April 7, 2020

Grants & Awards
Events & Training Opportunities


Under Publications is a new section on articles about COVID and LTC. These articles, and more, are accessible through this link. If you see other articles, please email me the details and I’ll add them to the collection.
Thanks, stay a p a r t and safe.

New article by Carole Estabrooks, Ian Graham, and Anita Kothari
How does integrated knowledge translation (IKT) compare to other collaborative research approaches to generating and translating knowledge? Learning from experts in the field.
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T. Nguyen, I. D. Graham, K. J. Mrklas, et al.
Health Res Policy Syst 2020 Mar 30;18(1):35-020-0539-6
Research funders in Canada and abroad have made substantial investments in supporting collaborative research approaches to generating and translating knowledge as it is believed to increase knowledge use. Canadian health research funders have advocated for the use of integrated knowledge translation (IKT) in health research, however, there is limited research around how IKT compares to other collaborative research approaches. Our objective was to better understand how IKT compares with engaged scholarship, Mode 2 research, co-production and participatory research by identifying the differences and similarities among them in order to provide conceptual clarity and reduce researcher and knowledge user confusion about these common approaches. METHODS: We employed a qualitative descriptive method using interview data to better understand experts’ perspectives and experiences on collaborative research approaches. Participants’ responses were analysed through thematic analysis to elicit core themes. The analysis was centred around the concept of IKT, as it is the most recent approach; IKT was then compared and contrasted with engaged scholarship, Mode 2 research, co-production and participatory research. As this was an iterative process, data triangulation and member-checking were conducted with participants to ensure accuracy of the emergent themes and analysis process. RESULTS: Differences were noted in the orientation (i.e. original purpose), historical roots (i.e. disciplinary origin) and partnership/engagement (i.e. role of partners etc.). Similarities among the approaches included (1) true partnerships rather than simple engagement, (2) focus on essential components and processes rather than labels, (3) collaborative research orientations rather than research methods, (4) core values and principles, and (5) extensive time and financial investment. Core values and principles among the approaches included co-creation, reciprocity, trust, fostering relationships, respect, co-learning, active participation, and shared decision-making in the generation and application of knowledge. All approaches require extensive time and financial investment to develop and maintain true partnerships. CONCLUSIONS: This qualitative study is the first to systematically synthesise experts’ perspectives and experiences in a comparison of collaborative research approaches. This work contributes to developing a shared understanding of collaborative research approaches to facilitate conceptual clarity in use, reporting, indexing and communication among researchers, trainees, knowledge users and stakeholders to advance IKT and implementation science.

New article by Gillian Harvey
Evaluating research investment and impact at a regional Australian Hospital and Health Service: a programme theory and conceptual framework.
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A. Edelman, A. Brown, T. Pain, S. Larkins and G. Harvey.
Health Res Policy Syst 2020 Mar 6;18(1):30-020-0542-y
Health systems in Australia and worldwide are increasingly expected to conduct research and quality improvement activities in addition to delivering clinical care and training health professionals. This study aims to inform a research impact evaluation at a regional Australian Hospital and Health Service by developing a programme theory showing how research investment is expected to have impact. METHODS: This qualitative study, representing the first phase of a larger mixed methods research impact evaluation at the Townsville Hospital and Health Service (THHS), adopts a realist-informed design involving the development of a programme theory. Data were obtained between February and May 2019 from strategic documentation and interviews with six current and former health service executives and senior employees. Inductive themes were integrated into a conceptual framework to visually represent the programme theory. RESULTS: Research at THHS has developed organically as the service has matured into a regional tertiary referral service serving a diverse rural and remote population across northern Queensland. Throughout this journey, individual THHS leaders often adopted a research development mantle despite disincentives arising from a performance-driven reporting and activity-based funding service context. Impact expectations from research investment at THHS were identified in the categories of enhanced research activity and capacity among clinicians, and improved clinical practice, health workforce capability and stability, and patient and population health. Seven contextual factors were identified as potential enablers or obstacles to these impact expectations and ambitions. CONCLUSIONS: By identifying both relevant impact types and key contextual factors, this study offers programme theory to inform a planned research impact evaluation at THHS. The conceptual framework may be useful in other regionally based health service settings. More broadly, there are opportunities for future research to test and refine hybrid versions of linear and realist research impact evaluation models that combine resource-intensive, theory-driven approaches with policy practicality.

New article by Susan Slaughter and Lisa Cranley
Strategies to facilitate shared decision-making in long-term care.
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L. A. Cranley, S. E. Slaughter, S. Caspar, et al.
Int J Older People Nurs 2020 Mar 20:e12314
The aim of this study was to explore shared decision-making among residents, their families and staff to determine relevant strategies to support shared decision-making in long-term care (LTC). BACKGROUND: Meaningful engagement of long-term care home (LTCH) residents and their families in care decisions is key in the provision of quality of care. Shared decision-making is an interprofessional approach to increasing resident and family engagement in care decisions which can lead to higher quality decisions, more relevant care interventions and greater resident, family, and staff satisfaction. Despite these advantages, shared decision-making has not been widely implemented in practice in LTC. METHODS: The study took place in one LTCH in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. A qualitative descriptive design was used to explore how residents, family members and staff described how they collaborate when making decisions concerning resident care, and their perceptions of facilitators and challenges to a collaborative approach to decision-making. Individual interviews were conducted with nine participants: residents, families and staff. Data were analysed using content and thematic analysis. FINDINGS: Four main themes that described resident, family and staff perspectives of shared decision-making were as follows: (a) oral communication pathways for information sharing; (b) supporting resident decision-making autonomy; (c) relational aspects of care facilitate shared decision-making; and (d) lack of effective communication creates barriers to shared decision-making. CONCLUSION: As the demand for LTC continues to increase, it is crucial that healthcare providers engage in collaborative, relational practices that foster high-quality resident care. While a relational approach to care can facilitate shared decision-making, there are opportunities to further cultivate shared decision-making in LTCHs through more effective communication and collaboration. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Understanding how information is shared and decisions are made can facilitate shared decision-making in LTCHs. The strategies identified from this study could be further co-developed and implemented in LTCHs.

New article by Susan Slaughter
Staff Engagement for Practice Change in Long-Term Care: Evaluating the Feasible and Sustainable Culture Change Initiative (FASCCI) Model

Sienna Caspar, Kelsey Berg, Susan Slaughter, Heather Keller and Peter Kellett.
Journal of Long-Term Care 2020.
Context: Interventions aimed at increasing the provision of person-centred care in long-term care (LTC) homes, that do not address contextual and system issues, most often fail. Promoting positive change in LTC homes requires requires a multilevel, systems approach. Objectives: Evaluate the effectiveness of the Feasible and Sustainable Culture Change Initiative (FASCCI) model for improving the provision of person-centred mealtime practices in a LTC home. Methods: A single-group, time series design was used to assess the impact of the FASCCI model for change on outcome measures across four time periods (pre-intervention, 2-month, 4-month and 6-month follow-up). Differences in scores from baseline were assessed utilizing Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Interviews (n = 21) were also conducted to examine treatment fidelity and to ascertain the study participants’ perceptions of the process for making improvements using the FASCCI model. Findings: We observed increases in care staff’s capacity to consistently provide relational and person-centred care during mealtimes. Mealtime environment scores started increasing immediately following the intervention, with statistically significant improvements in all mealtime environment scales by six-months, including: the physical environment (W = 55.00, p = 0.008); social environment (W = 55.00, p = 0.008); relationship-centred care (W = 45.00, p = 0.014); and overall quality of dining environment (W = 55.00, p = 0.010). Analysis of data from qualitative interviews demonstrated that use of the FASCCI model resulted in improved team leadership, communication, and collaborative decision-making. Limitations: Generalizability is limited due to the small sample size and use of convenience sampling methods. Implications: Outcomes indicate that the FASCCI model seems promising in its ability to improve PCC mealtime practices in LTC homes and is worthy of a larger scale study. The results further demonstrate the value of supportive team environments in quality dementia care.

Grants & Awards

CFN COVID-19 and Frailty

The Canadian Frailty Network (CFN) is looking to fund proposals aimed at investigating the interaction between frailty and COVID-19. Older adults living with frailty are the most vulnerable to COVID-19. As a result, CFN is looking for health, social or policy research studies that investigate determinants of increased susceptibility, and solutions to mitigate or prevent the differential risk to COVID-19. See below for specific proposal details.

International Policy Ideas Challenge 2020 – Call for proposals

Global Affairs Canada, in collaboration with the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC), is pleased to announce the fifth edition of the International Policy Ideas Challenge. The objective of the program is to draw on the network of talented Canadian graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, and early-career civil society researchers to identify concrete, innovative solutions to emerging international policy challenges faced by Canada.

The program offers applicants a chance to test their skills at translating academic expertise into policy language and insights. Applicants are invited to submit brief proposals. Ten winners will be given several months to consult with Global Affairs Canada “client” divisions and further develop their proposals into longer policy briefs, which will then be presented to Government of Canada officials in a day-long Ideas Symposium, hosted by Global Affairs Canada in Ottawa in 2020.

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COVID 19 and Long Term Care
Health Care Administration and Organization
Health Care Innovation and Quality Assurance
Organizational Culture and Change
Research Practice and Methodology

COVID 19 and Long Term Care

Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Geriatrics and Long-term Care: The ABCDs of COVID-19.
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H. D’Adamo, T. Yoshikawa and J. G. Ouslander.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2020 Mar 25
The pandemic of coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has global impact unseen since the 1918 worldwide influenza epidemic. All aspects of life have changed dramatically for now. The group most susceptible to COVID-19 are older adults and those with chronic underlying chronic medical disorders. The population residing in long-term care facilities generally are those who are both old and suffering from multiple comorbidities. In this article we provide information, insights, and recommended approaches to COVID-19 in the long-term facility setting. Since the situation is fluid and changing rapidly, readers are encouraged to access the resources cited in this article frequently. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Long-Term Care Facilities and the Coronavirus Epidemic: Practical Guidelines for a Population at Highest Risk.
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D. Dosa, R. L. P. Jump, K. LaPlante and S. Gravenstein.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2020 Mar 13
Appropriate preparedness includes 5 key elements: 1) reduce morbidity and mortality among those infected; 2) minimize transmission; 3) ensure protection of health care workers; 4) maintain health care system functioning; and 5) maintain communication with worried residents and family members.10 These elements offer a critical framework for the long-term care community and the public at large as it prepares for COVID-19.

Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Epidemic: What Are the Risks for Older Patients?
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A. Garnier-Crussard, E. Forestier, T. Gilbert and P. Krolak-Salmon.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2020 Mar 12
The World Health Organization confirmed 93,090 cases of novel coronavirus SARS‐CoV‐2 infections (COVID‐19) worldwide on March 04, 2020. 3,198 deaths were declared (3%). In the United States, 108 cases were confirmed. Coronavirus family members are known to be responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS‐CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS‐CoV), associated with severe complications, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiorgan failure, and death, especially in individuals with underlying comorbidities and old age.

Asymptomatic and Presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infections in Residents of a Long-Term Care Skilled Nursing Facility – King County, Washington, March 2020.
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A. Kimball, K. M. Hatfield, M. Arons, et al.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 Apr 3;69(13):377-381>
Older adults are susceptible to severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes as a consequence of their age and, in some cases, underlying health conditions. A COVID-19 outbreak in a long-term care skilled nursing facility (SNF) in King County, Washington that was first identified on February 28, 2020, highlighted the potential for rapid spread among residents of these types of facilities. On March 1, a health care provider at a second long-term care skilled nursing facility (facility A) in King County, Washington, had a positive test result for SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19, after working while symptomatic on February 26 and 28. By March 6, seven residents of this second facility were symptomatic and had positive test results for SARS-CoV-2. On March 13, CDC performed symptom assessments and SARS-CoV-2 testing for 76 (93%) of the 82 facility A residents to evaluate the utility of symptom screening for identification of COVID-19 in SNF residents. Residents were categorized as asymptomatic or symptomatic at the time of testing, based on the absence or presence of fever, cough, shortness of breath, or other symptoms on the day of testing or during the preceding 14 days. Among 23 (30%) residents with positive test results, 10 (43%) had symptoms on the date of testing, and 13 (57%) were asymptomatic. Seven days after testing, 10 of these 13 previously asymptomatic residents had developed symptoms and were recategorized as presymptomatic at the time of testing. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing cycle threshold (Ct) values indicated large quantities of viral RNA in asymptomatic, presymptomatic, and symptomatic residents, suggesting the potential for transmission regardless of symptoms. Symptom-based screening in SNFs could fail to identify approximately half of residents with COVID-19. Long-term care facilities should take proactive steps to prevent introduction of SARS-CoV-2. Once a confirmed case is identified in an SNF, all residents should be placed on isolation precautions if possible, with considerations for extended use or reuse of personal protective equipment (PPE) as needed.

A systematic review on the causes of the transmission and control measures of outbreaks in long-term care facilities: Back to basics of infection control.
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M. H. Lee, G. A. Lee, S. H. Lee and Y. H. Park.
PLoS One 2020 Mar 10;15(3):e0229911
The unique characteristics of long-term care facilities (LTCFs) including host factors and living conditions contribute to the spread of contagious pathogens. Control measures are essential to interrupt the transmission and to manage outbreaks effectively. AIM: The aim of this systematic review was to verify the causes and problems contributing to transmission and to identify control measures during outbreaks in LTCFs. METHODS: Four electronic databases were searched for articles published from 2007 to 2018. Articles written in English reporting outbreaks in LTCFs were included. The quality of the studies was assessed using the risk-of-bias assessment tool for nonrandomized studies. FINDINGS: A total of 37 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. The most commonly reported single pathogen was influenza virus, followed by group A streptococcus (GAS). Of the studies that identified the cause, about half of them noted outbreaks transmitted via person-to-person. Suboptimal infection control practice including inadequate decontamination and poor hand hygiene was the most frequently raised issue propagating transmission. Especially, lapses in specific care procedures were linked with outbreaks of GAS and hepatitis B and C viruses. About 60% of the included studies reported affected cases among staff, but only a few studies implemented work restriction during outbreaks. CONCLUSIONS: This review indicates that the violation of basic infection control practice could be a major role in introducing and facilitating the spread of contagious diseases in LTCFs. It shows the need to promote compliance with basic practices of infection control to prevent outbreaks in LTCFs.

WHO must prioritise the needs of older people in its response to the covid-19 pandemic.
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P. G. Lloyd-Sherlock, A. Kalache, M. McKee, et al.
BMJ 2020 Mar 23;368:m1164
The World Health Organization is the most influential global body guiding responses to the covid-19 pandemic. It is working around the clock to issue helpful guidance for technical experts and the general public. WHO has just issued guidance for long term care facilities, but it is not placed on the main page of technical guidance reports. Instead, it is hidden behind a link to guidance for schools, workplaces, and institutions. People responsible for long term care facilities are unlikely to identify with this link. Even more importantly, WHO has not issued any guidance of specific relevance to the more than 98% of older people who do not live in such facilities.

COVID-19 in a Long-Term Care Facility – King County, Washington, February 27-March 9, 2020.
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T. M. McMichael, S. Clark, S. Pogosjans, et al.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 Mar 27;69(12):339-342
On February 28, 2020, a case of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was identified in a woman resident of a long-term care skilled nursing facility (facility A) in King County, Washington.* Epidemiologic investigation of facility A identified 129 cases of COVID-19 associated with facility A, including 81 of the residents, 34 staff members, and 14 visitors; 23 persons died. Limitations in effective infection control and prevention and staff members working in multiple facilities contributed to intra- and interfacility spread. COVID-19 can spread rapidly in long-term residential care facilities, and persons with chronic underlying medical conditions are at greater risk for COVID-19-associated severe disease and death. Long-term care facilities should take proactive steps to protect the health of residents and preserve the health care workforce by identifying and excluding potentially infected staff members and visitors, ensuring early recognition of potentially infected patients, and implementing appropriate infection control measures.

Epidemiology of Covid-19 in a Long-Term Care Facility in King County, Washington.
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T. M. McMichael, D. W. Currie, S. Clark, et al.
N Engl J Med 2020 Mar 27
Long-term care facilities are high-risk settings for severe outcomes from outbreaks of Covid-19, owing to both the advanced age and frequent chronic underlying health conditions of the residents and the movement of health care personnel among facilities in a region. METHODS: After identification on February 28, 2020, of a confirmed case of Covid-19 in a skilled nursing facility in King County, Washington, Public Health-Seattle and King County, aided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, launched a case investigation, contact tracing, quarantine of exposed persons, isolation of confirmed and suspected cases, and on-site enhancement of infection prevention and control. RESULTS: As of March 18, a total of 167 confirmed cases of Covid-19 affecting 101 residents, 50 health care personnel, and 16 visitors were found to be epidemiologically linked to the facility. Most cases among residents included respiratory illness consistent with Covid-19; however, in 7 residents no symptoms were documented. Hospitalization rates for facility residents, visitors, and staff were 54.5%, 50.0%, and 6.0%, respectively. The case fatality rate for residents was 33.7% (34 of 101). As of March 18, a total of 30 long-term care facilities with at least one confirmed case of Covid-19 had been identified in King County. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of rapidly escalating Covid-19 outbreaks, proactive steps by long-term care facilities to identify and exclude potentially infected staff and visitors, actively monitor for potentially infected patients, and implement appropriate infection prevention and control measures are needed to prevent the introduction of Covid-19.

Action at a Distance: Geriatric Research during a Pandemic.
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G. E. Nicol, J. F. Piccirillo, B. H. Mulsant and E. J. Lenze.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2020 Mar 24
“Action at a distance” may be the new norm for clinical researchers in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic that may require social distancing for the next 18 months. We must minimize face-to-face contact with vulnerable populations. But we must also persist, adapt, and help our older patients and study participants during the pandemic. METHODS: Clinical researchers have an obligation to help, and we can. Recommendations for clinical researchers working with older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic are discussed. RESULTS: Implement technology now: Minimize face-to-face contact with participants by utilizing digital tools, such as shifting to electronic informed consent and digital HIPAA-compliant tools such as e-mailed surveys or telehealth assessments. Assess the psychological and social impact of COVID-19: How are participants coping? What health or social behaviors have changed? How are they keeping up with current events? What are they doing to stay connected to their families, friends, and communities? Are their healthcare needs being met? Current studies should be adapted immediately to these ends. Mobilize research platforms for patient needs: Leverage our relationships with participants and rapidly deploy novel clinical engagement techniques such as digital tools to intervene remotely and reduce the negative effects of social isolation on our participants. Equip research staff with tangible resources, and provide timely population-specific health information to support patients and healthcare providers. CONCLUSIONS: We have an opportunity to make an impact on our older adult patients now as this pandemic continues to unfold. Above all, clinical researchers need to continue working, to help as many people as possible through the crisis.

Coronavirus-19 in Geriatrics and Long-Term Care: An Update.
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J. G. Ouslander.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2020 Apr 3
We finished drafting an article on COVID-19 in Geriatrics and Long-Term Care just over a week ago that is now available on the Journal website. As we suggested, the fluidity and evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic related to long-term care facilities (LTCFs) has already made it outdated. This editorial provides some key updates and resources. Readers should continue to monitor the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) websites, as well as the many organizational websites and journals that are posting and publishing up-to-date information. Many state licensing agencies and local and state governments also continue to publish additional directives for health care providers across the United States, especially in regard to the screening requirements for team members and visitors.

Preventing the Spread of COVID-19 to Nursing Homes: Experience from a Singapore Geriatric Centre.
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L. F. Tan and S. Seetharaman.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2020 Mar 26
Despite COVID‐19 reaching our shores nearly 2 months ago, there has not been a single case of transmission in nursing homes in Singapore. To date, only one case of possible COVID‐19 transmission has occurred in an acute hospital in Singapore.


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Implementation Science 3.0
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Albers B, Shlonsky A, Mildon R.
This textbook presents a much-needed overview of the recent developments in implementation science — a discipline that is young, has gained increasing attention in recent years, and has experienced substantial and rapid growth in knowledge production and debate. It captures the latest developments in research and pushes the reader toward the next phase for implementation science: bridging the science-to-practice divide. Drawing from multidisciplinary, international research by top scholars in the field, this book provides a critical but friendly approach to understanding what implementation science is, what it isn’t, and where it’s going.

The Role of Universities in Inter-organizational Knowledge Collaborations

Ardalan Haghighi Talab, Victor Scholten and Cees van Beers.
Journal of the Knowledge Economy 2018 06/27
Organizations collaborate with external actors in order to acquire knowledge resources they cannot develop internally for economic and/or technical reasons. Mode 2 and Triple Helix models have examined the role of different organizational types in collaborative creation and knowledge use. This paper is an empirical investigation on whether universities differ from business-oriented or industrial organization types with regard to the extent of their knowledge collaborations. Using SEM methodology, it demonstrates the role of universities in knowledge collaboration through a survey of 472 organizations in the 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development of the European Commission, Energy theme (FP7-Energy). In line with the Triple Helix model, universities are found to exhibit more extensive knowledge collaboration than businesses. Also, between-university collaborations are found to be more extensive knowledge collaboration relationship types than between-business relationships. The findings imply that (1) publically funded consortia should be aware that universities are more conducive and hence more effective in inter-organizational knowledge collaboration networks than other organizational types, particularly compared to for-profit business organizations. Universities should be included in these consortia. (2) Business organizations that do not have an extensive relationship with universities need to reconsider their partner portfolio and extend the knowledge collaboration of their network by connecting to more universities.(3) Policymakers should not only involve academic organizations but also include groups of more than one university per consortium to enable between-university knowledge collaboration to boost collaborative knowledge exploration and exploitation of the consortia.

Knowledge translation strategies for dissemination with a focus on healthcare recipients: an overview of systematic reviews.
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E. Chapman, M. M. Haby, T. S. Toma, et al.
Implement Sci 2020 Mar 4;15(1):14-020-0974-3
While there is an ample literature on the evaluation of knowledge translation interventions aimed at healthcare providers, managers, and policy-makers, there has been less focus on patients and their informal caregivers. Further, no overview of the literature on dissemination strategies aimed at healthcare users and their caregivers has been conducted. The overview has two specific research questions: (1) to determine the most effective strategies that have been used to disseminate knowledge to healthcare recipients, and (2) to determine the barriers (and facilitators) to dissemination of knowledge to this group. METHODS: This overview used systematic review methods and was conducted according to a pre-defined protocol. A comprehensive search of ten databases and five websites was conducted. Both published and unpublished reviews in English, Spanish, or Portuguese were included. A methodological quality assessment was conducted; low-quality reviews were excluded. A narrative synthesis was undertaken, informed by a matrix of strategy by outcome measure. The Health System Evidence taxonomy for “consumer targeted strategies” was used to separate strategies into one of six categories. RESULTS: We identified 44 systematic reviews that describe the effective strategies to disseminate health knowledge to the public, patients, and caregivers. Some of these reviews also describe the most important barriers to the uptake of these effective strategies. When analyzing those strategies with the greatest potential to achieve behavioral changes, the majority of strategies with sufficient evidence of effectiveness were combined, frequent, and/or intense over time. Further, strategies focused on the patient, with tailored interventions, and those that seek to acquire skills and competencies were more effective in achieving these changes. In relation to barriers and facilitators, while the lack of health literacy or e-literacy could increase inequities, the benefits of social media were also emphasized, for example by widening access to health information for ethnic minorities and lower socioeconomic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Those interventions that have been shown to be effective in improving knowledge uptake or health behaviors should be implemented in practice, programs, and policies-if not already implemented. When implementing strategies, decision-makers should consider the barriers and facilitators identified by this overview to ensure maximum effectiveness. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO: CRD42018093245.

External facilitators’ perceptions of internal facilitation skills during implementation of collaborative care for mental health teams: a qualitative analysis informed by the i-PARIHS framework.
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S. L. Connolly, J. L. Sullivan, M. J. Ritchie, B. Kim, C. J. Miller and M. S. Bauer.
BMC Health Serv Res 2020 Mar 4;20(1):165-020-5011-3
Facilitation is a key strategy that may contribute to successful implementation of healthcare innovations. In blended facilitation, external facilitators (EFs) guide and support internal facilitators (IFs) in directing implementation processes. Developers of the i-PARIHS framework propose that successful facilitation requires project management, team/process, and influencing/negotiating skills. It is unclear what IF skills are most important in real-world settings, which could inform recruitment and training efforts. As prior qualitative studies of IF skills have only interviewed IFs, the perspectives of their EF partners are needed. Furthermore, little is known regarding the distribution of implementation tasks between IFs and EFs, which could impact sustainability once external support is removed. In the context of an implementation trial, we therefore: 1) evaluated IFs’ use of i-PARIHS facilitation skills, from EFs’ perspectives; 2) identified attributes of IFs not encompassed within the i-PARIHS skills; and 3) investigated the relative contributions of IFs and EFs during facilitation. METHODS: Analyses were conducted within a hybrid type II trial utilizing blended facilitation to implement the collaborative chronic care model within mental health teams of nine VA medical centers. Each site committed one team and an IF to weekly process design meetings and additional implementation activities over 12 months. Three EFs worked with three sites each. Following study completion, the EFs completed semi-structured qualitative interviews reflecting on the facilitation process, informed by the i-PARIHS facilitation skill areas. Interviews were analyzed via directed content analysis. RESULTS: EFs emphasized the importance of IFs having strong project management, team/process, and influencing/negotiating skills. Prior experience in these areas and a mental health background were also benefits. Personal characteristics (e.g., flexible, assertive) were described as critical, particularly when faced with conflict. EFs discussed the importance of clear delineation of EF/IF roles, and the need to shift facilitation responsibilities to IFs. CONCLUSIONS: Key IF skills, according to EFs, are aligned with i-PARIHS recommendations, but IFs’ personal characteristics were also emphasized as important factors. Findings highlight traits to consider when selecting IFs and potential training areas (e.g., conflict management). EFs and IFs must determine an appropriate distribution of facilitation tasks to ensure long-term sustainability of practices. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, September 7, 2015, #NCT02543840.

Certified Nursing Assistants Want to Use External Memory Aids for Residents With Dementia: Survey Results Within an Implementation Science Framework.
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N. F. Douglas and R. H. Affoo.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2019 May 27;28(2):591-598
The purpose of this study was to assess the self-perceived knowledge and self-efficacy of certified nursing assistants (CNAs) when using external memory aids to enhance the communication and independence of residents with dementia living in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). Method One hundred forty-four CNAs completed a measure pertaining to self-perceived knowledge and self-efficacy of external memory aids. Results CNAs had favorable beliefs about the usefulness of external memory aids to help both conversation and independence in activities of daily living for residents with dementia ( M = 4.0, SD = 0.84; M = 3.92, SD = 0.85) on a 5-point Likert scale, with 5 = strongly agree and 1 = strongly disagree. There were no statistically significant differences between CNAs who reported being trained to use external memory aids with residents with dementia and CNAs who reported they were not trained according to items related to self-efficacy ( U = 2203.5, z = -1.483, p = .138; U = 2179, z = -1.547, p = .122; U = 2115, z = -1.82, p = .069; U = 2320, z = -0.942, p = .346). Conclusions Results of this study indicated that the lack of uptake of external memory aids for residents with dementia in SNFs may not solely be due to lack of buy-in or lack of time on the part of the CNA. Speech-language pathologists should provide this training to support the uptake of external memory aids for residents with dementia; however, these data suggest that current training methods may not be considerate of the nuances of implementation. Speech-language pathologists and researchers should consider the finer aspects of theoretically grounded facilitation techniques as next steps to the broader implementation of this intervention for residents with dementia living in SNFs.

Examining partnerships within an international knowledge translation network focused on youth mental health promotion.
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T. Halsall, I. Manion, J. Henderson, et al.
Health Res Policy Syst 2020 Mar 4;18(1):29-020-0535-x
Systems transformation for health promotion, involving engagement from multiple disciplines and levels of influence, requires an investment in partnership development. Integrated youth service is a collaborative model that brings organisations together to provide holistic care for youth. Frayme is an international knowledge translation network designed to support the uptake and scaling of integrated youth service. Social network analysis (SNA) is the study of relationships among social units and is useful to better understand how partners collaborate within a network to achieve major objectives. The purpose of this paper is to apply SNA to the Frayme network in order to (1) examine the level and strength of partnerships, (2) identify the strategies being employed to promote the main objectives and (3) apply the findings to current research in youth mental health and system transformation. METHODS: The PARTNER tool includes a validated survey and analysis software designed to examine partner interconnections. This tool was used to perform the SNA and 51 of the 75 partners completed the survey (14 researchers, 2 advisory groups and 35 organisations). A network map was created and descriptive frequencies were calculated. RESULTS: The overall network scores for the Frayme network were 20.6% for density, 81.5% for centralisation and 71.7% for overall trust. The Frayme secretariat received a 3.84 out of a possible 4 for value. In addition, the youth and family advisories each received a value score of 4 and all Leadership Team organisations received a score of 2.97 or above. CONCLUSIONS: The Frayme secretariat links many partners who would otherwise be disconnected and acts as a significant conduit for novel information. Frayme may have the opportunity to enhance value perceptions among broader network members by profiling individual organisations and the potential leveraging opportunities that might exist through their work. These findings increase understanding with respect to the mechanisms of network development and will be helpful to inform partnership development in the future. In addition, they contribute to the literature with respect to knowledge translation practice as well as the scaling of collaborative interventions within youth mental health.

Application of normalisation process theory in understanding implementation processes in primary care settings in the UK: a systematic review.
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L. Huddlestone, J. Turner, H. Eborall, N. Hudson, M. Davies and G. Martin.
BMC Fam Pract 2020 Mar 16;21(1):52-020-01107-y
Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) provides a framework to understand how interventions are implemented, embedded, and integrated in healthcare settings. Previous reviews of published literature have examined the application of NPT across international healthcare and reports its benefits. However, given the distinctive clinical function, organisational arrangements and the increasing management of people with a wide variety of conditions in primary care settings in the United Kingdom, it is important to understand how and why authors utilise and reflect on NPT in such settings to inform and evaluate implementation processes. METHODS: A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature using NPT in primary care settings in the United Kingdom (UK) was conducted. Eight electronic databases were searched using replicable methods to identify articles published between January 2012 and April 2018. Data were analysed using a framework approach. RESULTS: Thirty-one articles met the inclusion criteria. Researchers utilised NPT to explore the implementation of interventions, targeting a wide range of health services and conditions, within primary care settings in the UK. NPT was mostly applied qualitatively; however, a small number of researchers have moved towards mixed and quantitative methods. Some variation was observed in the use of NPT constructs and sub-constructs, and whether and how researchers undertook modification to make them more relevant to the implementation process and multiple stakeholder perspectives. CONCLUSION: NPT provides a flexible framework for the development and evaluation of complex healthcare interventions in UK primary care settings. This review updates the literature on NPT use and indicates that its application is well suited to these environments, particularly in supporting patients with long-term conditions and co-morbidities. We recommend future research explores the receipt of interventions by multiple stakeholders and suggest that authors reflect on justifications for using NPT in their reporting.

A mixed methods examination of knowledge brokers and their use of theoretical frameworks and evaluative practices.
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K. Newman, R. DeForge, D. Van Eerd, Y. W. Mok and E. Cornelissen.
Health Res Policy Syst 2020 Mar 27;18(1):34-020-0545-8
Knowledge brokering is a knowledge translation approach that includes making connections between researchers and decision-makers to facilitate the latter’s use of evidence in health promotion and the provision of healthcare. Despite knowledge brokering being well-established in Canada, many knowledge gaps exist, including understanding what theoretical frameworks have been developed and which evaluative practices knowledge brokers (KBs) use. METHODS: This study used a mixed methods design to examine how KBs in Canada (1) use frameworks, models and theories in their practice and (2) how they evaluate knowledge brokering interventions. We gathered interview and survey data from KB practitioners to better understand their perspectives on effective practices. Our analysis focused on understanding the theoretical frameworks used by KBs. RESULTS: This study demonstrates that KBs in Canada tend not to rely on theories or models that are specific to knowledge brokering. Rather, study participants/respondents draw on (sometimes multiple) theories and models that are fundamental to the broader field of knowledge translation – in particular, the Knowledge to Action model and the Promoting Action Research in Health Sciences framework. In evaluating the impact of their own knowledge brokering practice, participants/respondents use a wide variety of mechanisms. Evaluation was often seen as less important than supporting knowledge users and/or paying clients in accessing and utilising evidence. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge brokering as a form of knowledge translation continues to expand, but the impact on its targeted knowledge users has yet to be clearly established. The quality of engagement between KBs and their clients might increase – the knowledge brokering can be more impactful – if KBs made efforts to describe, understand and evaluate their activities using theories or models specific to KB.

Knowledge implementation in health care management: a qualitative study.
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G. Roohi, G. Mahmoodi and H. Khoddam.
BMC Health Serv Res 2020 Mar 6;20(1):188-020-5043-8
The gap between knowledge and practice is a global issue, which increases wasteful spending in healthcare. There are several models and frameworks to address this gap and try to solve the challenge. Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework highlights the interaction of three main elements: evidence, context and facilitation, to implement research into practice, successfully. This framework can use as a tool to evaluate the situation and guide the changing. This study conducted to explain the status of knowledge implementation in Iran’s healthcare management system. METHODS: This qualitative study was done by using a directive content analysis approach through conducting in-depth, structured interviews with 15 health managers based on the PARIHS framework. Guiding questions were based on the three main elements of the framework: evidence, context and facilitation. The content of the interviews entered into the Qualitative Data Analysis software (MAXQDA version 10) and, then, analyzed. RESULTS: The most common source of evidence used by managers for decision-making was local information and previous experience. Evaluation more emphasized compared to other sub-elements of context, i.e. culture and leadership. In terms of facilitation, performing tasks by others was the dominant opinion. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that managers in the healthcare system of Iran use their own and other manager’s experience and the local information for decision-making and have no ideas about facilitation.

Assessing fidelity to evidence-based quality improvement as an implementation strategy for patient-centered medical home transformation in the Veterans Health Administration.
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S. E. Stockdale, A. B. Hamilton, A. A. Bergman, et al.
Implement Sci 2020 Mar 18;15(1):18-020-0979-y
Effective implementation strategies might facilitate patient-centered medical home (PCMH) uptake and spread by targeting barriers to change. Evidence-based quality improvement (EBQI) is a multi-faceted implementation strategy that is based on a clinical-researcher partnership. It promotes organizational change by fostering innovation and the spread of those innovations that are successful. Previous studies demonstrated that EBQI accelerated PCMH adoption within Veterans Health Administration primary care practices, compared with standard PCMH implementation. Research to date has not documented fidelity to the EBQI implementation strategy, limiting usefulness of prior research findings. This paper develops and assesses clinical participants’ fidelity to three core EBQI elements for PCMH (EBQI-PCMH), explores the relationship between fidelity and successful QI project completion and spread (the outcome of EBQI-PCMH), and assesses the role of the clinical-researcher partnership in achieving EBQI-PCMH fidelity. METHODS: Nine primary care practice sites and seven across-sites, topic-focused workgroups participated (2010-2014). Core EBQI elements included leadership-frontlines priority-setting for QI, ongoing access to technical expertise, coaching, and mentoring in QI methods (through a QI collaborative), and data/evidence use to inform QI. We used explicit criteria to measure and assess EBQI-PCMH fidelity across clinical participants. We mapped fidelity to evaluation data on implementation and spread of successful QI projects/products. To assess the clinical-researcher partnership role in EBQI-PCMH, we analyzed 73 key stakeholder interviews using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Seven of 9 sites and 3 of 7 workgroups achieved high or medium fidelity to leadership-frontlines priority-setting. Fidelity was mixed for ongoing technical expertise and data/evidence use. Longer duration in EBQI-PCMH and higher fidelity to priority-setting and ongoing technical expertise appear correlated with successful QI project completion and spread. According to key stakeholders, partnership with researchers, as well as bi-directional communication between leaders and QI teams and project management/data support were critical to achieving EBQI-PCMH fidelity. CONCLUSIONS: This study advances implementation theory and research by developing measures for and assessing fidelity to core EBQI elements in relationship to completion and spread of QI innovation projects or tools for addressing PCMH challenges. These results help close the gap between EBQI elements, their intended outcome, and the finding that EBQI-PCMH resulted in accelerated adoption of PCMH.


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Health Care Administration and Organization

Use of Notification and Communication Technology (Call Light Systems) in Nursing Homes: Observational Study.
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H. Ali and H. Li.
J Med Internet Res 2020 Mar 27;22(3):e16252
The call light system is one of the major communication technologies that link nursing home staff to the needs of residents. By providing residents the ability to request assistance, the system becomes an indispensable resource for patient-focused health care. However, little is known about how call light systems are being used in nursing homes and how the system contributes to safety and quality of care for seniors. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to understand the experiences of nursing home staff who use call light systems and to uncover usability issues and challenges associated with the implemented systems. METHODS: A mix of 150 hours of hypothetico-deductive (unstructured) task analysis and 90 hours of standard procedure (structured) task analysis was conducted in 4 different nursing homes. The data collected included insights into the nursing home’s work system and the process of locating and responding to call lights. RESULTS: The data showed that the highest alarm rate is before and after mealtimes. The staff exceeded the administration’s expectations of time to respond 50% of the time. In addition, the staff canceled 10.0% (20/201) of call lights and did not immediately assist residents because of high workload. Furthermore, the staff forgot to come back to assist residents over 3% of the time. Usability issues such as broken parts, lack of feedback, lack of prioritization, and low or no discriminability also contributed to the long response time. More than 8% of the time, residents notified the staff about call lights after they waited for a long time, and eventually, these residents were left unattended. CONCLUSIONS: Nursing homes that are still using old call light systems risk the continuation of usability issues that can affect the performance of the staff and contribute to declining staff and resident outcomes. By incorporating feedback from nurses, nursing home management will better understand the influence that the perceptions and usability of technology have on the quality of health care for their residents. In this study, it has been observed that the call light system is perceived to be an important factor affecting the outcomes of the care process and satisfaction of both residents and staff as well as the staff’s performance. It is important to recognize that communication and notification technology contributes to the challenges the staff faced during their work, making their working conditions more difficult and challenging.

An Outreach Rehabilitation Program for Nursing Home Residents after Hip Fracture may be Cost-Saving.
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L. A. Beaupre, D. Lier, J. S. Magaziner, et al.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2020 Mar 26
We compared the cost-effectiveness of 10 weeks of outreach rehabilitation (intervention) versus usual care (control) for ambulatory nursing home residents after hip fracture. METHODS: Enrollment occurred February 2011 through June 2015 in a Canadian metropolitan region. 77 participants were allocated in a 2:1 ratio to receive a 10-week rehabilitation program (intervention) or usual care (control) (46 intervention; 31 control). Using a payer perspective, we performed main and sensitivity analyses. Health outcome was measured by quality-adjusted life years(QALYs), using the EQ5D, completed at study entry, 3-, 6-, and 12-months. We obtained patient-specific data for outpatient visits, physician claims, and inpatient re-admissions; the trial provided rehabilitation utilization/cost data. We estimated incremental cost and incremental effectiveness. RESULTS: Groups were similar at study entry; the mean age was 87.9+/-6.6 years, 54(71%) were female and 58(75%) had severe cognitive impairment. EQ5D QALYs scores were non-significantly higher for intervention participants. Inpatient re-admissions were two times higher among controls, with a cost difference of -$3350/patient for intervention participants, offsetting the cost/intervention participant of $2300 for the outreach rehabilitation. The adjusted incremental QALYs/patient difference was 0.024 favouring the intervention, with an incremental cost/patient of -$621 for intervention participants; these values were not statistically significant. A sensitivity analysis reinforced these findings, suggesting that the intervention was likely dominant. CONCLUSION: A 10-week outreach rehabilitation intervention for nursing home residents who sustain a hip fracture may be cost-saving, through reduced post-fracture hospital re-admissions. These results support further work to evaluate post-fracture rehabilitation for nursing home residents.

Leadership, Staff Empowerment, and the Retention of Nursing Assistants: Findings From a Survey of U.S. Nursing Homes.
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C. Berridge, J. Lima, M. Schwartz, C. Bishop and S. C. Miller.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2020 Mar 16
We examined the relationship between nursing assistant (NA) retention and a measure capturing nursing home leadership and staff empowerment. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using nationally representative survey data. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Data from the Nursing Home Culture Change 2016-2017 Survey with nursing home administrator respondents (N = 1386) were merged with facility-level indicators. METHODS: The leadership and staff empowerment practice score is an index derived from responses to 23 survey items and categorized as low, medium, and high. Multinomial logistic regression weighted for sample design and to address culture-change selection bias identified factors associated with 4 categories of 1-year NA retention: 0% to 50%, 51% to 75%, 76% to 90%, and 91% to 100%. RESULTS: In an adjusted model, greater leadership and staff empowerment levels were consistently associated with high (76%-90% and 91%-100%) relative to low (0%-50%) NA retention. Occupancy rate, chain status, licensed practical nurse and certified nursing assistant hours per day per resident, nursing home administrator turnover, and the presence of a union were also significantly associated with higher categories of retention (vs low retention). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Modifiable leadership and staff empowerment practices are associated with NA retention. Associations are most significant when examining the highest practice scores and retention categories. Nursing homes seeking to improve NA retention might look to leadership and staff empowerment practice changes common to culture change.

Nurse Aide Retention in Nursing Homes.
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N. G. Castle, K. Hyer, J. A. Harris and J. Engberg.
Gerontologist 2020 Mar 6
The association of nurse aide retention with three quality indicators is examined. Retention is defined as the proportion of staff continuously employed in the same facility for a defined period of time. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data used in this investigation came from survey responses from 3,550 nursing facilities, Certification and Survey Provider Enhanced Reporting data, and the Area Resource File. Staffing characteristics, quality indicators, facility, and market information from these data sources were all measured in 2016. Nurse aide retention was measured at 1, 2, and 3 years of employment. The quality indicators examined were a count of all deficiency citations, quality of care deficiency citations, and J, K, L deficiency citations. Negative binomial regression analyses were used to study the associations between the three different retention measures and these three quality indicators. RESULTS: The 1-, 2-, and 3-year nurse aide retention measures were 53.2%, 41.4%, and 36.1%, respectively. The regression analyses show low levels of retention to be generally associated with poor performance on the three deficiency citation quality indicators examined. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: The research presented starts to provide information on nurse aide retention as an important workforce challenge and its potential impact on quality. Retention may be an additional staffing characteristic of nursing facilities with substantial policy and practice relevance.

Capacity building for dementia care in community care services: a mixed methods approach.
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H. Y. L. Chan, F. K. Y. Ho, K. C. M. Chui, et al.
BMC Geriatr 2020 Mar 30;20(1):122-020-01517-8
The prevalence of dementia is surging that results in huge service demand in the community care services. Dementia care competence of staff working in these settings is fundamental of the care quality. This project aims to examine the effects of staff training on their competence for the anticipated challenges in dementia care and explore how the training influence their care practices. METHODS: This study adopted a mixed methods triangulation design, including a prospective multi-center study with pre-test post-test evaluations and a narrative analysis of the participants’ reflective essays. Seventeen experienced health and social care professionals were trained as trainers at the Dementia Services Development Centre of the University of Stirling, UK. The trainers provided local facilitator training to staff members by using training materials that were culturally adapted to the local context. The facilitators were required to deliver 12 two-hour in-service training sessions for 6 months to their colleagues in a small group format in their respective workplace. Eventually a total of 1347 staff members from community care centers, day care centers, outreach teams and care homes of 70 non-government organizations in Hong Kong participated in the study between April 2017 and December 2018. Validated instruments were used to measure knowledge, attitude, sense of competence in dementia care and job satisfaction at the baseline and at 12-month follow-up. All participants were required to write a reflective essay to describe their experiences in dementia care by the end of the training. RESULTS: A total of 1264 participants, including 195 facilitators and 1069 learners, completed all assessment were included for analysis. Significant improvements were observed in all outcomes at the 12-month follow-up assessment (Ps </= .001). The magnitude of improvements in attitudes was the largest. The findings also showed that the effects of the training program significantly varied across different groups of learners in terms of age, occupation, work and training experience. CONCLUSIONS: This community-wide large-scale project provided evidence that the train-the-trainer model and reflective learning are effective means to facilitate situated learning that promote awareness and understanding of dementia, and consequently enhance sustainability of changes in care practices.

Care Farming for People with Dementia; What Can Healthcare Leaders Learn from This Innovative Care Concept?
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S. R. de Bruin, I. Pedersen, S. Eriksen, J. Hassink, L. Vaandrager and G. G. Patil.
J Healthc Leadersh 2020 Mar 10;12:11-18
There is growing recognition that traditional dementia care models fall short for people with dementia and their family caregivers. This has led to a call for new dementia care approaches. In response to this call, innovations in long-term dementia care are taking place both in the community and in residential care. One of these innovations is the care concept called “care farming.” Care farms are farms that combine agricultural activities with care and support services for a variety of client groups, including people with dementia. Although the concept is being implemented in an increasing number of countries, the Netherlands and Norway are still front-runners in providing and researching this innovative dementia care approach. Over the last couple of years, several research projects have been carried out in these countries addressing a wide range of issues related to dementia care provision at care farms and using a wide range of research methods. This paper synthesizes the knowledge that has been generated in these research projects. By sharing the knowledge obtained in the Netherlands and Norway, we hope to inspire leaders in healthcare undertaking similar efforts to innovate care for the increasing number of people with dementia. By providing starting-points for future research, we additionally hope to contribute to a research agenda to further advance the field.

A Proof of Concept of a Mobile Health Application to Support Professionals in a Portuguese Nursing Home.
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M. Esteves, M. Esteves, A. Abelha and J. Machado.
Sensors (Basel) 2019 Sep 12;19(18):10.3390/s19183951
Over the past few years, the rapidly aging population has been posing several challenges to healthcare systems worldwide. Consequently, in Portugal, nursing homes have been getting a higher demand, and health professionals working in these facilities are overloaded with work. Moreover, the lack of health information and communication technology (HICT) and the use of unsophisticated methods, such as paper, in nursing homes to clinically manage residents lead to more errors and are time-consuming. Thus, this article proposes a proof of concept of a mobile health (mHealth) application developed for the health professionals working in a Portuguese nursing home to support them at the point-of-care, namely to manage and have access to information and to help them schedule, perform, and digitally record their tasks. Additionally, clinical and performance business intelligence (BI) indicators to assist the decision-making process are also defined. Thereby, this solution aims to introduce technological improvements into the facility to improve healthcare delivery and, by taking advantage of the benefits provided by these improvements, lessen some of the workload experienced by health professionals, reduce time-waste and errors, and, ultimately, enhance elders’ quality of life and improve the quality of the services provided.

Evaluating the feasibility and acceptability of the Namaste Care program in long-term care settings in Canada.
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S. Kaasalainen, P. V. Hunter, V. Dal Bello-Haas, et al.
Pilot Feasibility Stud 2020 Mar 2;6:34-020-00575-4. eCollection 2020
Residents living and dying in long-term care (LTC) homes represent one of society’s most frail and marginalized populations of older adults, particularly those residents with advanced dementia who are often excluded from activities that promote quality of life in their last months of life. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of Namaste Care: an innovative program to improve end-of-life care for people with advanced dementia. Methods: This study used a mixed-method survey design to evaluate the Namaste Care program in two LTC homes in Canada. Pain, quality of life, and medication costs were assessed for 31 residents before and 6 months after they participated in Namaste Care. The program consisted of two 2-h sessions per day for 5 days per week. Namaste Care staff provided high sensory care to residents in a calm, therapeutic environment in a small group setting. Feasibility was assessed in terms of recruitment rate, number of sessions attended, retention rate, and any adverse events. Acceptability was assessed using qualitative interviews with staff and family. Results: The feasibility of Namaste Care was acceptable with a participation rate of 89%. However, participants received only 72% of the sessions delivered and only 78% stayed in the program for at least 3 months due to mortality. After attending Namaste Care, participants’ pain and quality of life improved and medication costs decreased. Family members and staff perceived the program to be beneficial, noting positive changes in residents. The majority of participants were very satisfied with the program, providing suggestions for ongoing engagement throughout the implementation process. Conclusions: These study findings support the implementation of the Namaste Care program in Canadian LTC homes to improve the quality of life for residents. However, further testing is needed on a larger scale.

Physician Availability in Long-Term Care and Resident Hospital Transfer: A Retrospective Cohort Study.
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D. M. Kobewka, E. Kunkel, A. Hsu, R. Talarico and P. Tanuseputro.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2020 Apr;21(4):469-475.e1
To investigate whether same-day physician access in long-term care homes reduces resident emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 161 long-term care homes in Ontario, Canada, and 20,624 residents living in those homes. METHODS: We administered a survey to Ontario long-term care homes from March to May 2017 to collect their typical wait time for a physician visit. We linked the survey to administrative databases to capture other long-term care home characteristics, resident characteristics, hospitalizations, and ED visits. We defined a cohort of residents living in survey-respondent homes between January and May 2017 and followed each resident for 6 months or until discharge or death. We estimated negative binomial regression models on counts of hospitalizations and ED visits with random intercepts for long-term care homes. We controlled for residents’ sociodemographic and illness characteristics, long-term care home size, chain status, rurality, and nurse practitioner access. RESULTS: Fifty-two homes (32%) reported same-day physician access. Among residents of homes with same-day physician access, 9% had a hospitalization and 20% had an ED visit during follow-up. In contrast, among residents in homes without same-day access, 12% were hospitalized and 22% visited an ED. The adjusted hospitalization and ED rates among residents of homes with same-day physician access were 21% lower (rate ratio = 0.79, P = .02) and 14% lower (rate ratio = 0.86, P = .07), respectively, than residents of other homes. We estimate that nearly 1 in 6 resident hospitalizations could be prevented if all long-term care homes had same-day physician access. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Residents of long-term care homes with same-day physician access experience lower hospitalization and ED visit rates than residents in homes that wait longer for physicians, even after adjusting for important resident and home characteristics. Improved on-demand access to physicians has the potential to reduce hospital transfer rates.

Person-Directed Care Planning in Nursing Homes: Resident, Family, and Staff Perspectives.
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K. Scales, M. Lepore, R. A. Anderson, et al.
J Appl Gerontol 2019 Feb;38(2):183-206
Empowering individuals to direct their own care is central to person-centered care and health care policy. However, there is limited knowledge of how “person-directed care planning” (PDCP) can be achieved in particular settings. This study identifies key structures and processes for operationalizing and implementing PDCP in nursing homes. Using participatory inquiry, we convened “stakeholder engagement sessions” with residents, families, nursing staff, and managers/administrators in two North Carolina nursing homes ( N = 24 sessions; N = 67 unique participants). Stakeholders discussed current care-planning processes and provided feedback on an emergent conceptual framework of PDCP. Three themes emerged through directed-content analysis: strategies included providing formal and informal opportunities to engage in care planning and ensuring effective follow-through; different roles were required among leadership, staff, residents, and families to accomplish PDCP; and limits on achieving PDCP included competing priorities and perceived regulatory and resource constraints. Results are discussed in terms of the specific competencies required for accomplishing PDCP.

Perspectives of residents and staff regarding food choice in residential aged care: A qualitative study.
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D. Wang, B. Everett, S. Brunero, T. Northall, A. R. Villarosa and Y. Salamonson.
J Clin Nurs 2020 Feb;29(3-4):626-637
To explore the experiences of food choice and meal service in residential aged care facilities and its impact on autonomy, self-determination and quality of life from the perspectives of both residents and staff. BACKGROUND: Globally, residential aged care is a principal provider of care for older people who can no longer live independently at home. Within this setting, lack of food choice has been identified as a significant factor impacting on residents’ self-determination, sense of autonomy and quality of life. DESIGN: This study used an exploratory descriptive qualitative approach guided by self-determination theory. METHOD: A total of 14 participants (seven residents and seven staff members) from two Australian residential aged care facilities were recruited through purposive and snowball sampling with assistance from one independent contact nurse at each facility. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted, digitally recorded and transcribed. The COREQ checklist was used in this qualitative study. RESULTS: Three main themes were identified from the interview data provided by residents and staff, which were as follows: (a) catering for the masses; (b) organisational barriers to providing choice; and (c) food impacts well-being. CONCLUSIONS: This study explored the experiences of food choice and service in residential aged care facilities, from the perspectives of both residents and staff. Results of interviews highlighted the importance of providing adequate food choice which has become an enduring issue that requires more attention and commitment to make a positive change for residents living in residential aged care facilities. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Nurses and other staff working in residential aged care facilities need to be aware of the importance of providing adequate food choice, including for residents who require modified diets. As advocates for residents, nursing staff must address the persistent lack of food choice. However, this will require a radical change in organisational culture and strong leadership.

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Health Care Innovation and Quality Assurance

Digital health technology: factors affecting implementation in nursing homes.
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K. Curtis and S. Brooks.
Nurs Older People 2020 Mar 24;32(2):14-21
Digital health technology (DHT), which includes digital algorithms and digital records, is transforming the way healthcare services are delivered. In nursing homes, DHT can enhance communication and improve the identification of residents’ health risks, but its implementation has so far been inconsistent. Therefore, the LAUNCH (Leadership of digitAl health technology Uptake among Nurses in Care Homes) study was undertaken to identify factors that may affect DHT implementation in these settings. AIM: To identify the factors that enable nurses to implement DHT in nursing homes and to co-design a nurse-led stepped process supporting the effective implementation of DHT innovations in nursing homes. METHOD: An appreciative inquiry methodology was used. A total of 20 interviews with managers, residents and relatives, and nurses from five nursing homes in England were undertaken. The interview questions focused on their understanding of DHT, their experiences of it, and its potential benefits in nursing homes. Data from the interviews were thematically analysed and the emerging themes were used to inform two co-creation workshops, during which participating nurses discussed a practical, evidence-based process for DHT implementation in nursing homes. FINDINGS: Three broad themes emerged from the interviews: improving communication; engaging with DHT and retaining humanised care; and introducing DHT and protecting data security. The co-creation workshop participants formulated the LAUNCH process model, a nurse-led, stepped approach supporting DHT implementation in nursing homes. CONCLUSION: The LAUNCH study identified factors enabling staff in nursing homes to introduce and sustain DHT innovations. Participating nurses co-created a three-step process for the effective implementation of DHT innovations in nursing homes, which have the potential to release staff time, improve quality of care, and have positive effects on staff recruitment and retention.

A cluster randomised trial of the program to enhance adjustment to residential living (PEARL): a novel psychological intervention to reduce depression in newly admitted aged care residents.
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T. E. Davison, M. P. McCabe, L. Busija, D. W. O’Connor, V. C. Costa and J. Byers.
BMC Geriatr 2020 Mar 12;20(1):98-020-1492-5
Depression rates are high in residential aged care (RAC) facilities, with newly admitted residents at particular risk. New approaches to address depression in this population are urgently required, particularly psychological interventions suitable for widespread use across the RAC sector. The Program to Enhance Adjustment to Residential Living (PEARL) is a brief intervention, designed to provide individually tailored care approaches to meet the psychological needs of newly admitted residents, delivered in collaboration with facility staff. METHODS: PEARL will be evaluated using a cluster randomised controlled design, comparing outcomes for residents who participate in the intervention with those residing in care as usual control facilities. Participants are RAC residents aged 60 years or above, with normal cognition or mild-moderate cognitive impairment, who relocated to the facility within the previous 4 weeks. The primary outcomes are depressive symptoms and disorders, with secondary outcomes including anxiety, stress, quality of life, adjustment to RAC, and functional dependence, analysed on an intention to treat basis using multilevel modelling. DISCUSSION: PEARL is an intervention based on self-determination theory, designed to reduce depression in newly admitted residents by tailoring day to day care to meet their psychological needs. This simple psychological approach offers an alternative care model to the current over-reliance of antidepressant medications. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12616001726448; Registered 16 December 2016 with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry.

Nursing staff’s evaluation of facilitators and barriers during implementation of wireless nurse call systems in residential care facilities. A cross-sectional study.
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J. Dugstad, V. Sundling, E. R. Nilsen and H. Eide.
BMC Health Serv Res 2020 Mar 4;20(1):163-020-4998-9
Traditional nurse call systems used in residential care facilities rely on patients to summon assistance for routine or emergency needs. Wireless nurse call systems (WNCS) offer new affordances for persons unable to actively or consciously engage with the system, allowing detection of hazardous situations, prevention and timely treatment, as well as enhanced nurse workflows. This study aimed to explore facilitators and barriers of implementation of WNCSs in residential care facilities. METHODS: The study had a cross-sectional descriptive design. We collected data from care providers (n = 98) based on the Measurement Instrument for Determinants of Innovation (MIDI) framework in five Norwegian residential care facilities during the first year of WNCS implementation. The self-reporting MIDI questionnaire was adapted to the contexts. Descriptive statistics were used to explore participant characteristics and MIDI item and determinant scores. MIDI items to which >/=20% of participants disagreed/totally disagreed were regarded as barriers and items to which >/=80% of participants agreed/totally agreed were regarded as facilitators for implementation. RESULTS: More facilitators (n = 22) than barriers (n = 6) were identified. The greatest facilitators, reported by 98% of the care providers, were the expected outcomes: the importance and probability of achieving prompt call responses and increased safety, and the normative belief of unit managers. During the implementation process, 87% became familiar with the systems, and 86 and 90%, respectively regarded themselves and their colleagues as competent users of the WNCS. The most salient barriers, reported by 37%, were their lack of prior knowledge and that they found the WNCS difficult to learn. No features of the technology were identified as barriers. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the care providers gave a positive evaluation of the WNCS implementation. The barriers to implementation were addressed by training and practicing technological skills, facilitated by the influence and support by the manager and the colleagues within the residential care unit. WNCSs offer a range of advanced applications and services, and further research is needed as more WNCS functionalities are implemented into residential care services.

“We’ve got the home care data, what do we do with it?”: understanding data use in decision making and quality improvement.
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J. Elliott, A. Gordon, C. E. Tong and P. Stolee.
BMC Health Serv Res 2020 Mar 25;20(1):251-020-5018-9
In the past decade the provision of home care services in Canada has doubled; with this increase there has been a growing interest in improving quality and safety. National-level data are captured in the Home Care Reporting System (HCRS), using the interRAI-HC tools. Data in the HCRS provide decision-makers and administrators with actionable evidence to inform quality and safety improvement initiatives. The objective of this study was to determine how providers and administrators were using these data, and if there were any opportunities to enhance their use. METHODS: We collaborated with the Canadian Patient Safety Institute to conduct this qualitative study. To understand data use in home care, we recruited participants in management and/or data analysis roles from home care organizations across Canada. We conducted three individual interviews and three focus group interviews with a total of eleven participants from five Canadian provinces. Individual and focus group interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and analysed using a combination of emergent coding and thematic analysis. RESULTS: Several participants provided powerful examples of how interRAI data have been used to guide patient safety and quality improvement initiatives; however, all participants recognized challenges in using these data. Leveraging interRAI data in the complex home care environment is limited by several factors: the general “newness” of these data in many jurisdictions; the sheer volume of data; limited capacity and resources to interpret and analyse the data; and connectivity issues in rural areas. Participants recognized and appreciated the training that has been provided, and made several recommendations for additional training. CONCLUSIONS: Mandated clinical datasets, such as the suite of interRAI tools, have the potential to improve quality and inform decision-making. However, in order to utilize these data, home care agencies require additional education, personnel and supports. Additional training and resources for these organizations could improve the use of available data by home care agencies, as well as outcomes for individuals receiving home care services.

Equipping Nurses and Care Staff to Manage Mealtime Difficulties in People With Dementia: A Systematic Scoping Review of Training Needs and Interventions.
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J. Faraday, C. Salis and A. Barrett.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2019 May 27;28(2):717-742
Mealtime difficulties are prevalent in dementia, posing major challenges to people with dementia (PWD), carers, and clinical services. Speech-language pathologists have a recognized role in providing training to carers of PWD who have mealtime difficulties. The aims of this study are (a) to identify the training needs of nurses and care staff with regard to managing mealtime difficulties in PWD, (b) to describe existing training interventions on this topic, and (c) to investigate the extent to which these interventions are relevant to the needs of nurses and care staff. Method A systematic search was carried out to identify studies relevant to the aims of the review. Data were extracted and then synthesized using thematic analysis and a synthesis matrix. Study quality was appraised using a validated appraisal tool. Results Various themes were identified in relation to the training needs of nurses and other care staff who manage mealtime difficulties in PWD. These were as follows: person-centered care; dealing with uncertainty; strategies, skills, and knowledge; and creating the right environment. Existing training interventions were described and compared against the training needs. The review found some correspondence between interventions and staff needs, but also some gaps. Conclusions Training interventions on this topic should be more systematically developed and better reported to facilitate effective implementation. Evidence to date indicates that training should do more to help staff deal with uncertainty. Further research assessing the benefits of speech-language pathologists’ involvement in the development of training interventions is recommended because of this profession’s specialist skills and knowledge with regard to both dysphagia and communication.

Complex programme evaluation of a ‘new care model’ vanguard: a shared commitment to quality improvement in an integrated health and care context.
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S. Fowler Davis, S. Hinde and S. Ariss.
BMJ Open 2020 Mar 8;10(3):e029174-2019-029174
NHS vanguards, under-pressure to perform, required better contracting and data management arrangements with evaluation teams, to ensure that integrated service outcomes could be reported effectively. This communication reflects the experience of evaluating an NHS vanguard and suggests how academic teams can improve capacity for complex programme evaluation of rapid improvements in integrated services. This should be based on a shared commitment to data collection and management. Also, robust knowledge exchange processes can enable systems change and sustainability. The identifying features of the particular site have been withheld.

Evaluating a young-onset dementia service from two sides of the coin: staff and service user perspectives.
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C. Giebel, C. Eastham, J. Cannon, J. Wilson, J. Wilson and A. Pearson.
BMC Health Serv Res 2020 Mar 6;20(1):187-020-5027-8
People with young-onset dementia (YOD) can often struggle getting the right treatment. This is because of their frequently different characteristics and needs compared to people with late-onset dementia. The aim of this project was to assess a memory service for its adaptation to the needs and wishes of people with YOD and their carers. METHODS: This project evaluated a memory service in the North West of England by performing two focus groups with clinical staff and six semi-structured interviews with people with YOD and carers. The focus groups took place on site and lasted one hour each. People with YOD and their carers were identified via the memory clinics caseload and via the local Alzheimer’s Society charity organisation. Both focus groups and interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed, and data were analysed using thematic analysis. The public (a person living with YOD and his carer) were involved from the design stages of the project through to the analysis and dissemination. RESULTS: Eleven members of staff with different clinical backgrounds participated in the focus groups and six interviews were held with people with YOD and their carers. Both indicated that whilst the diagnostic process is relatively well conducted at the service, the post-diagnostic service has many gaps. These include limited post-diagnostic support by the service, better enabling peer support, as well as providing meaningful activities, as some activities provided might be more suitable to older adults with dementia. CONCLUSIONS: Post-diagnostic services and support for people with YOD and their carers need to be improved. The next step will be to implement the findings from this service evaluation in practice and improve service satisfaction and relevance to people with YOD.

Capacity building for dementia care in community care services: a mixed methods approach.
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H. Y. L. Chan, F. K. Y. Ho, K. C. M. Chui, et al.
BMC Geriatr 2020 Mar 30;20(1):122-020-01517-8
The prevalence of dementia is surging that results in huge service demand in the community care services. Dementia care competence of staff working in these settings is fundamental of the care quality. This project aims to examine the effects of staff training on their competence for the anticipated challenges in dementia care and explore how the training influence their care practices. METHODS: This study adopted a mixed methods triangulation design, including a prospective multi-center study with pre-test post-test evaluations and a narrative analysis of the participants’ reflective essays. Seventeen experienced health and social care professionals were trained as trainers at the Dementia Services Development Centre of the University of Stirling, UK. The trainers provided local facilitator training to staff members by using training materials that were culturally adapted to the local context. The facilitators were required to deliver 12 two-hour in-service training sessions for 6 months to their colleagues in a small group format in their respective workplace. Eventually a total of 1347 staff members from community care centers, day care centers, outreach teams and care homes of 70 non-government organizations in Hong Kong participated in the study between April 2017 and December 2018. Validated instruments were used to measure knowledge, attitude, sense of competence in dementia care and job satisfaction at the baseline and at 12-month follow-up. All participants were required to write a reflective essay to describe their experiences in dementia care by the end of the training. RESULTS: A total of 1264 participants, including 195 facilitators and 1069 learners, completed all assessment were included for analysis. Significant improvements were observed in all outcomes at the 12-month follow-up assessment (Ps </= .001). The magnitude of improvements in attitudes was the largest. The findings also showed that the effects of the training program significantly varied across different groups of learners in terms of age, occupation, work and training experience. CONCLUSIONS: This community-wide large-scale project provided evidence that the train-the-trainer model and reflective learning are effective means to facilitate situated learning that promote awareness and understanding of dementia, and consequently enhance sustainability of changes in care practices.

Understanding how front-line staff use patient experience data for service improvement: an exploratory case study evaluation
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L. Locock, C. Graham, J. King, et al.
NIHR Journals Library, 2020 Mar
The NHS collects a large number of data on patient experience, but there are concerns that it does not use this information to improve care. This study explored whether or not and how front-line staff use patient experience data for service improvement. METHODS: Phase 1 – secondary analysis of existing national survey data, and a new survey of NHS trust patient experience leads. Phase 2 – case studies in six medical wards using ethnographic observations and interviews. A baseline and a follow-up patient experience survey were conducted on each ward, supplemented by in-depth interviews. Following an initial learning community to discuss approaches to learning from and improving patient experience, teams developed and implemented their own interventions. Emerging findings from the ethnographic research were shared formatively. Phase 3 – dissemination, including an online guide for NHS staff. KEY FINDINGS: Phase 1 – an analysis of staff and inpatient survey results for all 153 acute trusts in England was undertaken, and 57 completed surveys were obtained from patient experience leads. The most commonly cited barrier to using patient experience data was a lack of staff time to examine the data (75%), followed by cost (35%), lack of staff interest/support (21%) and too many data (21%). Trusts were grouped in a matrix of high, medium and low performance across several indices to inform case study selection. Phase 2 – in every site, staff undertook quality improvement projects using a range of data sources. The number and scale of these varied, as did the extent to which they drew directly on patient experience data, and the extent of involvement of patients. Before-and-after surveys of patient experience showed little statistically significant change. Making sense of patient experience ‘data’ Staff were engaged in a process of sense-making from a range of formal and informal sources of intelligence. Survey data remain the most commonly recognised and used form of data. ‘Soft’ intelligence, such as patient stories, informal comments and daily ward experiences of staff, patients and family, also fed into staff’s improvement plans, but they and the wider organisation may not recognise these as ‘data’. Staff may lack confidence in using them for improvement. Staff could not always point to a specific source of patient experience ‘data’ that led to a particular project, and sometimes reported acting on what they felt they already knew needed changing. Staff experience as a route to improving patient experience Some sites focused on staff motivation and experience on the assumption that this would improve patient experience through indirect cultural and attitudinal change, and by making staff feel empowered and supported. Staff participants identified several potential interlinked mechanisms: (1) motivated staff provide better care, (2) staff who feel taken seriously are more likely to be motivated, (3) involvement in quality improvement is itself motivating and (4) improving patient experience can directly improve staff experience. ‘Team-based capital’ in NHS settings We propose ‘team-based capital’ in NHS settings as a key mechanism between the contexts in our case studies and observed outcomes. ‘Capital’ is the extent to which staff command varied practical, organisational and social resources that enable them to set agendas, drive process and implement change. These include not just material or economic resources, but also status, time, space, relational networks and influence. Teams involving a range of clinical and non-clinical staff from multiple disciplines and levels of seniority could assemble a greater range of capital; progress was generally greater when the team included individuals from the patient experience office. Phase 3 – an online guide for NHS staff was produced in collaboration with The Point of Care Foundation. LIMITATIONS: This was an ethnographic study of how and why NHS front-line staff do or do not use patient experience data for quality improvement. It was not designed to demonstrate whether particular types of patient experience data or quality improvement approaches are more effective than others. FUTURE RESEARCH: Developing and testing interventions focused specifically on staff but with patient experience as the outcome, with a health economics component. Studies focusing on the effect of team composition and diversity on the impact and scope of patient-centred quality improvement. Research into using unstructured feedback and soft intelligence. FUNDING: The National Institute for Health Research Health Services and Delivery Research programme.

The Venus model for integrating practitioner-led workforce transformation and complex change across the health care system.
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K. Manley and C. Jackson.
J Eval Clin Pract 2020 Apr;26(2):622-634
The aim of this paper is to present the Venus model for workforce transformation, demonstrating its research origins, theoretical foundations, and practical application for enabling individuals, teams, and services to sustain transformation in the workplace. METHODS: The paper provides a brief synopsis of how the Venus model was generated from four large-scale mixed-method studies embracing workforce transformation, safety culture, integrated facilitation, and continuous professional development. RESULTS: The Venus model has five stems and identifies key integrated skill sets pivotal to successful transformation, which are interdependent: Being able to facilitate an integrated approach to learning, development, improvement, knowledge translation, inquiry, and innovation-drawing on the workplace itself as an influential resource; Being a transformational and collective leader building relationships that encourage curiosity, creativity, and harnessing the talents of all not just a few; Being a skilled practice developer focused on achieving the key values of being person-centred, and the ways of working that are collaborative, inclusive, and participative; Applying improvement skills that enable small step change using measurement wisely to focus on measuring what is valued as well as evaluating positive progress; and, finally Facilitating culture change at the micro-systems level while being attuned to the organizational and systems enablers required to support this. CONCLUSION: The paper concludes with consideration of implications for implementation of the model and its relevance for practice, policy, education, and future research as well as outlining potential limitations and conclusions.

Evaluation of the Predictive Accuracy of the interRAI Falls Clinical Assessment Protocol, Scott Fall Risk Screen, and a Supplementary Falls Risk Assessment Tool Used in Residential Long-Term Care: A Retrospective Cohort Study.
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K. J. Norman and J. P. Hirdes.
Can J Aging 2020 Mar 16:1-12
Falls in residential long-term care (LTC) facilities continue to be a leading cause of injury for residents and cost for the health care system. Interdisciplinary clinical teams are responsible for assessing risk levels for their residents and developing appropriate care plans and interventions in response. This study compares the predictive accuracy of three separate fall risk assessment tools: the interRAI Falls Clinical Assessment Protocol (CAP), derived from the LTC Facility (LTCF) or Minimum Data Set (MDS) 2.0 assessments; the Scott Fall Risk Screen; and a modified Fall Risk Tool that was implemented as part of a provincial Fall Reduction Strategy in Nova Scotia. To conduct this retrospective cohort study, secondary data were collected from 1,553 LTC residents with interRAI assessments completed between March 1, 2015 and September 29, 2016, across Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. For each resident, data were collected regarding the three fall risk assessments, along with fall incident data for use in sensitivity, specificity, and logistic regression analyses. This study found that although all three tools had limitations with sensitivity or specificity thresholds, the interRAI Falls CAP delivered the highest accuracy with a c-statistic of 0.673, compared with the Scott Fall Risk Screen at 0.529 and the modified Fall Risk Tool at 0.609. When diseases that have been established to be a risk factor for falls were added to the model, the overall accuracy of the interRAI Falls CAP combined with those covariates increased to 0.749. These results suggest that the best practice guidelines for fall risk assessment be revisited, and that the interRAI Falls CAP could potentially be updated to include certain diseases and controls for optimal predictive ability.

Health Data Sharing in US Nursing Homes: A Mixed Methods Study.
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K. R. Powell, C. B. Deroche and G. L. Alexander.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2020 Mar 27
OBJECTIVES: (1) To understand the extent to which nursing homes have the capability for data sharing and (2) to explore nursing home leaders’ perceptions of data sharing with other health care facilities and with residents and family members. DESIGN: Exploratory, mixed-methods. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a national survey of nursing home administrative leaders (n = 815) representing every state in the United States. Next, semistructured interviews were used to elicit rich contextual information from (n = 12) administrators from nursing homes with varying data-sharing capabilities. METHODS: We used descriptive statistics along with Rao-Scott chi-square and logistic regression models to examine the relationship between health data-sharing capabilities and nursing home characteristics such as location, bed size, and type of ownership. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS: Of the 815 nursing homes completing the survey, 95% had computerized (electronic) medical records, and 46% had some capability for health information exchange. Nursing homes located in metropolitan areas had 2.53 (95% confidence interval = 1.53, 4.18) times greater odds for having health information exchange capability compared with nursing homes in small towns. Perceived challenges to health data sharing with residents and family members and external clinical partners include variance in systems and software, privacy and security concerns, and organizational factors slowing uptake of technology. Perceived benefits of health data sharing included improved communication, improved care planning, and anticipating future demand. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: As health data sharing becomes more ubiquitous in acute care settings, policy makers, nursing home leaders, and other stakeholders should prepare by working to mitigate barriers and capitalize on potential benefits of implementing this technology in nursing homes.

Exploring Resident Care Information Technology Use and Nursing Home Quality.
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K. R. Powell, C. B. Deroche, E. J. Carnahan and G. L. Alexander.
J Gerontol Nurs 2020 Apr 1;46(4):15-20
A wide array of sophisticated information technology (IT) systems are being used in nursing home (NH) resident care to improve quality. The purpose of the current study was to explore differences in NH IT sophistication, a comprehensive measure of adoption, used in resident care processes based on facility characteristics over 4 consecutive years and to examine the impact on select long-stay NH quality measures. Results indicate IT systems used in resident care are becoming increasingly sophisticated. NH bed size, type of ownership, and location were significant predictors of IT score in areas related to resident care. Results also suggest that as electronic clinical processes and documents increase (e.g., incident reporting, nursing flowsheets, care planning) in resident care, more falls with injury are detected. Continued assessments of NH IT sophistication are important as the impact of technology on quality continues to be evaluated.

What matters to me – a web-based preference elicitation tool for clients in long-term care: a user-centred design.
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C. M. van Leersum, A. Moser, B. van Steenkiste, et al.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2020 Mar 17;20(1):57-020-1067-6
During the process of decision-making for long-term care, clients are often dependent on informal support and available information about quality ratings of care services. However, clients do not take ratings into account when considering preferred care, and need assistance to understand their preferences. A tool to elicit preferences for long-term care could be beneficial. Therefore, the aim of this qualitative descriptive study is to understand the user requirements and develop a web-based preference elicitation tool for clients in need of long-term care. METHODS: We applied a user-centred design in which end-users influence the development of the tool. The included end-users were clients, relatives, and healthcare professionals. Data collection took place between November 2017 and March 2018 by means of meetings with the development team consisting of four users, walkthrough interviews with 21 individual users, video-audio recordings, field notes, and observations during the use of the tool. Data were collected during three phases of iteration: Look and feel, Navigation, and Content. A deductive and inductive content analysis approach was used for data analysis. RESULTS: The layout was considered accessible and easy during the Look and feel phase, and users asked for neutral images. Users found navigation easy, and expressed the need for concise and shorter text blocks. Users reached consensus about the categories of preferences, wished to adjust the content with propositions about well-being, and discussed linguistic difficulties. CONCLUSION: By incorporating the requirements of end-users, the user-centred design proved to be useful in progressing from the prototype to the finalized tool ‘What matters to me’. This tool may assist the elicitation of client’s preferences in their search for long-term care.

Guide to hibernating Quality Improvment programmes

Healthcare Improvement Scotland, 2020
Many Q members have been redeployed to support the evolving response to COVID-19. Existing programmes are being placed on hold, as improvement teams apply their expertise elsewhere.

We do not yet know how long we will be working differently. But, whenever we are able to, we will want to find effective ways to re-start the programmes and projects that pre-date this crisis.

Q’s partners at Healthcare Improvement Scotland have created a draft guidance document on the hibernation of programmes. It outlines processes and good practice to close programmes down well, so that they are easier to get back up and running when the time is right.


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Organizational Culture and Change

Better hospital context increases success of care pathway implementation on achieving greater teamwork: a multicenter study on STEMI care.
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D. Aeyels, L. Bruyneel, D. Seys, et al.
Int J Qual Health Care 2019 Jul 1;31(6):442-448
To evaluate whether hospital context influences the effect of care pathway implementation on teamwork processes and output in STEMI care. DESIGN: A multicenter pre-post intervention study. SETTING: Eleven acute hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Cardiologists-in-chief, nurse managers, quality staff, quality managers and program managers reported on hospital context. Teamwork was rated by professional groups (medical doctors, nurses, allied health professionals, other) in the following departments: emergency room, catheterization lab, coronary care unit, cardiology ward and rehabilitation. INTERVENTION: Care pathway covering in-hospital care from emergency services to rehabilitation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hospital context was measured by the five dimensions of the Model for Understanding Success in Quality: microsystem, quality improvement team, quality improvement support, high-level organization, external environment. Teamwork process measures reflected teamwork between professional groups within departments and teamwork between departments. Teamwork output was measured through the level of organized care. Two-level regression analysis accounted for clustering of respondents within hospitals and assessed the influence of hospital context on the impact of care pathway implementation on teamwork. RESULTS: Care pathway implementation significantly improved teamwork processes both between professional groups (P < 0.001) and between departments (P < 0.001). Teamwork output also improved (P < 0.001). The effect of care pathway implementation on teamwork was more pronounced when the quality improvement team and quality improvement support and capacity were more positively reported on. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitals can leverage the effect of quality improvement interventions such as care pathways by evaluating and improving aspects of hospital context.

Why does the NHS struggle to adopt eHealth innovations? A review of macro, meso and micro factors.
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S. Asthana, R. Jones and R. Sheaff.
BMC Health Serv Res 2019 Dec 21;19(1):984-019-4790-x
Having a tax-funded and supposedly ‘National’ Health Service (NHS), one might assume that the UK is well-positioned to roll out eHealth innovations at scale. Yet, despite a strong policy push, the English NHS has been limited in the extent to which it has exploited the potential of eHealth. MAIN BODY: This paper considers a range of macro, meso and micro factors influencing eHealth innovation in the English NHS. CONCLUSIONS: While barriers to eHealth innovation exist at all scales, the fragmentation of the NHS is the most significant factor limiting adoption and diffusion. Rather than addressing problems of fragmentation, national policy seems to have intensified the digital divide. As the recently published NHS Long Term Plan places great emphasis on the role of digital transformation in helping health and care professionals communicate better and enabling people to access the care they need quickly and easily, the implications for the digital divide are likely to be significant for effectiveness, efficiency and equity.

Merging Cultures: Organizational Culture and Leadership in a Health System Merger.
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C. G. Chesley.
J Healthc Manag 2020 Mar-Apr;65(2):135-150
Health system mergers and acquisitions have increased exponentially in recent years as an apparent result of the Affordable Care Act. Mergers and acquisitions are seen as a way to control interdependencies within the market, control costs, leverage debt, and negotiate better rates among health insurers. Regardless of the impetus for a merger, the largest predictor of its success or failure lies within the organizational culture. The purpose of this research was to assess the current organizational culture and preferred organizational culture of two competing health organizations prior to a planned merger, and then to determine whether there were significant differences between the premerger cultures and the postmerger preferred organizational culture using the Competing Values Framework (CVF). Current culture is defined as the premerger culture as measured by the CVF, and preferred culture is defined as the self-identified preferred traits and characteristics of the postmerger culture as measured by the CVF. The study findings indicated a statistically significant difference between the premerger cultures of the health systems. However, respondents from both health systems preferred a postmerger organizational culture that was statistically the same. A review of the results along with best practices for health system leaders follows.

Going beyond Environment to Context: Leveraging the Power of Context to Produce Change.
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R. L. Schalock, R. Luckasson and K. A. Shogren.
Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Mar 13;17(6):10.3390/ijerph17061885
This article discusses the processes and implications of going beyond environment to context. The article (a) provides an operational definition of context; (b) describes a multidimensional model of context that views context as being multilevel, multifactorial, and interactive; (c) describes how conceptual models of quality of life, human rights, and human functioning can be used in conjunction with the multidimensional model of context to identify opportunities and develop context-based change strategies that improve quality of life, human rights, and human functioning outcomes; and (d) describes a four-step approach to leveraging an understanding of context to produce change. The article concludes with a discussion of the advantages of and barriers to moving beyond environment to context.

The validation of organisational culture assessment instrument in healthcare setting: results from a cross-sectional study in Vietnam.
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N. Van Huy, N. T. H. Thu, N. L. T. Anh, et al.
BMC Public Health 2020 Mar 12;20(1):316-020-8372-y
Organisational culture (OC) has increasingly become a crucial factor in defining healthcare practice and management. However, there has been little research validating and adapting OCAI (organisational culture assessment instrument) to assess OC in healthcare settings in developing countries, including Vietnam. The purpose of this study is to validate the OCAI in a hospital setting using key psychometric tests and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. Self-administered structured questionnaire was completed by 566 health professionals from a Vietnamese national general hospital, the General Hospital of Quang Nam province. The psychometric tests and CFA were utilized to detect internal reliability and construct validity of the instrument. RESULTS: The Cronbach’s alpha coefficients (alpha-reliability statistic) ranged from 0.6 to 0.8. In current culture, the coefficient was 0.80 for clan and 0.60 for adhocracy, hierarchy and market dimension, while in expected culture, the coefficient for clan, adhocracy, hierarchy, and market dimension was 0.70, 0.70, 0.70 and 0.60, respectively. The CFA indicated that most factor loading coefficients were of moderate values ranging from 0.30 to 0.60 in both current and expected culture model. These models are of marginal good fit. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings suggest that the OCAI be of fairly good reliability and construct validity in measuring four types of organisational culture in healthcare setting in resource-constrained countries such as Vietnam. This result is a first step towards developing a valid Vietnamese version of the OCAI which can also provide a strong case for future research in the field of measuring and managing organisational culture.

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Research Practice and Methodology

Grey literature citations in top nursing journals: a bibliometric study.

Stephen Woods, Kathleen Phillips and Andrew Dudash.
Journal of the Medical Library Association : JMLA 2020 04;108(2):262-269
As access to information grows in tandem with the growth of the Internet, access to grey literature also increases. Because little is known about the use of grey literature in nursing journals, the authors investigated the prevalence and types of grey literature citations in top nursing journals. METHODS: We analyzed all citations (n=52,116) from articles published in 2011 in 6 top nursing journals selected from the Medical Library Association’s Nursing and Allied Health Resource Section’s 2012 “Selected List of Nursing Journals.” Grey literature citations were identified and categorized by type. RESULTS: Grey literature accounted for 10.4% of citations across all 6 journals. Publications from governments (54.3%) and corporate organizations (26.8%) were the most common types of grey literature. CONCLUSION: The substantial citation of grey literature in nursing journals shows that nursing scholars seek and use this category of information. These findings have implications for teaching and learning among nursing researchers and the information professionals who serve the nursing research community.

Integrating Health System Data With Systematic Reviews: A Framework for When and How Unpublished Health System Data Can Be Used With Systematic Reviews To Support Health System Decision Making

Lin JS, Murad MH, Leas B, Treadwell JR, Chou R, Ivlev I, Kansagara D. (Prepared by the Kaiser Permanente Research Affiliates, Mayo Clinic, ECRI Institute-Penn Medicine, and Pacific Northwest Evidence-based Practice Centers).
Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. April 2020.
Given that health-system decision making would benefit from both traditional systematic reviews and health-system-specific data, this report investigates when and how to use primary data from health systems in real time with systematic reviews and articulates a framework for using health system data with systematic reviews to support health system decision making.

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Quantifying the roles of vomiting, diarrhea, and residents vs. staff in norovirus transmission in U.S. nursing home outbreaks.
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C. Adams, D. Young, P. A. Gastanaduy, et al.
PLoS Comput Biol 2020 Mar 25;16(3):e1007271
The role of individual case characteristics, such as symptoms or demographics, in norovirus transmissibility is poorly understood. Six nursing home norovirus outbreaks occurring in South Carolina, U.S. from 2014 to 2016 were examined. We aimed to quantify the contribution of symptoms and other case characteristics in norovirus transmission using the reproduction number (REi) as an estimate of individual case infectivity and to examine how transmission changes over the course of an outbreak. Individual estimates of REi were calculated using a maximum likelihood procedure to infer the average number of secondary cases generated by each case. The associations between case characteristics and REi were estimated using a weighted multivariate mixed linear model. Outbreaks began with one to three index case(s) with large estimated REi’s (range: 1.48 to 8.70) relative to subsequent cases. Of the 209 cases, 155 (75%) vomited, 164 (79%) had diarrhea, and 158 (76%) were nursing home residents (vs. staff). Cases who vomited infected 2.12 (95% CI: 1.68, 2.68) times the number of individuals as non-vomiters, cases with diarrhea infected 1.39 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.87) times the number of individuals as cases without diarrhea, and resident-cases infected 1.53 (95% CI: 1.15, 2.02) times the number of individuals as staff-cases. Index cases tended to be residents (vs. staff) who vomited and infected considerably more secondary cases compared to non-index cases. Results suggest that individuals, particularly residents, who vomit are more infectious and tend to drive norovirus transmission in U.S. nursing home norovirus outbreaks. While diarrhea also plays a role in norovirus transmission, it is to a lesser degree than vomiting in these settings. Results lend support for prevention and control measures that focus on cases who vomit, particularly if those cases are residents.

“We live as good a life as we can, in the situation we’re in” – the significance of the home as perceived by persons with dementia.
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S. E. Faeo, B. S. Husebo, F. K. Bruvik and O. Tranvag.
BMC Geriatr 2019 Jun 6;19(1):158-019-1171-6
The coming years will see more persons with dementia living longer at home. However, “the home” is a complex concept with a multitude of meanings, varying among individuals and raising ethical and practical dilemmas in the support provided for this group. This study aims to increase the understanding of experiences and attitudes among persons with dementia related to living at home. METHODS: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 persons, 69 to 89 years old, with a dementia diagnosis and living at home. Using a hermeneutical approach, the interviews were analysed as single texts, as parts of a set of texts and as a whole single text. The writings of care philosopher Kari Martinsen on “The home” were chosen as a framework for the theoretical interpretation of the findings. RESULTS: The participants experienced a vital interconnectedness between the home and their lives, placing their home as a core foundation for life. Through stories of persisting love, they illuminated how their lived lives functioned as a foundation for their homes. Further, they described how progressing dementia disturbed rhythms of life at home, forcing them to adapt and change their routines and rhythms in life. Finally, in the hope of an enhanced future home the participants showed an acceptance of, but also a reluctance to, the prospect of having to move out of their homes at some future point. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that the participants’ home generated existential meaning for the participating persons with dementia. Their experience of being at home was based on a variety of individual factors working together in various ways. These findings imply a need to understand what factors are important for the individual, as well as how these factors interact in order to provide support for this group of people.

The IOU Consensus Recommendations for Empirical Therapy of Cystitis in Nursing Home Residents.
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J. T. Hanlon, S. Perera, P. J. Drinka, et al.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2019 Mar;67(3):539-545
To establish consensus recommendations for empirical treatment of uncomplicated cystitis with anti-infectives in noncatheterized older nursing home residents to be implemented in the Improving Outcomes of UTI Management in Long-Term Care Project (IOU) funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. DESIGN: Two-round modified Delphi survey. PARTICIPANTS: Expert panel of 19 clinical pharmacists. MEASUREMENTS: Comprehensive literature search and development/review/edit of draft survey by the investigative group (one geriatric clinical pharmacist, two geriatric medicine physicians, and one infectious disease physician). The expert panel members rated their agreement with each of 31 recommendations for drugs of choice, dosing medications at various levels of renal function, drug-drug interactions to avoid, and duration of therapy by sex on a 5-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree). Consensus agreement was defined as a lower 95% confidence limit of 4.0 or higher for the recommendation-specific mean score. RESULTS: The response rate was 95% for the first round, and three recommendations achieved consensus (dosing for nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in those without chronic kidney disease, and drug-drug interaction between trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and warfarin). In the second round, 90% responded and reached consensus on an additional eight recommendations (two for nitrofurantoin or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole as initial drugs of choice, three for dosing ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole at various levels of chronic kidney disease, and three drug-drug interactions to avoid: trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole with phenytoin and ciprofloxacin with theophylline or with tizanidine). CONCLUSION: An expert panel of clinical pharmacists was able to reach consensus on a set of recommendations for the empirical treatment of cystitis with oral anti-infective medications in older nursing home residents. The recommendations were incorporated into a treatment algorithm for uncomplicated cystitis in noncatheterized nursing home residents and used in educational materials for health professionals in an ongoing controlled intervention study. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:539-545, 2019.

Factors that Influence Sleep among Residents in Long-Term Care Facilities.
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D. E. Kim and J. Y. Yoon.
Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Mar 14;17(6):10.3390/ijerph17061889
Long-term care residents often experience sleep disturbances as they are vulnerable to a variety of physical, psychosocial, and environmental factors that contribute to sleep disturbances. However, few studies have examined the combined impact of multiple factors on sleep among long-term care residents. This study aimed to identify the factors that influence sleep efficiency and sleep quality based on a modified senescent sleep model. A total of 125 residents were recruited from seven long-term care facilities in South Korea. Sleep patterns and sleep quality were collected using 3-day sleep logs and the Minimal Insomnia Screening Scale for Korean adults (KMISS), respectively. The mean sleep efficiency was 84.6% and the mean score on sleep quality was 15.25. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that greater dependence in activities of daily living (ADL), higher pain, and light at night were related to lower sleep efficiency. Higher pain and fatigue, less activity time, noise and light at night, and lower nighttime staffing levels were related to poorer sleep quality. This study highlights that psychosocial and environmental factors as well as physical factors could influence sleep for long-term care residents. Our findings could be foundational evidence for multi-faceted sleep intervention program development in long-term care settings.

Relationships Between Social, Physical, and Psychological Factors in Older Persons: Frailty as an Outcome in Network Analysis.
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D. E. D. C. Leme, E. V. D. C. Alves and A. Fattori.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2020 Mar 26
Frailty is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by social, physical, and psychological stressors. Network analysis is a graphical statistical technique that can contribute to the understanding of this complex, multifactorial phenomenon. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between social, physical, and psychological factors and frailty in older persons. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2588 community-dwelling older persons from the FIBRA (Frailty in Brazilian Older Persons) 2008 to 2009 study. MEASURES: Participants were assessed for sociodemographic variables, physical and mental health, and the frailty phenotype. Partial correlation network analysis with the Graphical Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (glasso) estimator was performed to determine the relationships between social, physical, and psychological factors and frailty. RESULTS: Mean participant age was 72.31 years, 7.0% were frail, and 50.6% were prefrail. In the network structure, frailty correlated most strongly with physical and psychological factors such as diabetes and depression and exhibited greater proximity to physical factors such as disability, urinary incontinence, and cardiovascular risk as measured by waist-to-hip ratio. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The analytical strategy used can provide information for specific subpopulations of interest and here confirmed that frailty is not uniformly determined but associated with different psychological and physical health factors, thereby allowing better understanding and management of this condition.

Organisation and governance of infection prevention and control in Australian residential aged care facilities: A national survey.
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B. G. Mitchell, R. Z. Shaban, D. MacBeth and P. Russo.
Infect Dis Health 2019 Nov;24(4):187-193
Individuals in residential and aged care facilities (RACFs) are at risk of developing health care-associated infections (HAIs) due to factors such as age-related changes in physiology, immunity, comorbid illness and functional disability. The recent establishment of an Australian Royal Commission into the Quality of Residential and Aged Care Services highlights the challenges of providing care in this sector. This national study identified infection prevention and control (IPC) services, practice and priorities in Australian RACFs. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 158 Australian RACFs comprising a 42-question survey incorporating five key domains relating to IPC namely governance, education, practice, surveillance, competency and capability was undertaken in 2018. RESULTS: Of the 131 respondents, the majority 92.4% of respondents reported having a documented IPC program, 22.9% (n = 30) operated with a dedicated infection control committee The majority of RACFs reported lacking specialist and qualified experienced IPC professionals (n = 67). The majority of RACFs (90.1%, n = 118) reported the existence of a designated employee with IPC responsibilities. Of these 118 staff members with IPC responsibilities, 42.5% had a qualification in IPC. The reported average funded hours per month for IPC professional or an external provider of IPC activities was 14 (95% CI 9.6-18.9 h). CONCLUSION: The overwhelming majority of RACFs deliver IPC services and report doing so in ways that meet the needs of their own specific contexts in the absence of the lack of formal guidelines when compared to the hospital sector. Quality residential and aged care free from HAIs requires formal structure and organization strategies.

How people with dementia perceive a therapeutic robot called PARO in relation to their pain and mood: A qualitative study.
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L. Pu, W. Moyle and C. Jones.
J Clin Nurs 2020 Feb;29(3-4):437-446
Interacting with social robots, such as the robotic seal PARO, has been shown to improve mood and acute pain for people with dementia. Little attention has been paid to the effect of PARO on people with dementia and chronic pain. OBJECTIVE: To explore how people with mild to moderate dementia and chronic pain perceive PARO as an alternative intervention to manage their pain and mood. DESIGN: A descriptive qualitative approach nested within a pilot randomised controlled trial. METHODS: Participants with dementia and chronic pain were recruited from three residential aged care facilities. They interacted with PARO for 30 min, 5 days a week over a 6-week period. A sample of 11 participants completed individual semi-structured interviews at the end of the intervention. Data were collected from January 2018-January 2019. Inductive thematic analysis was undertaken. Reporting of findings followed the COREQ checklist. RESULTS: Four themes emerged from the data: (a) perceptions of PARO; (b) therapeutic effects of PARO; (c) limitations of PARO; and (d) programme improvement. Residents with dementia expressed positive attitudes towards the use of PARO and acknowledged the therapeutic benefits of PARO on mood improvement and relaxation for pain relief but also mentioned the limitations of its weight, voice and characteristics. Residents’ responses could also fluctuate during the intervention process, and individual preferences need to be considered. CONCLUSIONS: The PARO intervention is a promising intervention to improve positive emotion, and there is some anecdotal evidence that pain may be decreased from the perspectives of people living with chronic pain and dementia. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Long-term care staff may incorporate PARO therapy into daily dementia care. Understanding of individual’s preferences may enhance the implementation of PARO for pain management in this group.

Prospective Evaluation of Intensity of Symptoms, Therapeutic Procedures and Treatment in Palliative Care Patients in Nursing Homes.
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D. Puente-Fernandez, C. B. Roldan-Lopez, C. P. Campos-Calderon, C. Hueso-Montoro, M. P. Garcia-Caro and R. Montoya-Juarez.
J Clin Med 2020 Mar 10;9(3):10.3390/jcm9030750
The aim of the study is to evaluate the intensity of symptoms, and any treatment and therapeutic procedures received by advanced chronic patients in nursing homes. A multi-centre prospective study was conducted in six nursing homes for five months. A nurse trainer selected palliative care patients from whom the sample was randomly selected for inclusion. The Edmonton Symptoms Assessment Scale, therapeutic procedures, and treatment were evaluated. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used to evaluate month-to-month differences and differences between those who died and those who did not. A total of 107 residents were evaluated. At the end of the follow-up, 39 had (34.6%) died. All symptoms (p < 0.050) increased in intensity in the last week of life. Symptoms were more intense in those who had died at follow-up (p < 0.05). The use of aerosol sprays (p = 0.008), oxygen therapy (p < 0.001), opioids (p < 0.001), antibiotics (p = 0.004), and bronchodilators (p = 0.003) increased in the last week of life. Peripheral venous catheters (p = 0.022), corticoids (p = 0.007), antiemetics (p < 0.001), and antidepressants (p < 0.05) were used more in the patients who died. In conclusion, the use of therapeutic procedures (such as urinary catheters, peripheral venous catheter placement, and enteral feeding) and drugs (such as antibiotics, anxiolytics, and new antidepressant prescriptions) should be carefully considered in this clinical setting.

Gender differences in presentation and management of behavioral and psychological symptoms associated with dementia among nursing home residents with moderate to severe dementia.
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B. Resnick, E. Galik, A. Kolanowski, et al.
J Women Aging 2020 Mar 6:1-18
Lack of identification and management of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) can negatively impact female residents. The purpose of this secondary data analysis was to explore gender differences in presentation and management of BPSD and quality of interactions between residents and staff. A total of 553 residents from 55 nursing homes were included. Males exhibited more apathy and sexually inappropriate behavior and females exhibited more anxiety and sadness. Anxiety and sexually inappropriate behavior were more likely to be addressed in care plans for males than females. There was no difference in how staff interacted with males or females.

Instruments to measure quality of life in institutionalised older adults: Systematic review.
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N. D. R. Santana-Berlanga, A. M. Porcel-Galvez, A. Botello-Hermosa and S. Barrientos-Trigo.
Geriatr Nurs 2020 Mar 13
This study analysed the available instruments intended to measure the quality of life of institutionalised older adults, the psychometric properties of said instruments, and their use. This review was conducted using six international databases. The quality of the psychometric properties was assessed using the COSMIN checklist. Risk of bias was assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool. Twenty-four instruments which measure quality of life were analysed. The instruments assessed are related to two areas, thus establishing two stages of the concept of quality of life in the ageing process. The Dementia Quality of Life (DQoL) scale and the FACIT-Sp Spiritual Well-Being Scale were found to be the instruments with the best combination of length, high methodological quality, and bias control for use in older people with and without cognitive impairment, respectively. Knowing which instruments have higher quality will facilitate the evaluation of the aspects that influence quality of life in geriatric institutions.

Assistive Technology and Mobile ICT Usage Among Oldest-Old Cohorts: Comparison of the Oldest-Old in Private Homes and in Long-Term Care Facilities.
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A. Schlomann, A. Seifert, S. Zank and C. Rietz.
Res Aging 2020 Mar 13:164027520911286
This study examines technology adoption among oldest-old cohorts (80+) in private homes and long-term care facilities and analyzes relationships between individual characteristics, the living environment, and different kinds of assistive technologies (AT) and information and communication technologies (ICT). The data analysis is based on a representative survey of the oldest-old group’s quality of life and well-being in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany (N = 1,863; age range: 80-103; 12.7% long-term care). Descriptive and multiple binary logistic regression analyses were conducted. Fewer than 3% of people in long-term care used internet-connected ICT devices. AT and ICT device adoption is associated with the living environment and individual characteristics (e.g., functional health, chronological age, education, and technology interest), and different patterns of ICT and AT use can be observed. These results indicate that individual characteristics and the living environment are both decisive in the use of technology among the oldest-old group.

End-of-Life Culture Change Practices in U.S. Nursing Homes in 2016/2017.
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M. L. Schwartz, J. C. Lima, M. A. Clark and S. C. Miller.
J Pain Symptom Manage 2019 Mar;57(3):525-534
The nursing home (NH) culture change (CC) movement, which emphasizes person-centered care, is particularly relevant to meeting the unique needs of residents near the end of life. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the NH-reported adoption of person-centered end-of-life culture change (EOL-CC) practices and identify NH characteristics associated with greater adoption. METHODS: We used NH and state policy data for 1358 NHs completing a nationally representative 2016/17 NH Culture Change Survey. An 18-point EOL-CC score was created by summarizing responses from six survey items related to practices for residents who were dying/had died. NHs were divided into quartiles reflecting their EOL-CC score, and multivariable ordered logistic regression was used to identify NH characteristics associated with having higher (quartile) scores. RESULTS: The mean EOL-CC score was 13.7 (SD = 3.0). Correlates of higher scores differed from those previously found for non-EOL-CC practices. Higher NH leadership scores and nonprofit status were consistently associated with higher EOL-CC scores. For example, a three-point leadership score increase was associated with higher odds of an NH performing in the top EOL-CC quartile (odds ratio [OR] = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.82-2.30), whereas for-profit status was associated with lower odds (OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.49-0.90). The availability of palliative care consults was associated with a greater likelihood of EOL-CC scores above the median (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.10-1.93), but not in the top or bottom quartile. CONCLUSION: NH-reported adoption of EOL-CC practices varies, and the presence of palliative care consults in NHs explains only some of this variation. Findings support the importance of evaluating EOL-CC practices separately from other culture change practices.

Reducing the Burden of Complex Medication Regimens: SImplification of Medications Prescribed to Long-tErm care Residents (SIMPLER) Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.
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J. K. Sluggett, E. Y. H. Chen, J. Ilomaki, et al.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2020 Mar 13
To assess the application of a structured process to consolidate the number of medication administration times for residents of aged care facilities. DESIGN: A nonblinded, matched-pair, cluster randomized controlled trial. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Permanent residents who were English-speaking and taking at least 1 regular medication, recruited from 8 South Australian residential aged care facilities (RACFs). METHODS: The intervention involved a clinical pharmacist applying a validated 5-step tool to identify opportunities to reduce medication complexity (eg, by administering medications at the same time or through use of longer-acting or combination formulations). Residents in the comparison group received routine care. The primary outcome at 4-month follow-up was the number of administration times per day for medications charted regularly. Resident satisfaction and quality of life were secondary outcomes. Harms included falls, medication incidents, hospitalizations, and mortality. The association between the intervention and primary outcome was estimated using linear mixed models. RESULTS: Overall, 99 residents participated in the intervention arm and 143 in the comparison arm. At baseline, the mean resident age was 86 years, 74% were female, and medications were taken an average of 4 times daily. Medication simplification was possible for 62 (65%) residents in the intervention arm, with 57 (62%) of 92 simplification recommendations implemented at follow-up. The mean number of administration times at follow-up was reduced in the intervention arm in comparison to usual care (-0.36, 95% confidence interval -0.63 to -0.09, P = .01). No significant changes in secondary outcomes or harms were observed. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: One-off application of a structured tool to reduce regimen complexity is a low-risk intervention to reduce the burden of medication administration in RACFs and may enable staff to shift time to other resident care activities.

Exploring how triads of people living with dementia, carers and health care professionals function in dementia health care: A systematic qualitative review and thematic synthesis.
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R. Tuijt, J. Rees, R. Frost, et al.
Dementia (London) 2020 Mar 25:1471301220915068
Many qualitative studies report the post-diagnostic care experiences of carers and people living with dementia; however, this is not often accompanied by opportunities to hear the corresponding views of their health care professionals and how this triadic relationship functions. The aim of this review was to identify and thematically synthesize the experiences of health care services reported by people living with dementia, their carers and health care professionals. Methods Medline, PsycINFO, Embase and CINAHL were searched from inception to 31 July 2019 for qualitative research including people living with dementia, carers and health care professionals. Data were coded and thematically synthesised using NVivo. Results Of 10,045 search results, 29 papers relating to 27 studies were included in the final synthesis, including 261 people living with dementia, 444 carers and 530 health care professionals. Six themes emerged related to the functioning of a dementia care triad: (1) involving the person living with dementia, (2) establishing expectations of care and the roles of the members of the triad, (3) building trust, (4) effective communication, (5) continuity of care and (6) understanding the unique relationship dynamics within each triad. Discussion The interactions and complexity of triadic dementia care relationships further our understanding of how to improve dementia care. Awareness of possible diverging attitudes highlights areas of necessary improvement and further research into facilitating engagement, such as when multiple professionals are involved or where there are mismatched expectations of the roles of triad members. In order to operate efficiently as a triad member, professionals should be aware of how pre-existing relations can influence the composition of a triad, encourage the involvement of the person living with dementia, clarify the expectations of all parties, establish trusting relationships and enable communication within the direct triad and beyond.

Predictors of hip fractures and mortality in long-term care homes in Saskatchewan: Does vitamin D supplementation play a role?
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S. J. Whiting, W. Li, N. Singh, et al.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2020 Mar 10;200:105654
High rates of hip fracture (HF) in long-term care (LTC) lead to increased hospitalization and greater risk of death. Supplementation of residents with vitamin D3 (vitD) has been recommended, but may be infrequently acted upon. Using a prospective cohort design, we explored use of vitD at doses >/=800 IU for hip fractures (HF) and for mortality among permanent LTC residents in Saskatchewan between 2008 and 2012, using provincial administrative health databases (N=23178). We used stepwise backward regression with Cox proportional hazard multivariate analysis for time to first HF or to death upon entry into LTC (excluding the first three months), the association of daily vitD (determined during the first three months), age, sex, age*sex interaction, prior HF, osteoporosis diagnosis and Charlson Comormidity Score (CCS) was determined. Users of VitD were more likely older, women and those with previous HF. For HF, no significant impact of vitD or CCS was found. Models for mortality, stratified by sex, showed in women only, that vitD use resulted in a significant inverse association with time to death [HR (0.91(0.87-0.96)]; for men it was 0.94(0.88-1.01). The impact of VitD supplementation in LTC deserves further investigation, however, the mechanisms for its effect on mortality remain unclear.


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