemination of evidence on public wellbeing, is about the challenges and opportunities of the co-production of evidence, or “the process by which evidence is generated by the equal and reciprocal participation in research activities by academic and other partners.”

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Moving beyond ‘safety’ versus ‘autonomy’: a qualitative exploration of the ethics of using monitoring technologies in long-term dementia care.
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A. Hall, C. Brown Wilson, E. Stanmore and C. Todd.
BMC Geriatr 2019 May 24;19(1):145-019-1155-6
Use of monitoring technologies (e.g. wearable or environmental sensors) in long-term care generates extensive ethical debate, primarily about their potential to enhance resident safety weighed against concerns about their impacts upon resident autonomy. There are a number of other ethical aspects which are far less debated, including questions about the monitoring of the workforce, and equality of access to technologies. In this paper, we explore the extent to which remote monitoring of the workforce, and equality of access to technologies, were seen to influence the implementation of monitoring technologies within long-term care facilities. METHODS: An embedded multiple-case study design was used with three dementia-specialist care facilities in England that had experience using a range of monitoring technologies. Data were collected through 175 h’ observation of daily practice, semi-structured interviews with 36 staff, residents and relatives, and examination of organisational documentation and technology manufacturer literature. Data were analysed using Framework Analysis. RESULTS: Use of technologies for workforce monitoring was understood in relation to the ethical obligations to fulfil a duty of care to residents. There was little recognition of any negative implications for the workforce, but staff were susceptible to rumours that technologies were being used for performance management even when this was not the case. There were questions about how far data collected by monitoring technologies could constitute ‘evidence’ of appropriate care delivery. Equality and access to technologies involved a need to compromise between generic designs that were not universally suitable, but were more affordable than bespoke designs. Contracts with suppliers imposed limitations on product choice. CONCLUSIONS: There is an urgent need for greater consideration of the ethical and legal implications that remote technological monitoring might have upon workforce morale, recruitment and retention. Ensuring variety of technological design to facilitate equitable access for residents is financially extremely challenging. It is possible that considerations of equitable access are not deemed a priority due to the current generation of residents’ low levels of technological familiarity and expectation. It might be overstated and unrealistic to view expensive technologies as the pinnacle of innovative practice in care homes.

End of life care for long-term care residents with dementia, chronic illness and cancer: prospective staff survey.
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M. Boyd, R. Frey, D. Balmer, et al.
BMC Geriatr 2019 May 22;19(1):137-019-1159-2
Little is known about the quality of end of life care in long-term care (LTC) for residents with different diagnostic trajectories. The aim of this study was to compare symptoms before death in LTC for those with cancer, dementia or chronic illness. METHODS: After-death prospective staff survey of resident deaths with random cluster sampling in 61 representative LTC facilities across New Zealand (3709 beds). Deaths (n = 286) were studied over 3 months in each facility. Standardised questionnaires – Symptom Management (SM-EOLD) and Comfort Assessment in End of life with Dementia (CAD-EOLD) – were administered to staff after the resident’s death. RESULTS: Primary diagnoses at the time of death were dementia (49%), chronic illness (30%), cancer (17%), and dementia and cancer (4%). Residents with cancer had more community hospice involvement (30%) than those with chronic illness (12%) or dementia (5%). There was no difference in mean SM-EOLD in the last month of life by diagnosis (cancer 26.9 (8.6), dementia 26.5(8.2), chronic illness 26.9(8.6). Planned contrast analyses of individual items found people with dementia had more pain and those with cancer had less anxiety. There was no difference in mean CAD-EOLD scores in the week before death by diagnosis (total sample 33.7(SD 5.2), dementia 34.4(SD 5.2), chronic illness 33.0(SD 5.1), cancer 33.3(5.1)). Planned contrast analyses showed significantly more physical symptoms for those with dementia and chronic illness in the last month of life than those with cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, symptoms in the last week and month of life did not vary by diagnosis. However, sub-group planned contrast analyses found those with dementia and chronic illness experienced more physical distress during the last weeks and months of life than those with cancer. These results highlight the complex nature of LTC end of life care that requires an integrated gerontology/palliative care approach.

Gender differences regarding opinions on long-term care arrangements: A study of community-dwelling older adults.
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N. Carvalho, L. Meylan, J. M. Blanco, S. Fustinoni, N. Abolhassani and B. Santos-Eggimann.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2019 Jul – Aug;83:195-203
Numerous studies have attempted to identify predictors of institutionalization in the general population. Gender studies have led to inconsistent results. Some authors argued that older women were more likely than older men to use long-term care services, while others failed to highlight a specific gender effect on the use of long-term care services. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of gender on the preferences of older citizens for long-term care using a panel of disability situations. METHODS: We used a set of ten vignettes displaying disability situations with or without an able-bodied spouse present and used a population-based survey to inquire about appropriate long-term care. Participants were 3102 community-dwelling persons aged 68-83 years included in the representative Lausanne cohort 65+ study in January 2017. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to explore the effect of gender on long-term care choices by older men and women, controlling for the respondent’s age and living arrangement. RESULTS: The respondents’ choices shifted toward institutionalization when the disorder severity increased in vignettes and when there was no spouse able to help. Men were more likely to choose a home setting with caregiving only by spouse even when the level of disability increased. Women chose help from professionals, sheltered homes, or institutionalization more quickly than men. CONCLUSIONS: Exploring gender preferences for long-term care arrangements is critical for improving and planning long-term care services.

Making Decisions About Long-Term Institutional Care Placement Among People With Dementia and Their Caregivers: Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies.
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C. Teng, C. T. Loy, M. Sellars, et al.
Gerontologist 2019 May 29
People with dementia become increasingly dependent on others for care as cognition declines. Decision making about placement of people with dementia into long-term institutional care can be emotionally complex. The objective of this review is to describe experiences and perspectives of people with dementia and their family caregivers in making decisions about institutional care placement. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and CINAHL were searched from inception to August 2018. Thematic synthesis was used to analyze results. RESULTS: We included 42 studies involving 123 people with dementia and 705 family caregivers from 12 countries. We identified five themes: ensuring safety (avoiding injury due to frailty, protecting against dangerous behaviors, preventing aggressive encounters), reaching breaking point (insufferable burden of caregiving, needs exceeding capabilities, intensifying family conflict, loneliness and isolation, straining under additional responsibilities, making extreme personal sacrifices), vulnerability in lacking support (ill-prepared for crisis, unable to access professional expertise, unpredictable prognostic trajectory, uncertainty navigating health care services, pressured by limited placement opportunities, high cost of placement, resenting loss of autonomy), avoiding guilt of abandonment (sharing accountability, mitigating against disagreement and stigma, reluctance to relinquish caregiving, seeking approval), and seeking reassurance and validation (preserving personhood and former identity, empowerment through engagement, assurance of care quality, acceptance from other care residents). DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: People with dementia and family caregivers feel vulnerable, disempowered, and guilty in decision making about institutionalization. Person-centered communication and support strategies that foster confidence and reassurance are needed to assist people with dementia and caregivers to make decisions about placement into long-term institutional care settings.

The Prevalence, Incidence, and Correlates of Fecal Incontinence Among Older People Residing in Care Homes: A Systematic Review.
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M. K. Musa, S. Saga, L. E. Blekken, R. Harris, C. Goodman and C. Norton.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2019 May 22
Older people resident in care homes often rely on staff for support relating to their activities of daily living, including intimate care such as continence care. Managing fecal incontinence can be challenging for both residents and care staff. We conducted this review to describe the prevalence, incidence, and correlates of fecal incontinence among care home residents. DESIGN: Systematic literature review. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Older care home residents (both nursing and residential care) aged 60 years and older. MEASURES: We defined double incontinence as the presence of fecal plus urinary incontinence, isolated fecal incontinence as fecal incontinence with no urinary incontinence, and all fecal incontinence as anyone with fecal incontinence (whether isolated or double). The CINAHL and MEDLINE databases were searched up to December 31, 2017, to retrieve all studies reporting the prevalence and/or incidence and correlates of fecal incontinence. RESULTS: We identified 278 citations after removing duplicates, and 23 articles met the inclusion criteria. There were 12 high-quality studies, 5 medium-quality studies, and 6 low-quality studies. The medians for prevalence (as reported by the studies) of isolated fecal incontinence, double incontinence, and all fecal incontinence were 3.5% [interquartile range (IQR) = 2.8%], 47.1% (IQR = 32.1%), and 42.8% (IQR = 21.1%), respectively. The most frequently reported correlates of fecal incontinence were cognitive impairment, limited functional capacity, urinary incontinence, reduced mobility, advanced age, and diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Fecal incontinence is prevalent among older people living in care homes. Correlates included impaired ability to undertake activities of daily living, reduced mobility, laxative use, and altered stool consistency (eg, constipation or diarrhea) which are potentially amenable to interventions to improve fecal incontinence.

The impact of long-term care on quality of life.
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J. Forder, F. Vadean, S. Rand and J. Malley.
Health Econ 2018 Mar;27(3):e43-e58
Long-term care services are provided to help people manage the consequences of impairment, but their impact goes beyond the meeting of basic needs. Accordingly, the main aim was to explore the marginal effectiveness of care when measured in terms of people’s overall care-related quality of life (CRQoL) and assess changes in marginal effect for increasing intensity. The associated aim was to refine and apply an observational method to estimate marginal effectiveness. A “production function” approach was used with survey data, including Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit-measured CRQoL, whereby we statistically modelled the expected relationship between service utilisation rates and CRQoL. This method seeks to limit endogeneity issues by controlling on observables and using instrumental variable. Using a survey of publicly funded long-term care service users in England, we found that community-based long-term care significantly improved people’s CRQoL but with diminishing marginal effects and effects differentiated by baseline impairment levels. There are implications for how the care system should respond to changes in global public budgets. For example, where there is unmet need, a system aimed to maximise (unadjusted) CRQoL would put more emphasis on access (more recipients) than intensity of support compared to a system operating on a needs basis.

Experiences of family caregivers in green care farms and other nursing home environments for people with dementia: a qualitative study.
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B. de Boer, H. Verbeek, S. M. G. Zwakhalen and J. P. H. Hamers.
BMC Geriatr 2019 May 28;19(1):149-019-1163-6
Having a match between a nursing home and the preferences of people with dementia is beneficial for their well-being. It is suggested that innovative types of nursing homes such as small-scale living facilities and green care farms create a better match between their care environment and their residents. However whether this is also reflected into the experiences of informal caregivers is not known. Therefore, this study explores what their positive and negative experiences are with regard to green care farms, other small-scale living facilities, and traditional nursing homes. METHODS: A qualitative exploratory research design was used. Semi-structured interviews with 43 informal caregivers (2014-2015) were carried out. Topics discussed were: positive and negative experiences with the nursing home and reasons for choice of a particular type of nursing home. Thematic analysis including an iterative process of open, axial and selective coding, was used. RESULTS: Five themes emerged: (1) physical environment and atmosphere, (2) activities, (3) person-centred care, (4) communication, and (5) staff. Informal caregivers at green care farms were more positive about the physical environment, activities, and person-centred care compared with informal caregivers in the other types of nursing homes. Both positive and negative experiences regarding communication and individual staff members appeared across all types of nursing homes. CONCLUSIONS: Experiences of informal caregivers with a nursing home are dependent on the type of nursing home. However, experiences were also often related to individual nursing staff and their interpersonal, ‘human’ qualities.

Pain and symptoms of depression: international comparative study on selected factors affecting the quality of life of elderly people residing in institutions in Europe.
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I. Wroblewska, D. Talarska, Z. Wroblewska, R. Suslo and J. Drobnik.
BMC Geriatr 2019 May 27;19(1):147-019-1164-5
As the number of elderly people is on the rise in societies throughout the world, providing them with optimal care is becoming a major demand, especially in the context of rising interest in institutional care. Quality of life is multidimensional notion and its perception depends highly on pain and mood levels. The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of pain and depression symptoms in elderly people living in nursing homes in France, Germany, and Poland. METHODS: The research carried out in years 2014-2016 involved female residents of nursing homes in France, Germany, and Poland: 190 women from each country, aged over 65 years and not previously diagnosed with advanced dementia, were included. Collection of medical, demographic, and anthropomorphic data from medical documentation was followed by interviews with each senior and her caregiver. A questionnaire of authors’ own devising was used, along with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the scale of Behavioral Pain Assessment in the Elderly (DOLOPLUS). The results were subjected to statistical analysis, p < 0.05 was accepted as threshold of statistical significance. RESULTS: The main health complaints of nursing homes’ residents were constipation, diarrhea, back pain and dizziness. 44,38% of the residents self-assessed their health status as bad and complained of suffering pain (83,33%) and sleeping problems (72,98%) within the last month. According to BDI the average score was 17.01 points and 44,38% of seniors were free from depression or depressed mood. The average DOLOPLUS result was 8.86 points. CONCLUSION: There are no significant differences, neither in prevalence of pain and symptoms of depression nor in average levels of quality of life, in elderly residents in institutions in the three studied European countries. The decrease in quality of life is mainly due to various complaints and pain and there is a close relationship between health status and quality of life. Further research should be performed in order to study interdependencies between the occurrence of pain and depression, including primary reasons leading to both phenomena. The recognition of factors that induce pain complaints and mood depression in elderly people will contribute to improving their comfort.

Experiences and involvement of family members in transfer decisions from nursing home to hospital: a systematic review of qualitative research.
Non UofA Access

A. Pulst, A. M. Fassmer and G. Schmiemann.
BMC Geriatr 2019 Jun 4;19(1):155-019-1170-7
Nursing home residents (NHR) are characterized by increasing frailty, multimorbidity and care dependency. These conditions result in frequent hospital transfers which can lead to negative effects on residents’ health status and are often avoidable. Reasons for emergency department (ED) visits or hospital admissions are complex. Prior research indicated factors influencing transfer decisions in view of nursing staff and general practitioners. The aim of this systematic review is to explore how family members experience and influence transfers from nursing home (NH) to hospital and how they are involved in the transfer decision. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in Medline via PubMed, Ebsco Scopus and CINAHL in May 2018. Studies were eligible if they contained information a) about the decision to transfer NHR to hospital and b) the experiences or influence of family members. The review followed Joanna Briggs Institute’s (JBI) approach for qualitative systematic reviews. Screening, selection and quality appraisal of studies were performed independently by two reviewers. Synthesis of qualitative data was conducted through meta-aggregation. RESULTS: After screening of n = 2863 articles, in total n = 10 qualitative studies were included in the review. Results indicate that family members of NHR experience decision-making before hospitalization differently. They mainly reported NH-related, hospital-related, and family/resident-related factors influencing the transfer decision. The involvement of family members in the decision-making process varies – from no involvement to insistence on a decision in favor of their personal preferences. However, hospital transfer decisions and other treatment decisions (e.g. advance care planning (ACP) discussions) were commonly discussed with physicians and nurses. Conflicts between family members and healthcare providers mostly arose around the interpretation of resident’s best interest. In general, family members perceive discussions as challenging thus leading to emotional stress and discomfort. CONCLUSION: The influence of NHR family members concerning hospital transfer decisions varies. Family members are an important link for communication between resident and medical staff and for communication between NH and hospital. Interventions aiming to reduce hospitalization rates have to take these findings into account.

Loneliness in the Context of Quality of Life of Nursing Home Residents.
Non UofA Access

D. Trybusinska and A. Saracen.
Open Med (Wars) 2019 Apr 24;14:354-361
Numbers of the elderly have been on a steady increase both in Poland and other countries of the world. As they age, their health declines and they need help with their housekeeping. This, coupled with the transformation of intergenerational into single-generation or nuclear family structures, causes a markedly rising demand for institutional care. Holistic care of an elderly nursing home resident requires a comprehensive approach and consideration for their feelings. Loneliness and solitude are increasingly common among these feelings, undoubtedly affecting quality of life. Method: 250 elderly residents of seven nursing home situated in Mazovia, Poland, have been examined using: De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale, WHOQOL-BREF Questionnaire, Basic Hope Scale (BHI-12), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS). Results: Loneliness affects nearly 40% residents of the homes surveyed. Quality of their residents’ lives is reduced. Relations with their families and levels of motor efficiency imply a sense of loneliness. Degrees of illness acceptance, ability to adjust to change, and life satisfaction influence the level of loneliness felt. Conclusion: 40% of nursing home residents exhibit a sense of loneliness, while the greater loneliness and solitude, the lower the quality of life.

Effects of active psychosocial stimulation on social interactions of people with dementia living in a nursing home: a comparative study.
Non UofA Access

J. B. Mabire, M. C. Gay, P. Vrignaud, C. Garitte, Y. H. Jeon and M. Vernooij-Dassen.
Int Psychogeriatr 2018 Jun;30(6):921-922
Dementia can interfere with the maintenance of social interactions. The ability to participate in social interactions is one of the elements that enables good social health (Hubert et al., 2011), and having dementia does not automatically eliminates the person’s opportunity to have good social health (Vernooij-Dassen and Jeon, 2016). We highlighted in a previous study that people with dementia who did not know each other interacted spontaneously when they were in a stimulating social interaction setting (Mabire et al., 2016). However, a lack of activity and social interaction in nursing homes is still a widespread issue (Harper Ice, 2002). Stimulation of social interactions is rarely used as an intervention and social interactions are seldomly used as social health related outcomes.

Factors Associated With Deprescribing Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors in Older Nursing Home Residents With Severe Dementia.
Non UofA Access

J. D. Niznik, X. Zhao, M. He, et al.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2019 Jun 4
Uncertainty regarding benefits and risks associated with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) in severe dementia means providers do not know if and when to deprescribe. We sought to identify which patient-, provider-, and system-level characteristics are associated with AChEI discontinuation. DESIGN: Analysis of 2015 to 2016 data from Medicare claims, Part D prescriptions, Minimum Data Set (MDS), version 3.0, Area Health Resource File, and Nursing Home Compare. Cox-proportional hazards models with time-varying covariates were used to identify patient-, provider-, and system-level factors associated with AChEI discontinuation (30-day or more gap in supply). SETTING: US Medicare-certified nursing homes (NHs). PARTICIPANTS: Nonskilled NH residents, aged 65 years and older, with severe dementia receiving AChEIs within the first 14 days of an MDS assessment in 2016 (n = 37 106). RESULTS: The sample was primarily white (78.7%), female (75.5%), and aged 80 years or older (77.4%). The most commonly prescribed AChEIs were donepezil (77.8%), followed by transdermal rivastigmine (14.6%). The cumulative incidence of AChEI discontinuation was 29.7% at the end of follow-up (330 days), with mean follow-up times of 194 days for continuous users of AChEIs and 105 days for those who discontinued. Factors associated with increased likelihood of discontinuation were new admission, older age, difficulty being understood, aggressive behavior, poor appetite, weight loss, mechanically altered diet, limited prognosis designation, hospitalization in 90 days prior, and northeastern region. Factors associated with decreased likelihood of discontinuation included memantine use, use of strong anticholinergics, polypharmacy, rurality, and primary care prescriber vs geriatric specialist. CONCLUSION: Among NH residents with severe dementia being treated with AChEIs, the cumulative incidence of AChEI discontinuation was just under 30% at 1 year of follow-up. Our findings provide insight into potential drivers of deprescribing AChEIs, identify system-level barriers to deprescribing, and help to inform covariates that are needed to address potential confounding in studies evaluating the potential risks and benefits associated with deprescribing.

Self-reported needs and experiences of people with dementia living in nursing homes: a scoping review.
Non UofA Access

K. Shiells, L. Pivodic, I. Holmerova and L. Van den Block.
Aging Ment Health 2019 Jun 4:1-16
With rates of dementia continuing to rise, the impetus on improving care for people with dementia is growing. Unmet needs of people with dementia living in nursing homes have been linked with worsening neuropsychiatric symptoms, higher levels of depression, and reduced quality of life. Furthermore, proxy accounts exploring the needs of people with dementia have frequently been shown to be unreliable. Therefore, this literature review aims to explore the self-reported needs and experiences of people with dementia in nursing homes. Method: A scoping review of the literature was carried out using the databases PubMed and PsycINFO to search for relevant articles according to PRISMA guidelines. Search terms were designed to include both quantitative and qualitative study designs. Thematic synthesis was used to categorise findings into themes related to self-reported needs and experiences. Results: A total of 41 articles met the eligibility criteria. An analysis of study characteristics revealed more than half of studies used a qualitative design. Thematic synthesis resulted in eight themes: activities, maintaining previous roles, reminiscence, freedom and choice, appropriate environment, meaningful relationships, support with grief and loss, end-of-life care. Conclusion: Whilst the voice of people with dementia has previously been neglected in research, this review has shown that people with dementia in nursing homes are able to describe their experiences and communicate their needs. The findings in this review have provided a contribution towards guiding evidence-based practice that is tailored to the needs of nursing home residents with dementia.


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brainXchange webinar Understanding the Vascular Contributions to Dementia

Thursday 20 June 10:00-11:00 MT
Presenter: Cheryl Wellington
High cholesterol, high blood pressure, and diabetes are not only risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but they can also have significant contributions to dementia risk.

This webinar will discuss the vascular system in the brain and present new research findings that maintaining good cardiovascular health may be an important strategy to delay the onset of dementia or slow its progression.


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IHI Prevent Falls Across Care Settings (Online)

Begins 11 June $750/team
As health care providers, we need to face the facts about falls. Simply put, we need to stop ineffective practices that may be causing harm, and replace them with patient-centered, evidence-based strategies.

Get a team together on June 11, 2019, for the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) Virtual Expedition, New Strategies for Preventing Falls and gain new strategies to prevent patients falls across care settings. This five-session virtual training will highlight a variety of evidence-based approaches you can implement and test during the course.

Writing a Winning Grant Proposal

22-23 July, Faculty of Extension, University of Alberta, Edmonton $195
A grant from a respectable funding agency can open new possibilities for you as a professional in any industry, and can take your career to the next level. In this workshop, we will learn best practices in writing a successful grant application for research-based projects and discuss strategic ways of answering fundamental questions that interest grant-adjudicating committees.

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Strategy for Patient-Oriented Research Canadian Data
Platform (SPOR CDP)

The Strategy for Patient-Oriented Research Canadian Data Platform (SPOR CDP) is a pan-Canadian initiative involving researchers and policy makers from every province and most territories in Canada, led by Dr. Kimberlyn McGrail from University of British Columbia and BC SPOR SUPPORT Unit. The SPOR CDP was initially proposed in 2014 and funded in 2018 ($39 million over 7 years) by CIHR with matching funds from other jurisdictions.This SPOR CDP will enhance Canada’s capacity to analyze routinely collected government data in cross-jurisdictional research by leveraging strong existing national capacity and new advances in analytic techniques. The model allows data to remain within each jurisdiction while being analyzed as if it were centrally located. All local access requirements and approval processes are respected and data never leave existing provincial or territorial boundaries. This advance opens up vast new opportunities to conduct large national and multi-jurisdictional epidemiological studies in Canada, and allows the opportunity to conduct natural experiments which take advantage of the diversity of policy and program implementation strategies that exist across the country. Related objectives will focus on enhancing and harmonizing the availability of government research data across provinces and territories, and streamlining access and approval processes.

MSFHR KT Pathways: A Digital Assessment And Learning Tool

Developed through a Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research (MSFHR) initiative with support from academic and health system partners across BC, it is designed to help you assess your current knowledge translation (KT) strengths and areas for development, and provides tailored training materials and supports based on the results.

The goal is to help those who produce, apply and broker knowledge to build their KT skills to increase the use of research evidence in practice, policy, and further research.

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Know What to Work, When

Assessment of non-technical skills: why aren’t we there yet?

A More Egalitarian Hospital Culture Is Better for Everyone

Strategies to reduce potentially avoidable hospitalisations among long-term care facility resident

Transformation vs. Change: What’s the Difference?

25 Ways to Increase Your Chances at Publication

A different lens: graduate and postdoc development units as knowledge brokers

The realities of journal publishing: a view from Canada’s not-for-profits

Un emploi garanti à la résidence Au Château et une bourse de 1000 $ pour de futurs étudiants du programme de PSSP du Collège Boréal au campus de Nipissing

Patients stuck in hospital waiting for home care causing ‘ripple effect’

Separating couples in long-term care: Some nations call it inhumane, in most of Canada it’s routine

Gender not children ‘holds women academics back’ (UK)

What Every Clinician Should Know About Improving Care for Older Adults

Cleveland Clinic’s Prescription for Creating a Culture of Continuous Improvement

Canada’s research community needs to be “in permanent campaign mode”

How to generate op-ed ideas

Cuts may leave NHS short of 70,000 nurses, leaked report warns (UK)

Bedlam over beds: We can no longer ignore our long-term-care crisis

Fighting the Gender Stereotypes That Warp Biomedical Research

How to start a newsletter that will get read and generate impact from your research

Number of people with dementia living alone predicted to double (UK)

Protecting the rights of LGBTQ residents in the age of reform (US)

Survey: Ontario Voters Demand Ford Government Take Action to Improve Conditions for Seniors in Long-Term Care Homes

Virtual reality program launched at Calgary senior centre

I want to restore fun, hope and a sense of dignity to long-term care
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Become one of 13 Marie Curie PhD students at TRANS-SENIOR, an Innovative Training Network funded by the European Union.

Open to non-EU citizens
DEADLINE: Various, depending on project
The TRANS-SENIOR Innovative Training Network builds capacity for tackling a major challenge facing European long-term care systems: the need to improve care for an increasing number of care-dependent senior citizens by avoiding unnecessary transitions and optimising care transitions that are actually needed.

The TRANS-SENIOR research programme aims to: 1) generate evidence on when and where avoiding care transitions is possible, 2) generate evidence for the benefits of innovative transitional care models, and 3) generate evidence for methods for actively involving senior citizens and informal caregivers in care innovation, and inform future sustainable implementation of interventions that avoid or improve care transitions.

TRANS-SENIOR is in the process of recruiting 13 Early Stage Researchers (ESRs, also referred to as PhD students). Each will work at a beneficiary institution with a 36-months contract, and will work towards a joint or double degree at two universities within the TRANS-SENIOR network. Each ESR will receive additional training and undergo secondments at academic and/or non-academic partner organisations within the network.

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