M. M. Zych, W. B. Berta and A. R. Gagliardi.
BMC Health Serv Res 2019 Oct 30;19(1):772-019-4573-4
Health care researcher-research user partnerships, referred to as integrated knowledge translation (IKT), have been adopted on an international basis, and are an effective means of co-generating and implementing evidence into policy and practice. Prior research suggests that an initiation period is essential for establishing functional partnerships. To characterize IKT initiation and describe determinants of IKT initiation success, this study explored IKT initiation processes, enablers, and barriers among researchers and research users involved in IKT partnerships. METHODS: A descriptive qualitative approach was used compliant with COREQ standards. Canadian researchers and research users in research collaborations were identified on publicly-available directories and web sites, and referred by those interviewed. They were asked to describe how partnerships were initiated, influencing factors, the length of initiation, and interventions needed to support initiation. Sampling was concurrent with data collection and analysis to achieve thematic saturation. Data were analyzed using constant comparative technique by all members of the research team. RESULTS: In total, 22 individuals from 6 provinces were interviewed (9 researchers, 11 research users, 2 connectors). They confirmed that IKT initiation is a distinct early phase of partnerships. The period ranged from 6 months to 2 years for 75.0% of participants in pre-existing partnerships, to 6 years for newly-formed partnerships. High-level themes were: Newly identifying and securing partners is an intensive process; Processes and activities take place over a protracted period through multiple interactions; Identifying and engaging committed partners is reliant on funding; and Partnership building is challenged by maintaining continuity and enthusiasm. Participants underscored the need for an IKT partner matching forum, IKT initiation toolkit, and funding for non-research activities required during IKT initiation to establish functional researcher-research user partnerships. Themes were largely similar regardless of participant years of experience with IKT or being involved in a new versus pre-existing partnership. CONCLUSIONS: IKT initiation is a recognized and important early phase of IKT that establishes functional partnerships, and once established, ongoing partnership for subsequent projects is likely. Further research is needed to develop and evaluate approaches recommended by participants for stimulating IKT initiation.
J. Fritz, L. Wallin, A. Soderlund, L. Almqvist and M. Sandborgh.
Implement Sci 2019 Nov 4;14(1):94-019-0942-y
In a quasi-experimental study, facilitation was used to support implementation of the behavioral medicine approach in physiotherapy. The facilitation consisted of an individually tailored multifaceted intervention including outreach visits, peer coaching, educational materials, individual goal-setting, video feedback, self-monitoring in a diary, manager support, and information leaflets to patients. A behavioral medicine approach implies a focus on health related behavior change. Clinical behavioral change was initiated but not maintained among the participating physiotherapists. To explain these findings, a deeper understanding of the implementation process is necessary. The aim was therefore to explore the impact mechanisms in the implementation of a behavioral medicine approach in physiotherapy by examining dose, reach, and participant experiences. METHODS: An explorative mixed-methods design was used as a part of a quasi-experimental trial. Twenty four physiotherapists working in primary health care were included in the quasi-experimental trial, and all physiotherapists in the experimental group (n = 15) were included in the current study. A facilitation intervention based mainly on social cognitive theory was tested during a 6-month period. Data were collected during and after the implementation period by self-reports of time allocation regarding participation in different implementation methods, documentation of individual goals, ranking of the most important implementation methods, and semi-structured interviews. Descriptive statistical methods and inductive content analysis were used. RESULTS: The physiotherapists participated most frequently in the following implementation methods: outreach visits, peer coaching, educational materials, and individual goal-setting. They also considered these methods to be the most important for implementation, contributing to support for learning, practice, memory, emotions, self-management, and time management. However, time management support from the manager was lacking. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that different mechanisms govern the initiation and maintenance of clinical behavior change. The impact mechanisms for initiation of clinical behavior change refers to the use of externally initiated multiple methods, such as feedback on practice, time management, and extrinsic motivation. The lack of self-regulation capability, intrinsic motivation, and continued support after the implementation intervention period were interpreted as possible mechanisms for the failure of maintaining the behavioral change over time.
ECHO Research (Translating Evidence in Child Health to Enhance Outcomes), ARCHE (Alberta Research Centre for Health Evidence), and TREKK (Translating Emergency Knowledge for Kids), have worked together to create health resources for families and caregivers on bronchiolitis and other common childhood illnesses. Our resources provide health information based on the latest research to help families and caregivers care for their sick children.
This year we entered our video on bronchiolitis in the IHDCYH Talks Video Competition, hosted by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR). Learn more about the competition here. We are grateful for the support from our strong network of partners, collaborators, fellow healthcare staff, and families. You can help us share our resources and win the IHDYCH Talks Video Competition by voting (liking the video on YouTube) and sharing the video within your networks. Please note, in order to vote (like the video), you must be signed in to your YouTube or Gmail account.
A. Campbell, L. Hartling, S. Louie-Poon and S. D. Scott.
CMAJ Open 2019 Nov 4;7(4):E640-E645
Bronchiolitis affects more than one-third of children less than age 2 years and can cause substantial anxiety for parents, leading them to seek information on how to care for their sick child. The aim of our qualitative study was to explore the information needs and preferences of parents caring for a child with bronchiolitis. METHODS: We used a qualitative descriptive approach. Participants were recruited by means of purposive sampling from Oct. 1, 2017, to Mar. 15, 2018 from the Stollery Children’s Hospital emergency department, a specialized pediatric emergency department in Edmonton. Individual semistructured interviews were conducted. RESULTS: Fifty-three parents were recruited to participate, of whom 30 could not be reached after 4 contact attempts and 8 refused. Thus, 15 parents participated (16 children). Three major themes were identified: 1) parents’ information needs about bronchiolitis, 2) parents’ preferred information sources and 3) parents’ preferred information delivery formats. Participants indicated that they want and require credible, easy-to-understand information about bronchiolitis in a variety of formats, and especially valued information obtained directly from a health care professional or an evidence-based website. INTERPRETATION: This study provides important information about parents’ information needs concerning bronchiolitis in children. Identifying the information that parents want and value in relation to acute pediatric illnesses is imperative to developing innovative educational approaches for parents that reflect patient-centred care.
S. D. Scott, T. Rotter, R. Flynn, et al.
Syst Rev 2019 Nov 7;8(1):266-019-1161-y
Experimental designs for evaluating knowledge translation (KT) interventions can provide strong estimates of effectiveness but offer limited insight into how the intervention worked. Consequently, process evaluations have been used to explore the causal mechanisms at work; however, there are limited standards to guide this work. This study synthesizes current evidence of KT process evaluations to provide future methodological recommendations. METHODS: Peer-reviewed search strategies were developed by a health research librarian. Studies had to be in English, published since 1996, and were not excluded based on design. Studies had to (1) be a process evaluation of a KT intervention study in primary health, (2) be a primary research study, and (3) include a licensed healthcare professional delivering or receiving the intervention. A two-step, two-person hybrid screening approach was used for study inclusion with inter-rater reliability ranging from 94 to 95%. Data on study design, data collection, theoretical influences, and approaches used to evaluate the KT intervention, analysis, and outcomes were extracted by two reviewers. Methodological quality was assessed with the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). RESULTS: Of the 20,968 articles screened, 226 studies fit our inclusion criteria. The majority of process evaluations used qualitative forms of data collection (43.4%) and individual interviews as the predominant data collection method. 72.1% of studies evaluated barriers and/or facilitators to implementation. 59.7% of process evaluations were stand-alone evaluations. The timing of data collection varied widely with post-intervention data collection being the most frequent (46.0%). Only 38.1% of the studies were informed by theory. Furthermore, 38.9% of studies had MMAT scores of 50 or less indicating poor methodological quality. CONCLUSIONS: There is widespread acceptance that the generalizability of quantitative trials of KT interventions would be significantly enhanced through complementary process evaluations. However, this systematic review found that process evaluations are of mixed quality and lack theoretical guidance. Most process evaluation data collection occurred post-intervention undermining the ability to evaluate the process of implementation. Strong science and methodological guidance is needed to underpin and guide the design and execution of process evaluations in KT science. REGISTRATION: This study is not registered with PROSPERO.
M. Kebbe, A. Perez, A. Buchholz, et al.
BMC Pediatr 2019 Nov 8;19(1):418-019-1749-3
Lifestyle modifications represent the first line of treatment in obesity management; however, many adolescents with obesity do not meet lifestyle recommendations. Given that adolescents are rarely consulted during health policy development and in the design of lifestyle interventions, their first-hand experiences, preferences, and priorities may not be represented. Accordingly, our purpose was to explore adolescents’ lifestyle treatment recommendations to inform policy and program decisions. METHODS: Conducted from July 2017 to January 2018, this study adhered to a qualitative, crosslanguage, patient-oriented design. We recruited 19 13-17-year-old adolescents (body mass index [BMI] >/=85th percentile) seeking multidisciplinary treatment for obesity in geographically and culturally diverse regions of Canada. Adolescents participated in one-on-one, in-person, semi-structured interviews in English or French. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, managed using NVivo 11, and analyzed using quantitative and qualitative content analysis by two independent researchers. RESULTS: Adolescents’ recommendations were organized into five categories, each of which denotes health as a collective responsibility: (i) establish parental support within limits, (ii) improve accessibility and availability of ‘healthy foods’, (iii) limit deceptive practices in food marketing, (iv) improve accessibility and availability of varied physical activity opportunities, and (v) delay school start times. Respect for individual autonomy and decision-making capacity were identified as particularly important, however these were confronted with adolescents’ partial knowledge on nutrition and food literacy. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents’ recommendations highlighted multi-level, multi-component factors that influenced their ability to lead healthy lifestyles. Uptake of these recommendations by policy-makers and program developers may be of added value for lifestyle treatment targeting adolescents with obesity.
R. Flynn and S. D. Scott.
J Nurs Scholarsh 2019 Nov 8
Implementation science research seeks to understand ways to best ensure uptake of research-based initiatives to health care; however, there is little research done on how to sustain such efforts. Sustainability is the degree to which an initiative continues to be used in practice after efforts of implementation have ended. Sustainability research is a growing field of implementation science that needs further research to understand how to predict and measure the long-term use of effective initiatives to improve health care. The question of what influences the sustainability of research-based initiatives to improve health care remains unknown. PURPOSE: The purpose of this article was to present a refined program theory on the contextual factors and mechanisms that influence the sustainability of one large-scale quality management initiative (Lean) in pediatric health care. DESIGN: We conducted a multiphase realist investigation to explain under what contexts, for whom, how, and why Lean efforts are sustained or not sustained in pediatric health care through the generation of an explanatory program theory. METHODS: This article presents the theoretical triangulation of our multiphase realist investigation, resulting in a refined program theory. We integrated the initial program theories (IPTs) from each research phase to form a refined program theory. It involved going back and forth from the initial IPT to the findings from each phase and our middle-range theories and examining the most substantiated IPTs on the contextual factors and mechanisms that influenced the sustainability of Lean efforts. FINDINGS: The refined program theory depicts the complex nature to sustaining Lean efforts and that sustainability as a small, often unrepresentative portion of something much larger or more complex that cannot yet be seen or understood. The approach and nature of implementation is critical to shaping contexts for sustainability. Outcomes from implementation become facilitating or hindering contexts for sustainability. Customization to context is an important contextual factor for sustainability. Sense making, value congruency, and staff engagement are critical aspects from early implementation that enable or hinder processes of sustainment. Such mechanisms can trigger staff empowerment that can lead to a greater likelihood of sustainability. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have important implications for sustainability research, in understanding the determinants of sustainability of research-based initiatives in health care. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: It is important to understand and explain determinants of sustainability through theory-driven evaluative research in order to assist key stakeholders in sustaining the effective research-based initiatives made to improve healthcare services, patient care, and outcomes.
R. Flynn, S. Walton and S. D. Scott.
Res Involv Engagem 2019 Nov 4;5:32-019-0168-9. eCollection 2019
Patient engagement (PE) in pediatric health services research is challenging due to contextual factors such as busyness of parenting, work schedules, and diverse family structures. This scoping review seeks to comprehensively map current PE strategies with parents and families across existing published pediatric health research literature. Methods: We followed Arksey and O’Malley (2005) and Levac et al., (2010) six-stage scoping review process. We conducted the search strategy in Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and Psychinfo databases. Data were extracted from included articles; evidence tables were developed and narrative synthesis was completed. Results: Of 3925 retrieved records, seventeen articles were included in the review. Patient engagement primarily occurred through strategies such as advisory groups, meetings, focus groups and interviews. Strategies were used to engage patients at various levels, for different purposes (e.g., to inform, participate, consult, involve collaborate and/or lead). These strategies were also used at various stages of the research process. Navigating power differences, time and money were commonly reported challenges. Inconsistent terminology plagued (e.g., stakeholder engagement, consumer participation, patient and public involvement, participatory research) this body of literature and clarity is urgently needed. Conclusions: This review offers insights into current PE strategies used in pediatric health services research and offers insight for researchers considering employing PE in the future.
L. Heelan-Fancher, J. K. Edmonds and E. J. Jones.
Nurs Res 2019 Nov/Dec;68(6):E1-E7
Intermittent fetal monitoring (IFM) is a recommended strategy for intrapartum fetal heart rate assessment in low-risk pregnancies; however, this “high touch, low tech” approach is underutilized. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between labor and delivery nurses’ intellectual capital and their perceptions of barriers to research utilization in the work setting. METHODS: A cross-sectional correlational design using data derived from a larger study of labor and delivery nurses (N = 248) was used. Covell’s theory of nursing intellectual capital was used as the conceptual and analytic framework to examine labor and delivery nurses’ intellectual capital and their perceived barriers to research utilization. RESULTS: Nurses who receive paid time off from their employer to attend conferences (p < .01) and nurses who do not report nurse-to-patient ratios as a problem in providing IFM (p < .01) perceive fewer barriers to research utilization. DISCUSSION: Time, especially available time, has an effect on labor and delivery nurses’ attitude toward IFM and their perceptions of barriers to research utilization.
Z. Hass, M. Woodhouse, D. C. Grabowski and G. Arling.
Health Serv Res 2019 Jun;54(3):555-563
To evaluate Minnesota’s Return to Community Initiative’s (RTCI) impact on community discharges from nursing homes. DATA SOURCES: Secondary data were from the Minimum Data Set and RTCI staff (April 2014 – December 2016). The sample consisted of 18 444 non-Medicaid nursing home admissions in Minnesota remaining for at least 45 days, with high predicted probability of community discharge. STUDY DESIGN: The RTCI facilitates community discharge for non-Medicaid nursing home residents by assisting with discharge planning, transitioning to the community, and postdischarge follow-up. A key evaluation question is how many of those transitions were directly attributable to the program. Return to Community Initiative was implemented statewide without a control group. Program impact was measured using regression discontinuity, a quasi-experimental design approach that leverages the programs targeting model. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Return to Community Initiative increased community discharge rates by an estimated 11 percent (P < 0.05) for the targeted population. The program effect was robust to time and increased with level of facility participation in RTCI. CONCLUSIONS: The RTCI had a modest yet significant impact on the community discharge rates for its targeted population. Findings have been applied in strengthening the RTCI’s targeting approach and transitioning process.
P. Villalobos Dintrans.
J Aging Soc Policy 2019 Oct 30:1-17
Population aging presents huge challenges for most countries around the world. In this context, long-term care systems appear as a feasible solution to the multidimensional issues arising from demographic change. However, designing a long-term care system is complex. This article presents a structure to analyze long-term care systems based on four components: beneficiaries, benefits, providers, and financing. It uses the experience of three countries to illustrate the many choices available when designing the system, emphasizing the need to understand each component and their interactions. The analysis highlights the existence of several alternatives when designing and implementing long-term care systems.
A. S. Forough, S. Y. M. Wong, E. T. L. Lau, et al.
JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep 2018 Jan;16(1):71-86
To identify nurses’ experiences of administering oral medications to residents of aged care facilities (ACFs) with swallowing difficulties. INTRODUCTION: Administering medicines to older people with swallowing difficulties is a challenging task. Nurses frequently modify oral medications e.g. by crushing/splitting tablets or opening capsules, to facilitate the administration process. These practices are associated with an increased risk of medication administration errors. However, the reasons for these practices from the nurse’s perspective are not well understood. INCLUSION CRITERIA: The review investigated studies on the experiences of nurses of any level with the responsibility of medication administration in ACFs in terms of problems and challenges they encountered when administering oral medicines to aged care residents with swallowing difficulties. Aged care facilities providing all levels of care were considered for inclusion. Qualitative studies including, but not limited to, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography and action research designs as well as mixed methods studies and text and opinion papers were considered. METHODS: A comprehensive database search of PubMed, CINAHL, Embase and Scopus was conducted between October and December 2016. MedNar and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses were used to search for gray literature. No date limitation was applied. The Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument critical appraisal tool (JBI-QARI) was used to assess the quality of the papers. The JBI-QARI data extraction instrument was used to extract qualitative findings. Data synthesis was not applicable in the final analysis due to the inclusion of only one article. RESULTS: The initial search resulted in 1681 unique titles for screening. A total of 202 abstracts were screened, after which a full-text review conducted for 19 articles. After the full-text review, only one article was eligible to be included in the final report. The included study scored highly in terms of methodological quality. The findings highlighted issues around time constraints, complexity of medication administration process to residents of ACFs with swallowing difficulties, cost and resources for alternative strategies, inefficient information flow and communication among healthcare professionals, and nurses’ knowledge and training needs. CONCLUSION: The limited findings of this systematic review indicate that further research is necessary to provide evidence of nurses’ experiences with regards to administering oral medications to older people with swallowing difficulties living in ACFs. A comprehensive understanding of these experiences may lead to organizational system changes to support nurses and older people with swallowing difficulties in ACFs.
M. L. Jacobs, A. L. Snow, P. A. Parmelee and J. A. Davis.
J Appl Gerontol 2018 Mar;37(3):349-370
The purpose of this study was to identify structural, market, and administrator factors of nursing homes that are related to the implementation of person-centered care. Administrators of Medicare/Medicaid-certified nursing homes in the Deep South were invited to complete a standardized survey about their facility and their perceptions and attitudes regarding person-centered care practices (PCCPs). Nursing home structural and market factors were obtained from public websites, and these data were matched with administrator data. Consistent with the resource-based theory of competitive advantage, nursing homes with greater resources and more competition were more likely to implement PCCPs. Implementation of person-centered care was also higher in nursing homes with administrators who perceived culture change implementation to be feasible in their facilities. Given that there is a link between resource availability and adoption of person-centered care, future research should investigate the cost of such innovations.
Y. Yang, H. Li, L. D. Xiao, W. Zhang, M. Xia and H. Feng.
BMC Geriatr 2019 Oct 29;19(1):292-019-1313-x
Person-centered care is widely recognized as a gold standard and is based on a supportive psychosocial climate for both residents and staff in nursing homes. Residents and staff may have different perspectives as to whether the climate in which they interact is person-centered, perhaps due to their different expectations of the nursing home environment and the provision of care services. The aim of this study was to explore and compare resident and staff perspectives of person-centered climate in aged care nursing homes. METHODS: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study using a cluster random sampling method. The study collected data in 2016 from residents (n = 251) and nursing staff (n = 249) in 23 nursing homes using a Person-centered Climate Questionnaire-Patient version and Person-centered Climate-Staff version. T-tests for independent-samples were used to compare scores ranked by nursing staff and residents. RESULTS: The mean scores of ‘A climate of safety’ subscale and ‘A climate of everydayness’ subscale rated by residents were significantly lower than those rated by nursing staff. The mean scores of ‘A climate of hospitality’ rated by residents were very low among the three subscales, an indicator of the need to improve a more home-like environment for residents. Residents in larger size nursing homes showed a higher score of person-centered climate compared with their counterparts in small size nursing homes. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals that the perspectives and perceptions of person-centered climate differ between residents and nursing staff. Therefore, both resident and staff perspectives should be taken into account in attempting to improve person-centered climate for better care outcomes.
M. Anderson, C. W. Revie, H. Stryhn, et al.
Int J Equity Health 2019 Nov 10;18(1):171-019-1074-3
A small proportion of the population consumes the majority of health care resources. High-cost health care users are a heterogeneous group. We aim to segment a provincial population into relevant homogenous sub-groups to provide actionable information on risk factors associated with high-cost health care use within sub-populations. METHODS: The Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) Population Grouping methodology was used to define mutually exclusive and clinically relevant health profile sub-groups. High-cost users (> = 90th percentile of health care spending) were defined within each sub-group. Univariate analyses explored demographic, socio-economic status, health status and health care utilization variables associated with high-cost use. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed for the costliest health profile groups. RESULTS: From 2015 to 2017, 1,175,147 individuals were identified for study. High-cost users consumed 41% of total health care resources. Average annual health care spending for individuals not high-cost were $642; high-cost users were $16,316. The costliest health profile groups were ‘long-term care’, ‘palliative’, ‘major acute’, ‘major chronic’, ‘major cancer’, ‘major newborn’, ‘major mental health’ and ‘moderate chronic’. Both ‘major acute’ and ‘major cancer’ health profile groups were largely explained by measures of health care utilization and multi-morbidity. In the remaining costliest health profile groups modelled, ‘major chronic’, ‘moderate chronic’, ‘major newborn’ and ‘other mental health’, a measure of socio-economic status, low neighbourhood income, was statistically significantly associated with high-cost use. INTERPRETATION: Model results point to specific, actionable information within clinically meaningful subgroups to reduce high-cost health care use. Health equity, specifically low socio-economic status, was statistically significantly associated with high-cost use in the majority of health profile sub-groups. Population segmentation methods, and more specifically, the CIHI Population Grouping Methodology, provide specificity to high-cost health care use; informing interventions aimed at reducing health care costs and improving population health.
A. Driessen and R. Ibanez Martin.
Sociol Health Illn 2019 Nov 8
In the face of warnings about total institutions and growing concern about the quality of care, healthcare professionals in Western Europe and North America have increasingly been exhorted to tailor their services to individuals in their care. In this article, we invite our readers to become more interested in the kinds of differences care is being tailored to, and with what effects. Focusing on food provision for residents with dementia, we present three repertoires through which care workers attend to, and enact different sets of differences between individuals: providing choice allows residents to express fleeting preferences; knowing residents places emphasis on care providers’ familiarity with a person; and catering to identities brings to the fore the tastes which make up part of who someone is. The analysis brings attending to difference to the fore as a practical process and suggests that tailoring care requires sensitivity to the different kinds of individuals enacted when attending to difference.
T. D. Campbell, M. Bayly and S. Peacock.
Res Gerontol Nurs 2019 Nov 6:1-9
With their education and skill set, nurse practitioners (NPs) are ideally situated to provide primary care to long-term care (LTC) residents, and this is a timely development as physician presence in LTC has been decreasing. A sequential follow-up explanatory mixed methods design was used for the current study, which focused on the interviews that followed the initial survey. The sample included seven NPs who work with LTC residents in urban and rural settings in a western Canadian province. The interviews provided an opportunity for in-depth discussion regarding survey results. Interpretive description guided the data analysis. NPs provide timely access to primary care, address medication reconciliation, decrease transfers to hospitals, and take part in collaborative practice. NPs promote the health care goals of LTC residents. Departments of health would benefit from the inclusion of a wider range of health providers, including NPs, to provide timely access to quality care in LTC facilities.
M. Panca, G. Livingston, J. Barber, et al.
PLoS One 2019 Feb 26;14(2):e0211953
People with dementia living in care homes often experience clinically significant agitation; however, little is known about its economic impact. OBJECTIVE: To calculate the cost of agitation in people with dementia living in care homes. METHODS: We used the baseline data from 1,424 residents with dementia living in care homes (part of Managing Agitation and Raising QUality of lifE in dementia (MARQUE) study) that had Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) scores recorded. We investigated the relationship between residents’ health and social care costs and severity of agitation based on the CMAI total score. In addition, we assessed resource utilisation and compared costs of residents with and without clinically significant symptoms of agitation using the CMAI over and above the cost of the care home. RESULTS: Agitation defined by the CMAI was a significant predictor of costs. On average, a one-point increase in the CMAI will lead to a 0.5 percentage points (cost ratio 1.005, 95%CI 1.001 to 1.010) increase in the annual costs. The excess annual cost associated with agitation per resident with dementia was pound1,125.35. This suggests that, on average, agitation accounts for 44% of the annual health and social care costs of dementia in people living in care homes. CONCLUSION: Agitation in people with dementia living in care homes contributes significantly to the overall costs increasing as the level of agitation increases. Residents with the highest level of agitation cost nearly twice as much as those with the lowest levels of agitation, suggesting that effective strategies to reduce agitation are likely to be cost-effective in this setting.
K. Allen, S. Hazelett, M. Martin and C. Jensen.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2019 Nov 13
The US population is aging faster than at any other time in our history. This growth, coupled with a slow adaptive health policy framework, is creating an urgent need to reengineer and improve the quality, safety, and cost-effectiveness of health systems to meet the needs of older adults and embrace the success we have achieved with longevity. Without rapid adoption of evidence-based models that are known to improve safety and health outcomes, we significantly jeopardize the lives of thousands of older adults receiving care under our current health systems’ processes and models. This article describes an innovation and operations infrastructure that was successfully tested in two independent and geographically distinct community health systems. This operations and implementation framework can be scaled and used to accelerate the changes needed to improve care for older adults in health systems throughout the United States.
N. Clavel, M. P. Pomey and D. P. S. Ghadiri.
BMC Health Serv Res 2019 Nov 8;19(1):815-019-4618-8
Around the world, many healthcare organizations engage patients as a quality improvement strategy. In Canada, the University of Montreal has developed a model which consists in partnering with patient advisors, providers, and managers in quality improvement. This model was introduced through its Partners in Care Programs tested with several quality improvement teams in Quebec, Canada. Partnering with patients in quality improvement brings about new challenges for healthcare managers. This model is recent, and little is known about how managers contribute to implementing and sustaining it using key practices. METHODS: In-depth multi-level case studies were conducted within two healthcare organizations which have implemented a Partners in Care Program in quality improvement. The longitudinal design of this research enabled us to monitor the implementation of patient partnership initiatives from 2015 to 2017. In total, 38 interviews were carried out with managers at different levels (top-level, mid-level, and front-line) involved in the implementation of Partners in Care Programs. Additionally, seven focus groups were conducted with patients and providers. RESULTS: Our findings show that managers are engaged in four main types of practices: 1-designing the patient partnership approach so that it makes sense to the entire organization; 2-structuring patient partnership to support its deployment and sustainability; 3-managing patient advisor integration in quality improvement to avoid tokenistic involvement; 4-evaluating patient advisor integration to support continuous improvement. Designing and structuring patient partnership are based on typical management practices used to implement change initiatives in healthcare organizations, whereas managing and evaluating patient advisor integration require new daily practices from managers. Our results reveal that managers at all levels, from top to front-line, are concerned with the implementation of patient partnership in quality improvement. CONCLUSION: This research adds empirical support to the evidence regarding daily managerial practices used for implementing patient partnership initiatives in quality improvement and contributes to guiding healthcare organizations and managers when integrating such approaches.
M. Mileski, K. Lee, C. Bourquard, et al.
Clin Interv Aging 2019 Oct 22;14:1797-1815
The main objective of this study was to investigate abuse of residents with either dementia or Alzheimer’s disease in long-term care settings, to identify facilitators and barriers surrounding implementation of systems to prevent such occurrences, and to draw conclusions on combating the issue of abuse. Patients and methods: A systematic review was conducted using the Medline, CINAHL, and Academic Search Ultimate databases. With the use of key terms via Boolean search, 30 articles were obtained which were determined to be germane to research objectives. The review was conducted and structured based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Results: Residents with dementia or Alzheimer’s disease are at greater risk of abuse. The growing population could increase this problem exponentially. The most common facilitators were the introduction of policies/programs in the facility, education, and working conditions. The most cited barriers were poor training, lack of research, and working conditions in the long-term care setting. Conclusion: The examples given would be useful in minimizing the potential for abuse in the long-term care setting. Leadership can take an active role in the prevention of abuse of the elderly through their actions, education of employees, and changes in the work environment.
C. A. Surr, E. Shoesmith, A. W. Griffiths, R. Kelley, J. McDermid and J. Fossey.
BMC Health Serv Res 2019 Nov 4;19(1):790-019-4662-4
Psychosocial interventions offer opportunities to improve care for people with dementia in care homes. However, implementation is often led by staff who are not well prepared for the role. Some interventions use external experts to support staff. However little is known about external expert, care home staff and manager perceptions of such support. This paper addresses this gap. METHODS: Multi-methods study within a process evaluation of a cluster randomised controlled trial of Dementia Care Mapping (DCM). Interviews were conducted with six external experts who also completed questionnaires, 17 care home managers and 25 care home staff responsible for DCM implementation. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and template analysis. RESULTS: Three themes were identified: the need for expert support, practicalities of support and broader impacts of providing support. Expert support was vital for successful DCM implementation, although the five-days provided was felt to be insufficient. Some homes felt the support was inflexible and did not consider their individual needs. Practical challenges of experts being located at a geographical distance from the care homes, limited when and how support was available. Experts gained knowledge they were able to then apply in delivering DCM training. Experts were not able to accurately predict which homes would be able to implement DCM independently in future cycles. CONCLUSIONS: An external expert may form a key component of successful implementation of psychosocial interventions in care home settings. Future research should explore optimal use of the expert role.
W. M. Liu, J. Koerner, L. Lam, et al.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2019 Nov 4
Mortality in care homes is high, but care of dying residents is often suboptimal, and many services do not have easy access to specialist palliative care. This study examined the impact of providing specialist palliative care on residents’ quality of death and dying. DESIGN: Using a stepped wedge randomized control trial, care homes were randomly assigned to crossover from control to intervention using a random number generator. Analysis used a generalized linear and latent mixed model. The trial was registered with ANZCTR: ACTRN12617000080325. SETTING: Twelve Australian care homes in Canberra, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1700 non-respite residents were reviewed from the 12 participating care homes. Of these residents, 537 died and 471 had complete data for analysis. The trial ran between February 2017 and June 2018. INTERVENTION: Palliative Care Needs Rounds (hereafter Needs Rounds) are monthly hour-long staff-only triage meetings to discuss residents at risk of dying without a plan in place. They are chaired by a specialist palliative care clinician and attended by care home staff. A checklist is followed to guide discussions and outcomes, focused on anticipatory planning. MEASUREMENTS: This article reports secondary outcomes of staff perceptions of residents’ quality of death and dying, care home staff confidence, and completion of advance care planning documentation. We assessed (1) quality of death and dying, and (2) staff capability of adopting a palliative approach, completion of advance care plans, and medical power of attorney. RESULTS: Needs Rounds are associated with staff perceptions that residents had a better quality of death and dying (P < .01; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.83-12.21), particularly in the 10 facilities that complied with the intervention protocol (P < .01; 95% CI = 6.37-13.32). Staff self-reported perceptions of capability increased (P < .01; 95% CI = 2.73-6.72). CONCLUSION: The data offer evidence for monthly triage meetings to transform the lives, deaths, and care of older people residing in care homes.
A. Squires, K. P. Murali, S. A. Greenberg, L. L. Herrmann and C. O. D’amico.
Gerontologist 2019 Nov 4
The Nurses Improving Care for Healthsystem Elders (NICHE) is a nurse-led education and consultation program designed to help health care organizations improve the quality of care for older adults. To conduct a scoping review of the evidence associated with the NICHE program to (a) understand how it influences patient outcomes through specialized care of the older adult and (b) provide an overview of implementation of the NICHE program across organizations as well as its impact on nursing professionals and the work environment. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Six databases were searched to identify NICHE-related articles between January 1992 and April 2019. After critical appraisal, 43 articles were included. RESULTS: Four thematic categories were identified including specialized older adult care, geriatric resource nurse (GRN) model, work environment, and NICHE program adoption and refinement. Specialized older adult care, a key feature of NICHE programs, resulted in improved quality of care, patient safety, lower complications, and decreased length of stay. The GRN model emphasizes specialized geriatric care education and consultation. Improvements in the geriatric nurse work environment as measured by perceptions of the practice environment, quality of care, and aging-sensitive care delivery have been reported. NICHE program adoption and refinement focuses on the methods used to improve care, implementation and adoption of the NICHE program, and measuring its impact. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: The evidence about the NICHE program in caring for older adults is promising but more studies examining patient outcomes and the impact on health care professionals are needed.
D. D. Quigley, A. Dick and P. W. Stone.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2019 Nov 1
Quality innovation networks’ (QINs’) support of nursing homes (NHs) is a national strategy to systematically improve the quality of care experienced by residents. QINs have been tasked with providing NHs with information, resources, tools, and training to assist in developing best practices and to support quality improvement efforts in infection prevention (including joining the National Healthcare Safety Network [NHSN]), avoid unnecessary hospitalizations, and increase use of hospice and palliative care. Our objective was to examine QIN online resources provided to NHs to support best practices and improvement efforts. DESIGN: An environmental scan was conducted. SETTING/MEASUREMENT: Each QIN website was evaluated on (1) usability, (2) accessibility and prominence, (3) website design, (4) availability of training materials, (5) recency of update, (6) identification of key personnel, and (8) quality focus areas (ie, infection prevention, NHSN, antibiotic stewardship, reducing unnecessary or avoidable hospitalizations, and palliative and hospice care). RESULTS: QIN websites varied dramatically in design and resources offered to NHs as well as in the content and ease of finding information. Antibiotic stewardship and NHSN resources were widely available. Information (ie, fact sheets) on reducing avoidable hospitalizations was commonly available, while resources, such as tool kits, webinars, training, and contact information for personnel on reducing avoidable hospitalizations, were available to 23 states. Infection prevention resources were varied and limited to 34 states. Both palliative care and hospice resources were available through only a few QINs (13 states and 20 states, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Given that much of the information, tool kits, and resources are standardized and in the public domain, centralized resources with tailored or specialized links to unique local resources, like in-person trainings and state-specific contact information, could be more beneficial for NHs.
A. L. Gordon, C. Goodman, S. L. Davies, et al.
Age Ageing 2018 Jul 1;47(4):595-603
Care home residents have high healthcare needs not fully met by prevailing healthcare models. This study explored how healthcare configuration influences resource use. METHODS: a realist evaluation using qualitative and quantitative data from case studies of three UK health and social care economies selected for differing patterns of healthcare delivery to care homes. Four homes per area (12 in total) were recruited. A total of 239 residents were followed for 12 months to record resource-use. Overall, 181 participants completed 116 interviews and 13 focus groups including residents, relatives, care home staff, community nurses, allied health professionals and General Practitioners. RESULTS: context-mechanism-outcome configurations were identified explaining what supported effective working between healthcare services and care home staff: (i) investment in care home-specific work that legitimises and values work with care homes; (ii) relational working which over time builds trust between practitioners; (iii) care which ‘wraps around’ care homes; and (iv) access to specialist care for older people with dementia. Resource use was similar between sites despite differing approaches to healthcare. There was greater utilisation of GP resource where this was specifically commissioned but no difference in costs between sites. CONCLUSION: activities generating opportunities and an interest in healthcare and care home staff working together are integral to optimal healthcare provision in care homes. Outcomes are likely to be better where: focus and activities legitimise ongoing contact between healthcare staff and care homes at an institutional level; link with a wider system of healthcare; and provide access to dementia-specific expertise.
S. Kaasalainen, T. Sussman, L. McCleary, et al.
Nurs Leadersh (Tor Ont) 2019 Sep;32(3):27-39
The purpose of this study was to conduct a stakeholder analysis of the strengthening a palliative approach to long-term care (SPA-LTC) model and refine it based on feedback from long-term care (LTC) residents and their families, staff, researchers and decision makers. METHODS: We used a mixed-methods design to conduct a stakeholder analysis of the SPA-LTC model that consisted of two sequential components: qualitative focus groups with LTC staff followed by a quantitative survey with key stakeholders. RESULTS: Twenty-one LTC staff provided feedback about the SPA-LTC model after residents relocated to LTC, during advanced illness and at end of life and in the period of grief and bereavement. This feedback helped to guide revisions of the model. According to the survey results, the SPA-LTC model was well received by 35 stakeholders, but its feasibility was questioned. CONCLUSION: The Canadian SPA-LTC model is evidence based and endorsed by LTC staff and stakeholders. Efforts are needed to determine the feasibility of implementing the model to ensure that residents’ needs are made a priority while in LTC.
L. Van den Block, E. Honinx, L. Pivodic, et al.
JAMA Intern Med 2019 Nov 11:1-10
High-quality evidence on how to improve palliative care in nursing homes is lacking. Objective: To investigate the effect of the Palliative Care for Older People (PACE) Steps to Success Program on resident and staff outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cluster-randomized clinical trial (2015-2017) in 78 nursing homes in 7 countries comparing PACE Steps to Success Program (intervention) with usual care (control). Randomization was stratified by country and median number of beds in each country in a 1:1 ratio. Interventions: The PACE Steps to Success Program is a multicomponent intervention to integrate basic nonspecialist palliative care in nursing homes. Using a train-the-trainer approach, an external trainer supports staff in nursing homes to introduce a palliative care approach over the course of 1 year following a 6-steps program. The steps are (1) advance care planning with residents and family, (2) assessment, care planning, and review of needs and problems, (3) coordination of care via monthly multidisciplinary review meetings, (4) delivery of high-quality care focusing on pain and depression, (5) care in the last days of life, and (6) care after death. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary resident outcome was comfort in the last week of life measured after death by staff using the End-of-Life in Dementia Scale Comfort Assessment While Dying (EOLD-CAD; range, 14-42). The primary staff outcome was knowledge of palliative care reported by staff using the Palliative Care Survey (PCS; range, 0-1). Results: Concerning deceased residents, we collected 551 of 610 questionnaires from staff at baseline and 984 of 1178 postintervention in 37 intervention and 36 control homes. Mean (SD) age at time of death ranged between 85.22 (9.13) and 85.91 (8.57) years, and between 60.6% (160/264) and 70.6% (190/269) of residents were women across the different groups. Residents’ comfort in the last week of life did not differ between intervention and control groups (baseline-adjusted mean difference, -0.55; 95% CI, -1.71 to 0.61; P = .35). Concerning staff, we collected 2680 of 3638 questionnaires at baseline and 2437 of 3510 postintervention in 37 intervention and 38 control homes. Mean (SD) age of staff ranged between 42.3 (12.1) and 44.1 (11.7) years, and between 87.2% (1092/1253) and 89% (1224/1375) of staff were women across the different groups. Staff in the intervention group had statistically significantly better knowledge of palliative care than staff in the control group, but the clinical difference was minimal (baseline-adjusted mean difference, 0.04; 95% CI, 0.02-0.05; P < .001). Data analyses began on April 20, 2018. Conclusions and Relevance: Residents’ comfort in the last week of life did not improve after introducing the PACE Steps to Success Program. Improvements in staff knowledge of palliative care were clinically not important. Trial Registration: ISRCTN Identifier: ISRCTN14741671.
S. F. Simmons, C. S. Coelho, A. Sandler and J. F. Schnelle.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2018 Mar;19(3):262-269
To describe a feasible quality improvement system to manage feeding assistance care processes in an assisted living facility (ALF) that provides dementia care and the use of these data to maintain the quality of daily care provision and prevent unintentional weight loss. DESIGN AND METHODS: Supervisory ALF staff used a standardized observational protocol to assess feeding assistance care quality during and between meals for 12 consecutive months for 53 residents receiving dementia care. Direct care staff received feedback about the quality of assistance and consistency of between-meal snack delivery for residents with low meal intake and/or weight loss. RESULTS: On average, 78.4% of the ALF residents consumed more than one-half of each served meal and/or received staff assistance during meals to promote consumption over the 12 months. An average of 79.7% of the residents were offered snacks between meals twice per day. The prevalence of unintentional weight loss averaged 1.3% across 12 months. IMPLICATIONS: A quality improvement system resulted in sustained levels of mealtime feeding assistance and between-meal snack delivery and a low prevalence of weight loss among ALF residents receiving dementia care. Given that many ALF residents receiving dementia care are likely to be at risk for low oral intake and unintentional weight loss, ALFs should implement a quality improvement system similar to that described in this project, despite the absence of regulations to do so.
CARDUS, Brian Dijkema, and Johanna Wolfert
Workers in Ontario’s long-term care (LTC) homes provide care and support for thousands of seniors every day—but there are not nearly enough of them. Though LTC residents have increasingly acute care needs, there is a worsening shortage of workers who provide care. At the same time, the demand for LTC beds far exceeds supply, and the growing backlog is harming the entire health-care system.
-Compared to ten years ago, LTC residents today are older, have poorer health, and need more support—yet the wages of the workers who care for them have declined.
-Low attraction and retention of LTC workers have created widespread staff shortages, increasing pressure on the remaining workers and putting both residents and staff at risk.
-Ontario’s financial problems mean it is unfeasible for the provincial government to try making the LTC sector more attractive for new and existing workers by raising wages alone; it must also improve workers’ job satisfaction (which is associated with a variety of positive outcomes, including intention to stay, performance, and productivity).
-LTC workers report lower job satisfaction when they feel they are unable to provide quality care to residents, something that has become more challenging as limited staff are stretched thin trying to meet the demands of rising resident acuity. They are particularly frustrated by excessive documentation requirements: overregulation has forced workers to spend time filling out redundant paperwork instead of caring for residents face to face.
A time-use study conducted by the union CLAC revealed that in an eight-hour shift at a LTC home, the average personal support worker spent nine minutes on documentation per resident—taking time away from hands-on care.
The systemic, multifaceted problems facing workers in Ontario’s LTC sector defy easy solutions, but the industry’s primary stakeholders—government, labour, and employers—can still bring significant improvement to the front lines. We urge government to bring these stakeholders together in order to correctly identify the problem LTC workers face, collaboratively develop solutions to the problem, support the implementation of solutions, and facilitate sustained engagement with the province’s LTC challenges. It’s time to build a better LTC sector for all Ontarians.
D. P. Stolldorf, J. L. Schnipper, A. S. Mixon, M. Dietrich and S. Kripalani.
BMJ Open 2019 Nov 2;9(11):e030834-2019-030834
Medication reconciliation (MedRec) is an important patient safety strategy and is widespread in US hospitals and globally. Nevertheless, high quality MedRec has been difficult to implement. As part of a larger study investigating MedRec interventions, we evaluated and compared organisational contextual factors and team cohesion by hospital characteristics and implementation team members’ profession to better understand the environmental context and its correlates during a multi-site quality improvement (QI) initiative. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study using a web survey (contextual factors) and a national hospital database (hospital characteristics). SETTING: Hospitals participating in the second Multi-Centre Medication Reconciliation Quality Improvement Study (MARQUIS2). PARTICIPANTS: Implementation team members of 18 participating MARQUIS2 hospitals. OUTCOMES: Primary outcome: contextual factor ratings (ie, organisational capacity, leadership support, goal alignment, staff involvement, patient safety climate and team cohesion). Secondary outcome: differences in contextual factors by hospital characteristics. RESULTS: Fifty-five team members from the 18 participating hospitals completed the survey. Ratings of contextual factors differed significantly by domain (p0.05). Respondents in the pharmacy profession gave lower ratings of leadership support than did those in the nursing or other professions group (p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Hospital size, type and location did not drive differences in contextual factors, suggesting that tailoring MedRec QI implementation to hospital characteristics may not be necessary. Strong team cohesion suggests the use of interdisciplinary teams does not detract from cohesion when conducting mentored QI projects. Organisational leaders should particularly focus on supporting pharmacy services and addressing their concerns during MedRec QI initiatives. Future research should correlate contextual factors with implementation success to inform how best to prepare sites to implement complex QI interventions such as MedRec.
H. S. Lee, T. R. Chen, C. L. Yang, T. Y. Chiu and W. Y. Hu.
BMC Palliat Care 2019 Nov 5;18(1):95-019-0482-x
Research in Taiwan has indicated that advance care planning is rarely undertaken in long-term care facilities. The purpose of this study was to develop an advance care planning interview guideline and care model to facilitate the process of advance care planning for residents and their families in long-term care facilities. METHODS: This study follows an action research design. Cycles of planning, action, observation, and reflection were planned and modified based on the results of interviews with residents and their families as well as meetings with staff. To establish the interview guideline and care model through this action research study, residents and their families were interviewed separately. The researcher subsequently held meetings with staff members to evaluate the results and identify problems during each advance care planning process. This information was synthesised and used to modify the care model for implementation with the next resident-family pair. This process was performed a total of ten times. RESULTS: This study included residents (N = 10), their families (N = 20), and medical staff (N = 4) at a long-term care facility. The interviews and meetings were audio recorded, transcribed, and subjected to a simple thematic analysis together with the field notes and reflection logs. Four themes emerged from the data related to: opening the conversation with the interview guidelines about the life story of residents; continuing life stories to the quality of remaining years of the residents; gradually changing the topic to the end-of-life care issues; and concluding the conversation by explaining the content of advance directives and hospice care. CONCLUSIONS: The advance care planning care model was implemented following logical thinking from a Chinese perspective. This consisted of opening, developing, changing, and concluding through the views of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism. The research findings indicate that the model successfully facilitated the process of advance care planning for residents and their families.
C. Hand, D. L. Rudman, C. McGrath, C. Donnelly and M. Sands.
Can J Aging 2019 Dec;38(4):512-520
Participatory action research (PAR) is well suited to research that aims to address social exclusion and inclusion in older age. Illustrations of and reflections on PAR with older adults are scarce, particularly the initiation stage, which sets the stage for the cyclical participatory action that follows. In this article, we describe the initiation of a PAR project with older adults and reflect on the alignment of this process with key participatory principles and fit within typical research structures. Findings point to the tensions between developing relationships over time and time-sensitive calls for funding, how traditional conceptions of research can influence creating equitable partnerships, and the need for development of ethical and publishing guidelines that address participatory approaches. These key insights can be applied to help achieve the potential of PAR: to address issues of concern by collaboratively and equitably working with the people most affected.
X. Huang, B. Li, F. Yu, J. Zhou, Q. Wan and H. Chang.
J Adv Nurs 2019 Nov 12
To clarify the specific impact paths among physical activity, activity of daily living, depression and quality of life among dementia patients. DESIGN: A descriptive, cross-sectional design. METHODS: Dementia patients and their caregivers from five tertiary general hospitals and one dementia patients’ club were recruited. A total of 216 valid questionnaires were collected from November 2018 – March 2019. Path analysis was performed by Mplus 7.0 to test the casual relationship among physical activity, activity of daily living, depression and quality of life. RESULTS: Most patients with dementia presented a low level of physical activity and suffered from impaired quality of life. The modified model presented a good model fit and revealed that physical activity had indirect positive effects on quality of life mediated by activity of daily living and depression. CONCLUSION: The results showed physical activity was a promising nonpharmacological method to improve the performance of activity of daily living and reduce depressive symptoms and then enhance the quality of life among dementia patients. IMPACT: The findings were beneficial to elevate the awareness of physical activity among patients and professionals. This study was helpful to understand how physical activity exerted effects on life quality of dementia patients. This study provided a new perspective for researchers to elucidate the causal relationship of variables among dementia patients.
G. L. Towsley, B. Wong, T. Mokhtari, W. Hull and S. C. Miller.
J Pain Symptom Manage 2019 Nov 8
A key challenge in nursing homes is how to attain and clarify resident preferences for care and then communicate these preferences to family members and staff. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of Me & My Wishes- person-centered videos of residents discussing their preferences for daily and end-of-life (EOL) care. METHODS: For this descriptive study, Me & My Wishes videos were created with residents in three nursing homes in the Pacific Northwest. Feasibility was evaluated by tracking resident enrollment, completing and sharing their video, and conducting debriefing interviews to ascertain residents’ impressions of the recording process and personalized conversation. After viewing the video, staff and family assessed communication quality via survey–the extent to which they perceived messages from the video (e.g., preferences for EOL) to be timely, accurate, adequate, complete, and credible, and items on resident preferences for daily and EOL care. RESULTS: Twenty of 33 residents approached created videos; 18 of these residents shared their videos with family or staff. Residents reported that they liked the opportunity to express their wishes. On a scale of 1-7 (lower is better), mean ratings were: 2.0 (family) and 1.3 (staff) for communicating preferences for daily care; 1.9 (family) and 1.2 (staff) for communicating preferences for EOL. Both family and staff reported increased knowledge about resident preferences for daily and EOL care. CONCLUSION: This research supports the feasibility and acceptability of a videotaping approach (Me & My Wishes) for viewing, listening and discussing residents’ preferences for daily and end-of-life care.
M. Carter, Z. Quail, A. Bourke and C. Young.
Dementia (London) 2019 Nov 10:1471301219886243.
Individual cognitive interventions for Alzheimer’s disease have been shown to be beneficial and cost effective when evaluated as sole interventions. However, there is a need for a systematic, person-centric, structured approach to guide non-pharmacological intervention selection based on disease stage, symptoms, outcome assessment, and individual requirements. Our Structured Cognitive Intervention Pathway aims to facilitate the selection of first-line, or subsequent, non-pharmacological management for people with Alzheimer’s disease living at home and in elderly care facilities. We discuss the Pathway’s conceptual basis and evaluation of implementation as a decision-support tool within a dementia care service in China.
L. C. Lu, S. H. Lan, Y. P. Hsieh, Y. Y. Yen, J. C. Chen and S. J. Lan.
Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 2019 Nov 5:1533317519883498
World Health Organization has communicated that dementia as a public health priority in 2012. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia are the main reason results in hospitalization of dementia patients. Horticulture is one of the favorite activity for many peoples to relax their minds. OBJECTIVES: To investigate psychological health benefits of horticulture intervention in dementia patients. METHODS: The databases including Cochrane Library, ProQuest, PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO, Web of Science, and Ovid Medline were searched up to August 2017. RESULTS: Twenty-three articles for systematic review, whereas 8 articles were included in meta-analysis. Meta-analysis verified the beneficial effect of horticultural therapy (HT) on agitation level (standard mean difference: -0.59; P < .00001); increase time spent on activity engagement (mean differences [MD]: 45.10%, P < .00001); decrease time for doing nothing (MD: -29.36%, P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with dementia benefit from horticultural by alleviating their degrees of agitate behaviors, increasing time of engaging in activities and decrease time of doing nothing.
Various factors affect the mortality of older adult residents of long-term care facilities. To provide adequate nursing care for older adults, it is necessary to understand the factors that affect their risk of mortality. PURPOSE: This study was designed to (a) evaluate the 24-month survival rate and (b) identify the underlying cause of death in various dimensions, including cognitive, psychological, and physical function; nutritional status; and chronic disease. METHODS: A longitudinal study was carried out between 2011 and 2013 at seven long-term care facilities. The participants comprised 276 residents who were all older than 65 years old. Baseline measurements included cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination for Dementia Screening), psychological function (Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia), physical function (Barthel Index), nutritional status (Mini Nutritional Assessment, mid-arm circumference, and calf circumference), and chronic disease status (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic respiratory disease, heart disease, and urinary incontinence). Data analysis included univariate and multivariate logistic regression to identify the main factors affecting mortality. RESULTS: In 2011 (baseline), the mean age of the participants was 80.46 years (SD = 7.08) and most were female (73.6%). At the 24-month follow-up, 94 (34.1%) of the participants had died. The major factors affecting mortality were as follows: cognitive dysfunction (OR = 3.12, 95% CI [1.41, 6.90]), mid-arm circumference (< 22.5 cm; OR = 2.32, 95% CI [1.35, 3.96]), and urinary incontinence (OR = 2.04, 95% CI [1.16, 3.61]). CONCLUSIONS: According to the findings, special attention is needed at the end of life to improve the quality of life of older adults with cognitive dysfunction, malnutrition (low mid-arm circumference), and urinary incontinence who reside in long-term care facilities.
Y. S. Chao, D. MacDougall and CADTH.
CADTH 2019 Aug 20
“Polypharmacy” refers to the use of two or more medications, and commonly refers to the use of five or more medications. Polypharmacy is more prevalent among those aged 65 years and over than in younger populations.(1)(,)(2) Polypharmacy occurs more frequently among those residing in long-term care facilities than those living in communities and can be due to duplicate or redundant medications for similar diseases.(2) The use of multiple medications can lead to toxicity and decrease drug compliance.(2) The adverse effects of certain medications may induce clinicians to prescribe more drugs to treat them.(2) In a 2008 survey that interviewed 3,132 Canadians aged 65 years and over, 27% of the respondents were regularly taking five or more medications and 12% of them had experienced drug-related adverse events, in comparison to 5% of Canadians taking one or two medications.(1) To prevent inappropriate use of medications among the elderly, there are guidelines aiming at deprescribing certain classes of medications(3)(,)(4) or avoiding potentially inappropriate medications in populations with specific conditions.(5) One prominent example is the Beers criteria last updated by the American Geriatrics Society in 2019.(5) There are recommendations on the medications that should be avoided in general or specific to health conditions.(5) To put these guidelines into practice requires medication reviews to screen and deprescribe the medications among the elderly, particularly those residing in long-term care facilities.(2) Pharmacist-led medication reviews have been implemented in countries such as the US, the UK, and Canada.(2) In a systematic review, pharmacist-led and team-based medication reviews were found to improve the quality of medication use in long-term care facilities.(2) Team-based reviews involve professionals from different disciplines and often consist of pharmacists, clinicians, and nurses.(2)(,)(6) In a 2011 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health report, low-quality evidence from two systematic reviews and two non-randomized studies showed that team-based medication reviews (every three months in one primary study, unspecified in others) were associated with less use of inappropriate medications and better patient health outcomes, in comparison to usual care.(6) However, it remains unclear whether more frequent medication reviews, such as every three months, can improve medication use and reduce adverse events.(2)(,)(6) This report aims to review the evidence regarding the clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of multidisciplinary medication reviews in long-term care facilities, as well as clinical guidelines on multidisciplinary medication reviews.
J. Malley, F. D’Amico and J. L. Fernandez.
Soc Sci Med 2019 Dec;243:112635
Quality of care has multiple dimensions, including safety, experience and effectiveness. Understanding the relationship between these dimensions is important for policy and practice, since there may be both synergies and trade-offs that occur when attempting to maximise them. For long-term care effectiveness is understood as care that promotes a good quality of life (QoL). Here we investigate the relationship between care experience and QoL in long-term home care. Data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2008/09 were analysed using fractional response regression models to explore the relationship between experience, measured through items capturing perceptions of the care delivery process, and patient-reported QoL-outcomes, measured using ASCOT, controlling for relevant individual characteristics. The analysis included 14,172 people aged 65 and over using home care services from across England. After controlling for the confounding effect of individual characteristics, a ten percentage point increase in overall process quality is found to be associated on average with a 2.13 percentage point increase in ASCOT. Interpersonal aspects of care, such as the responsiveness and caring behaviour of staff, have a stronger relationship with ASCOT than those related to the organisation of care by the provider, such as timekeeping and continuity of care, with a ten percentage point increase in the former associated on average with a 1.9 percentage point increase in ASCOT and a ten percentage point increase in the latter associated on average with a 0.3 percentage point increase in ASCOT. Perceptions of care experience, particularly those related to the interpersonal care aspects, have an important association with QoL-outcomes. Measures of the experience of interpersonal aspects of care may therefore be useful indicators of QoL-outcomes for the routine monitoring of long-term home care services. Although associated, the two dimensions are distinctive and for policymakers there is value in assessing both care experience and QoL-outcomes.
E. Sirsch, A. Lukas, C. Drebenstedt, et al.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2019 Oct 23
Up to 80% of nursing home residents are affected by pain. Pain assessment aims to determine pain intensity, quality, and course of pain to underpin diagnostic decision making. In the nursing home population, pain assessment is frequently compromised by cognitive impairment. Characteristics of the nursing home setting, such as resident’s age, staff skill mix, and overall aims of the care provided, also need to be taken into account. Therefore, an interdisciplinary evidence-based clinical practice guideline for pain assessment in the nursing home setting was developed. A systematic literature search was carried out covering publications between 2003 and 2015. Thirty-nine studies were included in the preparation of this guideline, supplemented by 12 international reference guidelines. Recommendations were subjected to a structured consensus-finding process with representatives from 37 scientific and professional organizations and patient representatives. The guideline underwent independent peer review before finalization. It comprises 62 recommendations that are grouped into 4 chapters: (1) context of pain assessment in nursing home care; (2) screening; (3) focused assessment; and (4) reassessment/monitoring of pain. Main recommendations stipulate that clinicians should assess the patient’s ability to provide self-report of pain when screening for pain and that each resident should be screened for the presence of pain. A focused assessment of pain, performed during rest and activities, should include pain intensity, changed behaviors, general mobility, pain history, comorbidities, and pain medication. Pain should be re-assessed at regular intervals using the same instruments that were used for the focused assessment. Guideline development demonstrated that many aspects of pain assessment in older persons have not received adequate research attention so far. Available studies predominantly possess only low levels of evidence. Therefore, research into this area needs to be systematically developed to address questions of clinical relevance to support patient care.
A. Palese, L. Grassetti, V. Bressan, et al.
BMC Health Serv Res 2019 Oct 30;19(1):775-019-4667-z
This study aims to estimate the direct and indirect effects of the unit environment alongside individual and nursing care variables on eating dependence among residents who are cognitively impaired and living in a nursing home. METHOD: A multicentre observational study was carried out in 2017: 13 Italian nursing homes were involved in data collection. Included residents were aged > 65 at baseline, living in the considered facility for the last 6 months and during the entire study period and having received at least one comprehensive assessment. Data were collected (a) at the individual level: eating dependence using the Edinburgh Feeding Evaluation in Dementia Scale and other clinical variables; (b) at the nursing care level with daily interventions to maintain eating independence assessed with a checklist; and (c) at the nursing home level, using the Therapeutic Environment Screening Survey for Nursing Homes. RESULTS: One thousand twenty-seven residents were included with an average age of 85.32 years old (95% CI: 84.74-85.89), mainly female (781; 76%). The path analysis explained the 57.7% variance in eating dependence. Factors preventing eating dependence were: (a) at the individual level, increased functional dependence measured with the Barthel Index (beta – 2.374); eating in the dining room surrounded by residents (beta – 1.802) as compared to eating alone in bed; and having a close relationship with family relatives (beta – 0.854), (b) at the nursing care level, the increased number of interventions aimed at promoting independence (beta – 0.524); and (c) at the NH level, high scores in ‘Space setting’ (beta – 4.446), ‘Safety’ (beta – 3.053), ‘Lighting’ (beta – 2.848) and ‘Outdoor access’ (beta – 1.225). However, environmental factors at the unit level were found to have also indirect effects by influencing the degree of functional dependence, the occurrence of night restlessness and the number of daily interventions performed by the nursing staff. CONCLUSION: Eating dependence is a complex phenomenon requiring interventions targeting individual, nursing care, and environmental levels. The NH environment had the largest direct and indirect effect on residents’ eating dependence, thus suggesting that at this level appropriate interventions should be designed and implemented.
G. H. Bjorklof, A. S. Helvik, T. L. Ibsen, E. W. Telenius, E. K. Grov and S. Eriksen.
BMC Geriatr 2019 Oct 30;19(1):295-019-1306-9
People with dementia describe experiences of loss that threaten their autonomy and ability to contribute to society. They often have difficulties with orientation, loss of roll function, and fear about the future, and need help from others. An increasing body of literature also focuses on how people with dementia search for meaning and maintaining of quality to life, and how they find strategies to live with dementia. A review of the scientific literature on coping and dementia is warranted and can help to advice and inform healthcare personnel and decision makers on how they can support and plan for appropriate healthcare services for people with dementia. The aim of this systematic meta-synthesis was therefore to interpret and synthesize knowledge regarding people with dementia’s experience of coping. METHODS: We conducted a systematic, computerised search of Medline, Embase, Cinahl Complete, PsycINFO and Age Line combining MeSH terms and text words for different types of dementia with different descriptions of experience. Studies comprised 1) a sample of people with dementia, 2) a qualitative interview as a research method and 3) a description of experiences of coping were included. The search resulted in 7129 articles, of which 163 were read in full text, 80 were excluded due to the exclusion criteria or low quality according. The analysis was conducted in line with qualitative content analyses. RESULTS: This interpretative qualitative meta-synthesis included 74 articles of good quality encompassing interviews with 955 persons with dementia. The material revealed two main resources of coping: (1) Humour and (2) Practical and emotional support, and four overall strategies in which people with dementia cope with the challenges they experience: (1) Keep going and holding on to life as usual; (2) Adapting and adjusting to the demands from the situation; (3) Accepting the situation; and (4) Avoiding the situation A comprehensive understanding of the categories led to the latent theme: Balancing the struggle of living with dementia. CONCLUSION: This meta-synthesis indicates that people with dementia cope in different ways and using several parallel strategies. This insight is essential in dementia care to facilitate a supportive environment.
F. M. F. Wong, Y. T. Y. Ng and W. K. Leung.
Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 Oct 26;16(21):10.3390/ijerph16214132
The oral health of an ageing population, especially that of the institutionalized elderly population, constitutes a significant concern because it is closely linked to general health and the quality of life. Shared common risk factors drive the development and worsening of poor oral health and non-communicable diseases, which eventually lead to self-care inability. Several studies have reported on the poor oral health of the institutionalized elderly population. However, few comprehensive reports exist regarding the relationship between poor oral health, the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and the associated factors in this specific population. Objective: The objective is to describe recently reported oral health levels, the OHRQoL and the associated factors among older institutional residents. Methods: Studies published between July 2009 and June 2019 in MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were searched. The population, intervention, comparison and outcome (PICO) strategy was used as a guide. The reported factors related to poor oral health were identified (i.e., age, gender, educational level, acquired systemic conditions or dementia/cognitive impairment). Results: Twenty-five surveys (or study series) from 19 countries were included. The level of evidence reported by these studies was generally moderate to strong. The reported oral cleanliness and health of the surveyed institutionalized elderly were poor (>50% of residents had calculus; denture hygiene index > 80%). Gum (approximately 30% of dentate residents had moderate to severe periodontitis), teeth (decayed, missing or filled teeth >20), mucosa (>10% had mucosal lesions) and denture problems (up to 40%) were prevalent and were associated with a poor OHRQoL, especially in females, socially deprived residents or those with mild or above cognitive impairment. Those with a poor OHRQoL might show signs of poor nutrition. Conclusions: This report reviewed evidence-based knowledge on oral health, the OHRQoL and the associated factors among elderly institutional residents. Further research is needed to confirm these observations. For improved oral health, a better OHRQoL and the general well-being of older residents, clinical trials are needed, targeting modifiable factors, such as social inequality, oral healthcare accessibility, and/or nursing home service quality. The relationship between oral health, the OHRQoL and nutrition in this at-risk population also warrants exploration.
G. Maille, B. Saliba-Serre, A. M. Ferrandez and M. Ruquet.
Clin Interv Aging 2019 Jun 28;14:1141-1151
The aim of this study was to compare the perceived oral health of elderly persons and the clinical reality of their oral status. Background: Persons aged over 60 have considerable need for oral health care; a need that increases over time. However, this population appears to be unaware of their state of oral health, and this may be a further obstacle to professional management. We thought it useful to examine the objective and the perceived oral health of these patients. Understanding what may influence their perception can help us to improve their management. Methods: The data analyzed in this work are the findings of a field survey carried out in elderly nursing home residents. Their objective oral health was evaluated by using two variables: oral profile, determined by clinical examination, and the oral health index determined using the Oral Health Assessment Tool (OHAT). Perceived oral health was evaluated using the various categories and fields of the General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). Results: Our clinical study showed a discrepancy between perceived oral health and the clinical reality: although a significant association can be demonstrated between the OHAT and the GOHAI, there are considerable variations. It also appeared that the number of teeth and total edentation considerably influence perceived oral health and that findings vary according to different situations. Conclusion: Numerous factors influence elderly persons’ perception of their true oral health. In order to improve our elders’ quality of life, the necessary measures must be taken for the follow-up and regular monitoring of their oral health. At the same time, all possible means should be used and awareness should be raised to improve the health behavior and perception of patients and their entourage.
Office of the Senior’s Advocate, British Columbia 2018
This report resulted from the feedback I received from emergency room clinicians. Working alongside front line staff in six different hospitals throughout the province, I heard a common complaint. Many felt that some care homes in their area were sending residents to the emergency department unnecessarily. This sparked the question “what do the data tell us about who is going to the emergency department and is there a pattern that predicts a particular care home is more likely to call the ambulance?”
Canada’s aging population faces a harsh reality: growing numbers of older Canadians with chronic illnesses, disabilities and cognitive impairment are regularly discouraged by the efforts required to access and coordinate fragmented health and social care services. These challenges are often most profound for those who cannot rely on help from family members or friends, but they add greatly to caregivers’ burden as well.
In this study, Laura Funk argues that navigation problems are rooted in the structures and operations of existing care systems, as well as the downloading of administrative and coordination tasks to individual patients and their families. In her view, navigation work must be transformed from a private struggle into a public responsibility.
As the population ages, decision-makers are faced with different choices of care models for people diagnosed with dementia. Recent media reports have focused on dementia villages, first developed at de Hogeweyk in the Netherlands. This Horizon Scanning bulletin will present a narrative review of the literature describing elements of care, as well as evidence and issues concerning dementia villages and similar models or components of care. Stakeholder perspectives and an analysis of policy issues will also be incorporated.
This briefing document analyses data recorded in a sample of primary care records of patients with dementia, in relation to their other health conditions (comorbidities).
It examines whether:
patients with dementia are more likely to have comorbidities
patients with dementia are more likely to have multiple comorbidities
different subtypes of dementias lead to different patterns of comorbidities
The comorbidities considered in this study are conditions that:
can increase the risk of dementia such as hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD) and diabetes are associated with dementia such as stroke or transient ischaemic attack (stroke or TIA), depression, Parkinsonism, epilepsy, severe mental illness or psychosis (SMI) are physical conditions not directly associated with dementia – such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This briefing is for health commissioners, and providers of primary care and community services that support patients with dementia. The findings can inform a local assessment of the needs of patients with dementia, and the provision of health and care services.
Tuesday 19 November 10:00 MT
Presenter: McMaster Health Forum
The implementation of evidence-informed policies and practices across systems is complex and multifaceted. In order to facilitate this process, policymakers, innovation developers and service delivery organizations are increasingly calling upon intermediaries to support implementation, yet relatively little is known about precisely how they contribute to it. In this webinar, Heather Bullock, PhD (Executive lead of RISE) will discuss the role of intermediaries (organizations that work between policy makers and service deliverers) and how they support systems change. She will draw insights from her recent examination of intermediaries in mental health systems in several high-income countries.
Monday 18 November 06:00-15:30 MT & Tuesday 19 November 06:00-10:30 MT
An ad hoc planning committee of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, will convene a two-day public workshop to discuss advances, challenges, and opportunities in clinical trial data sharing efforts since the release of the 2015 Institute of Medicine report, Sharing Clinical Trial Data: Maximizing Benefits, Minimizing Risk.
Consider the value and the potential risks/costs of sharing clinical trial data for key stakeholders, including clinical trialists, sponsors, primary and secondary researchers, and patients;
Review the current landscape of clinical trial data sharing and reuse across public and private sectors (e.g. policies, platforms, collaborations, data sharing culture, published research output);
Examine use cases and trends from across public and private sectors when it comes to success, failure, lessons learned, and value;
Consider the perspectives and expectations of primary and secondary researchers, clinical trial participants, patient organizations, research sponsors (pharmaceutical companies and nonprofit organizations), journals, institutions, and federal agencies; and
Discuss next step opportunities for stakeholders to better harmonize incentives, policy, data standards, and governance to encourage the sharing and reuse of clinical trial data.
Wednesday 27 November 10:00-11:00 MT
Presenter: ICCER, Lisa Howard
In this webinar participants will hear about the results from Phases 1 and 2 of an Alberta-wide study on sexual expression in supportive living and long-term care homes. Lisa Howard and Julia Brassolotto (Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Lethbridge) conducted this research.
In Phase 1, managers and those with whom they consult were interviewed about how they navigate resident sexual expression. Phase 2 involved interviews with family members and residents about their experiences of sexual expression in the care home. The results highlight three dynamic tensions: 1) the tension between how sexual expression should be supported and how it is addressed in care homes; 2) the tension between private and public space in the care home; and 3) the tension between a medical model of care and a conceptualization of sexual expression as an activity of daily living.
The webinar will include time for participants to discuss the research findings as well as the recommendations from the research for a coordinated, multi-level response that includes care homes and the broader continuing care sector.
The Institute for Research on Public Policy (IRPP) is searching for a talented professional to join its dynamic team. Reporting to the President and CEO, the Communications Director will develop and execute strategies to promote the activities and content of the IRPP’s research programs, its online magazine Policy Options and the Centre of Excellence on the Canadian Federation.