June 2, 2020

Calls for Abstracts
Grants & Awards
Events & Training Opportunities


TREC in the news
COVID-19 crisis in nursing homes is a gender crisis

Women are 90 percent of paid staff in long-term care. Gender must be considered during policy-making, and women must have a seat at the table.

New TREC article
Citizen and stakeholder led priority setting for long-term care research: identifying research priorities within the Translating Research in Elder Care (TREC) Program.
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S. A. Chamberlain, C. A. Estabrooks, J. M. Keefe, et al.
Res Involv Engagem 2020 May 15;6:24-020-00199-1. eCollection 2020
The Translating Research in Elder Care (TREC) program is a longitudinal partnered program of research in Western Canada that aims to improve the quality of care and quality of life for residents and quality of worklife for staff in long-term care settings. This program of research includes researchers, citizens (persons living with dementia and caregivers of persons living in long-term care), and stakeholders (representatives from provincial and regional health authorities, owner-operators of long-term care homes). The aim of this paper is to describe how we used priority setting methods with citizens and stakeholders to identify ten priorities for research using the TREC data. METHODS: We adapted the James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership method to ensure our citizens and stakeholders could identify priorities within the existing TREC data. We administered an online survey to our citizen and stakeholder partners. An in-person priority setting workshop was held in March 2019 in Alberta, Canada to establish consensus on ten research priorities. The in-person workshop used a nominal group technique and involved two rounds of small group prioritization and one final full group ranking. RESULTS: We received 72 online survey respondents and 19 persons (citizens, stakeholders) attended the in-person priority setting workshop. The workshop resulted in an unranked list of their ten research priorities for the TREC program. These priorities encompassed a range of non-clinical topics, including: influence of staffing (ratios, type of care provider) on residents and staff work life, influence of the work environment on resident outcomes, and the impact of quality improvement activities on residents and staff. CONCLUSIONS: This modified priority setting approach provided citizens and stakeholders with an opportunity to identify their own research priorities within the TREC program, without the external pressures of researchers. These priorities will inform the secondary analyses of the TREC data and the development of new projects. This modified priority setting may be a useful approach for research teams trying to engage their non-academic partners and to identify areas for future research.

Jim Mann on resident focused LTC
When long-term care is revolutionized, we should learn from people who live with dementia

“Dementia doesn’t take away your ability to be a human … Dementia doesn’t make you stupid, or rob you of your ability to experience joy, to be happy.”

New Article by Anne-Marie Boström,
Effect of Sit-to-Stand Exercises Combined With Protein-Rich Oral Supplementation in Older Persons: The Older Person’s Exercise and Nutrition Study
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Helena Grönstedt, Sofia Vikström, Tommy Cederholm, Erika Franzén , Yvette C. Luiking , Åke Seiger , Anders Wimo, Gerd Faxén-Irving , Anne-Marie Boström
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2020/05
Nursing home (NH) residents are often undernourished and physically inactive, which contributes to sarcopenia and frailty. The Older Person’s Exercise and Nutrition Study aimed to investigate the effects of sit-to-stand exercises (STS) integrated into daily care, combined with a protein-rich oral nutritional supplement (ONS), on physical function, nutritional status, body composition, health-related quality of life, and resource use.; ObjectivesNursing home (NH) residents are often undernourished and physically inactive, which contributes to sarcopenia and frailty. The Older Person’s Exercise and Nutrition Study aimed to investigate the effects of sit-to-stand exercises (STS) integrated into daily care, combined with a protein-rich oral nutritional supplement (ONS), on physical function, nutritional status, body composition, health-related quality of life, and resource use.

New article by Lisa Cranley
Relational influences on experiences with assisted dying: A scoping review.
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C. Variath, E. Peter, L. Cranley, D. Godkin and D. Just.
Nurs Ethics 2020 May 21:969733020921493
Family members and healthcare providers play an integral role in a person’s assisted dying journey. Their own needs during the assisted dying journey are often, however, unrecognized and underrepresented in policies and guidelines. Circumstances under which people choose assisted dying, and relational contexts such as the sociopolitical environment, may influence the experiences of family members and healthcare providers. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: Ethics approval was not required to conduct this review. AIM: This scoping review aims to identify the relational influences on the experiences of family members and healthcare providers of adults who underwent assisted dying and of those unable to access assisted dying due to the loss of capacity to consent. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in four databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and PsycINFO. The search retrieved 12,074 articles, a number narrowed down to 172 articles for full-text screening. Thirty-six articles met the established inclusion criteria. A feminist relational framework guided the data analysis. RESULTS: Five key themes on the influences of family members’ and healthcare providers’ experiences throughout the assisted dying process were synthesized from the data. They include (1) relationships as central to beginning the process, (2) social and political influences on decision making, (3) complex roles and responsibilities of family members and healthcare providers, (4) a unique experience of death, and (5) varying experiences following death. CONCLUSION: The feminist relational lens, used to guide analysis, shed light on the effect of the sociopolitical influences and the relationships among patients, families, and healthcare providers on each other’s experiences. Addressing the needs of the family members and healthcare providers is vital to improving the assisted dying process. Including families’ and healthcare providers’ needs within institutional policies and enhancing collaboration and communication among those involved could improve the overall experience.

Calls for Abstracts

13th Annual Conference On The Science Of Dissemination And Implementation In Health

Washington, D.C. 14-16 December
The Annual Conference on the Science of Dissemination and Implementation in Health (D&I), co-hosted by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and AcademyHealth, helps realize the full potential of evidence to optimize health and health care by bridging the gap between research, practice, and policy. By outlining the priorities in the field, the Science of D&I Conference aims to ensure that evidence is used to inform decisions that will improve the health of individuals and communities.


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Grants & Awards

CIHR EU Joint Programming Initiative – More Years, Better Lives (JPI MYBL)

DEADLINE 14 September
Major demographic change is taking place internationally, potentially increasing inequality and altering the relationship between generations. By providing an opportunity for European and Canadian transnational collaboration, this call seeks to enhance our understanding of the effects of demographic change on the contract between generations and on societal inequalities.
This Call 2020 “Equality and Wellbeing across Generations” aims to support policy in reducing inequality in the face of demographic change. The Call seeks proposals for research which will improve our understanding of how demographic change is altering the implicit contract between generations and how policy can ensure that change reduces inequality instead of increasing it. Specifically, the Call deals with three aspects of inequality :Income and wealth: extending working life changes the distribution of income and wealth between generations. Income in later life is very unevenly distributed on the basis of previous employment, earnings, and the structure of different pension systems and different patterns of housing tenure. Changes in the costs of social care and the time people spend longer in retirement are affecting patterns of intergenerational inheritance.Caring responsibilities: a high proportion of older people (particularly, but not exclusively women) undertake caring responsibilities for parents, children or partners. Caring can be emotionally rewarding, but can also seriously damage the mental and physical health of the carer, as well as diminish their employment opportunities.Social and political participation: in many countries older people are more likely than young people to participate in formal political processes. However, their interests and concerns may still be underrepresented in political decision making. Older people are also more vulnerable to social isolation and loneliness. Their sense of identity and security can also be challenged as neighbourhoods change, becoming younger, or possibly poorer.

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COVID-19 and Long Term Care
Health Care Administration and Organization
Health Care Innovation and Quality Assurance
Organizational Culture and Change
Research Practice and Methodology

COVID-19 and Long Term Care

Collection of articles on COVID and LTC is available here

Overcoming the Challenge of Family Separation from Nursing Home Residents during COVID-19
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Marcus D. Ruopp.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2020/05.
This is one of many reasons it has been a challenging month in the 112 bed skilled nursing facility where I am the Medical Director. To address the spread of COVID-19, we have restricted access, halted visitation of families, discarded communal dining along with recreational activities and group therapy, and implemented reflex testing of patients and staff. And, not surprisingly, with this has come understandable uncertainty, regarding our patients, our staff, our nursing home, and our future. The degree of concern is obvious throughout.

Covid-19: Decisions to offer interventions with limited availability should be decided based on chance of recovery
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Pasquale Gallina, Marco Ricci and Marcello Pera.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2020/05.
We read with interest the paper by Cesari and Proietti1 3 entitled “COVID-19 in Italy: ageism and decision making in a pandemic”, which rejects a priori discrimination of aged people in access to care. The issue is particularly relevant in a time when a large number of elderly subjects, who lived in nursing homes, died following were infection by Covid-19 patients who were transferred to the facilities due to an insufficiency of hospitals beds.

Providing simultaneous COVID-19-sensitive and dementia-sensitive care as we transition from crisis care to ongoing care
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Marco Canevelli, Giuseppe Bruno, Cesari and Matteo .
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2020/05.
From a public health perspective, one of the main challenges that healthcare systems will probably face is how to progressively move from a COVID-19-centric organization (built up for combating the emergency) to models of care that reflect the “ordinary” health needs of the population.

Essential Family Caregivers in Long-term Care during the COVID-19 Pandemic
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Jeffrey D. Schlaudecker.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2020/05
In the months stretching out ahead of us in the prevention of COVID-19, we must keep our residents safe from the risk of circulating virus, but we also must promote person-centered geriatric care allowing family presence as essential care partners.

COVOID-19 and Long-Term Care Policy for Older People in Canada.
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D. Beland and P. Marier.
J Aging Soc Policy 2020 May 18:1-7
Older people are especially vulnerable to COVID-19, including and especially people living in long-term care facilities. In this Perspective, we discuss the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on long-term care policy in Canada. More specifically, we use the example of recent developments in Quebec, where a tragedy in a specific facility is acting as a dramatic “focusing event”. It draws attention to the problems facing long-term care facilities, considering existing policy legacies and the opening of a “policy window” that may facilitate comprehensive reforms in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Clinical Presentation of COVID19 in Dementia Patients.
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A. Bianchetti, R. Rozzini, F. Guerini, et al.
J Nutr Health Aging 2020 May 15:1-3
No studies analyzing the role of dementia as a risk factor for mortality in patients affected by COVID-19. We assessed the prevalence, clinical presentation and outcomes of dementia among subjects hospitalized for COVID19 infection. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: COVID wards in Acute Hospital in Brescia province, Northern Italy. PARTICIPANTS: We used data from 627 subjects admitted to Acute Medical wards with COVID 19 pneumonia. MEASUREMENTS: Clinical records of each patients admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of COVID19 infection were retrospectively analyzed. Diagnosis of dementia, modalities of onset of the COVID-19 infection, symptoms of presentation at the hospital and outcomes were recorded. RESULTS: Dementia was diagnosed in 82 patients (13.1%). The mortality rate was 62.2% (51/82) among patients affected by dementia compared to 26.2% (143/545) in subjects without dementia (p<0.001, Chi-Squared test). In a logistic regression model age, and the diagnosis of dementia resulted independently associated with a higher mortality, and patients diagnosed with dementia presented an OR of 1.84 (95% CI: 1.09-3.13, p<0.05). Among patients diagnosed with dementia the most frequent symptoms of onset were delirium, especially in the hypoactive form, and worsening of the functional status. CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of dementia, especially in the most advanced stages, represents an important risk factor for mortality in COVID-19 patients. The clinical presentation of COVID-19 in subjects with dementia is atypical, reducing early recognition of symptoms and hospitalization.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is penetrating to dementia research.
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M. Bostanciklioglu.
Curr Neurovasc Res 2020 May 22
1. Introduction Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19), which was first reported in Wuhan, China, in late December, 2019. Despite the tremendous efforts to control the disease, SARS-CoV-2 has infected 1,5 million people and caused the death of more than a hundred thousand people across the globe as of writing. Recently, Mao et al. [1] investigated the penetration potential of SARS-CoV-2 into the central nervous system in 214 patients. They reported that 36.4% of the patients had some neurologic findings which are ranged from nonspecific manifestations, e.g., dizziness, headache, and seizure, to specific manifestations, e.g., loss of sense of smell or taste, and stroke. Whether these common symptoms in their patients are related to SARS-CoV-2 infection is not known. However, it is important to mention here that dramatic neurologic symptoms, i.e., depressed level of consciousness, seizure, and stroke, are common in the patients at the late stage of the disease, accounting for increased mortality rate in severely affected patients. Nevertheless, to objectively delve into the direct relation between the neurologic symptoms and COVID-19, medical comorbidities of patients should also be considered [2]. Further studies are needed because we are in the midst of an ongoing pandemic of COVID-19, and neurologists may be confronted with new-onset neurologic symptoms owing to COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 penetrates via human angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 receptor (ACE-2) that was also utilized by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS CoV) [3]. Glial cells and neurons have been reported to express ACE-2 receptors, which make them a potential target of COVID-19. It was indicated that SARS CoV causes neuronal death by invading the brain via olfactory epithelium [4]. The electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and real-time reverse transcription- PCR findings have corroborated the presence of SARS-CoV in the brain tissue [4] and cerebrospinal fluid [5]. Together, it can be speculated that SARS-CoV-2 can affect the brain by penetrating the brain via the cribriform plate, which can account for the early findings of the COVID-19 like altered sense of smell or hyposmia. Because SARS-CoV-2 causes severe respiratory symptoms in people aged 60 years and older, it has important implications for patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) [6]. Therefore, in the countries that have taken action to the virus, clinic studies of AD have been stopped to protect the patients. However, rigorous quarantine of elders has aborted clinic trials and experimental studies conducted with transgenic animals. Transgenic models are quite expensive; the loss of these animals has costly consequences. There is no doubt that this storm will stop, but its catastrophic effects on dementia research will continue for a time. Thus, dementia researchers and pharmaceutical companies should determine an emergency action plan to exit the chaos of this pandemic. Here, we listed some challenges in dementia research during the COVID-19 outbreak and table some suggestions. All countries try to control SARS-CoV-2 by social distancing. Therefore, neurology clinics were closed, and routine examination of Alzheimer’s patients was stopped. However, the lockdown of patients with AD caused clinical studies to stop. which has severely affected dementia research. Additionally, the arrest of experimental studies due to the closing of universities in two hundred countries also deprives experimental achievements. The closing of universities may lead to data loss, death of expensive transgenic animals, international researchers to be faced with visa problems, and be lost the laboratory staff whose contract has expired [7]. It is impossible that forecasting when this COVID-19 pandemic will end is impossible and thus, it is essential that a solution be developed to continue dementia studies on Alzheimer’s patients. Remote monitoring of the patients with the use of technology is in the lead of possible solutions. Clinicians can continue to follow their patients by telemedicine [8], but extended lockdown of patients may cause depression in both patients and their caregivers [9]. It is also known that movement restriction exacerbates AD symptoms [10]. The monitorization of the patient in this condition with telemedicine would not provide objective data. In addition, when patients living in rural areas are considered, it will not be a surprise that reaching equally all patients is impossible. Therefore, a collective action plan protecting dementia research during the COVID-19 outbreak should be prepared by a consortium of pharmaceutical companies, researchers, clinicians, and patients. Data loss is in the lead of expected problems during the COVID-19 outbreak. For example, the planned ending dates of phase 2/3 trials of gantenerumab (Roche) and solanezumab (Lilly) were missed [11]. It is highly essential that patients be monitored from their homes with telemedicine to protect them. Nonetheless, it is not sufficient for the continuation of clinical trials and experimental studies. We suggest that patients of phase trails should be isolated in fully-equipped nursing homes managed by qualified personnel. In this way, the patients can be more effectively protected from SARS-CoV-2 and the depression caused by the lockdown.Young family members going out for basic needs could infect older family members. Also, patients with AD pay less attention to hand hygiene, which makes them more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, cats have recently been shown to be infected by SARS-CoV-2 [12]. Patients with AD may not follow directions of neurologists on telemedicine and thus, the interaction of Alzheimer’s patients with pets can cause a dangerous scenario. Consequently, the lockdown of patients with dementia in their homes might not be an appropriate exit strategy for the future of dementia research. On the other hand, it is important to mention here that the nursing home capacity of the United States may not be sufficient for 5,8 million Alzheimer’s patients aged 65 years and older [13]. Thus, we highlight that only the patients involved in the clinic trails should be followed in the nursing homes. The other patients can be monitored with telemedicine from their homes. The data will hardly be lost in patients isolated in nursing homes. In this strategy, secondary risk factors affecting the clinic trails like depression are also removed. The motivations of clinicians and researchers is as important as the patients in the catastrophic atmosphere of the outbreak. Governments, media, and funders can support the motivations of clinicians and researchers. For example, research funders and pharmaceutical companies can extend project deadlines and provide an additional promotion to the researchers who have completed their clinic trails. Consequently, a global action plan should be prepared to block SARS-CoV-2 penetration to dementia research. At first glance, it may be thought that the most appropriate strategy for patients with dementia is social isolation in their homes during the outbreak as in healthy young people and elders. However, we suggest that isolating patients with dementia in fully-equipped nursing homes can be a more appropriate exit strategy for the protection of dementia patients and research.

Optimizing Medication Management During the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Implementation Guide for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care.
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N. Brandt and M. A. Steinman.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2020 May 19
Post-Acute and Long-Term Care (PA-LTC) facilities provide care to frail and vulnerable older adults. Resources, staffing and training support are limited and turnover is high during average times. The COVID-19 pandemic has illustrated how fragile and under resourced this setting of care is globally. The CDC National Center for Health Statistics estimated from Feb 1, 2020 to April 25, 2020 a total of 6723 out of 37308 COVID-19 deaths (18%) occurred in nursing homes and long-term care facilties, and in several states such facilities account for more than half of all COVID-19 deaths. Unfortunately, number is an underestimation due to variability in nursing home testing capabilities and reporting until action was taken on April 19, 2020. It seems every day that there is a new case of an outbreak in a PA-LTC site and continued confusion as well as concerns on how best to manage this extraordinary challenge. In this commentary we describe the rationale and content highlights of an implementation guide to improve medication management in PA-LTC settings during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Epidemiology of and Risk Factors for Coronavirus Infection in Health Care Workers.
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R. Chou, T. Dana, D. I. Buckley, S. Selph, R. Fu and A. M. Totten.
Ann Intern Med 2020 May 5
Health care workers (HCWs) are at risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. PURPOSE: To examine the burden of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, and Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV on HCWs and risk factors for infection, using rapid and living review methods. DATA SOURCES: Multiple electronic databases including the WHO Database of Publications on Coronavirus Disease and medRxiv preprint server (2003 through 27 March 2020, with ongoing surveillance through 24 April 2020), and reference lists. STUDY SELECTION: Studies published in any language reporting incidence of or outcomes associated with coronavirus infections in HCWs and studies on the association between risk factors (demographic characteristics, role, exposures, environmental and administrative factors, and personal protective equipment [PPE] use) and HCW infections. New evidence will be incorporated on an ongoing basis by using living review methods. DATA EXTRACTION: One reviewer abstracted data and assessed methodological limitations; verification was done by a second reviewer. DATA SYNTHESIS: 64 studies met inclusion criteria; 43 studies addressed burden of HCW infections (15 on SARS-CoV-2), and 34 studies addressed risk factors (3 on SARS-CoV-2). Health care workers accounted for a significant proportion of coronavirus infections and may experience particularly high infection incidence after unprotected exposures. Illness severity was lower than in non-HCWs. Depression, anxiety, and psychological distress were common in HCWs during the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak. The strongest evidence on risk factors was on PPE use and decreased infection risk. The association was most consistent for masks but was also observed for gloves, gowns, eye protection, and handwashing; evidence suggested a dose-response relationship. No study evaluated PPE reuse. Certain exposures (such as involvement in intubations, direct patient contact, or contact with bodily secretions) were associated with increased infection risk. Infection control training was associated with decreased risk. LIMITATION: There were few studies on risk factors for SARS-CoV-2, the studies had methodological limitations, and streamlined rapid review methods were used. CONCLUSION: Health care workers experience significant burdens from coronavirus infections, including SARS-CoV-2. Use of PPE and infection control training are associated with decreased infection risk, and certain exposures are associated with increased risk. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: World Health Organization.

Telemedicine in nursing homes during the COVID ‐19 outbreak: A star is born (again)
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C. Cormi, J. Chrusciel, D. Laplanche, M. Dramé and S. Sanchez.
Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020 May 27
Nursing home residents represent a particularly vulnerable group. In this regard, information and communication technologies should be an indispensable part of the public health armamentarium

COVID-19 and the Fears of Italian Senior Citizens.
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D. de Leo and M. Trabucchi.
Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 May 20;17(10):E3572. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17103572
Italy has been hit very hard by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. This brief report highlights some of the peculiarities manifested by its older adult population, with particular reference to those living in nursing institutions and at home. Mortality data (as of 26 April) are reported, together with reactions to forced isolation, loneliness, and fear of contracting the disease, which represent big challenges for all, especially for frail elderly people.

Universal and Serial Laboratory Testing for SARS-CoV-2 at a Long-Term Care Skilled Nursing Facility for Veterans – Los Angeles, California, 2020.
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A. V. Dora, A. Winnett, L. P. Jatt, et al.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 May 29;69(21):651-655
On March 28, 2020, two residents of a long-term care skilled nursing facility (SNF) at the Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System (VAGLAHS) had positive test results for SARS-CoV-2, the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing of nasopharyngeal specimens collected on March 26 and March 27. During March 29-April 23, all SNF residents, regardless of symptoms, underwent serial (approximately weekly) nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing, and positive results were communicated to the county health department. All SNF clinical and nonclinical staff members were also screened for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR during March 29-April 10. Nineteen of 99 (19%) residents and eight of 136 (6%) staff members had positive test results for SARS-CoV-2 during March 28-April 10; no further resident cases were identified on subsequent testing on April 13, April 22, and April 23. Fourteen of the 19 residents with COVID-19 were asymptomatic at the time of testing. Among these residents, eight developed symptoms 1-5 days after specimen collection and were later classified as presymptomatic; one of these patients died. This report describes an outbreak of COVID-19 in an SNF, with case identification accomplished by implementing several rounds of RT-PCR testing, permitting rapid isolation of both symptomatic and asymptomatic residents with COVID-19. The outbreak was successfully contained following implementation of this strategy.

COVID-19 and the Future of Long-Term Care: The Urgency of Enhanced Federal Financing
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J. Feder.
J Aging Soc Policy 2020 May 22:1-8
The economic threat posed by responses to COVID 19 endangers financing for long-term care across the states that is already inadequate and inequitable. Increasing the federal share of Medicaid spending as unemployment rises would mitigate fiscal pressure on states and preserve public services. But unlike the demand for Medicaid’s health care protections, which rises when economic activity declines, the demand for long-term care protections will grow even in a healthy economy as the population ages. Enhanced federal support is urgent not only to cope with the virus today but also to meet the long-term care needs of the nation’s aging population in the years to come. Long-term care financing policy should be modified to either adjust federal matching funds by the age of each state’s population, or fully federalize the funding of LTC expenses of Medicaid beneficiaries who are also eligible for Medicare.

Not Wasting a Crisis: How Geriatrics Clinical Research can Remain Engaged during COVID-19.
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E. F. Goh, C. N. Tan, K. Pek, S. Leong, W. C. Wong and W. S. Lim.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2020 May 18
In this letter, we share our 3Rs perspective of how we remain engaged as a geriatrics clinical research institute during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Nursing Home Care in Crisis in the Wake of COVID-19.
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D. C. Grabowski and V. Mor.
JAMA 2020 May 22
COVID-19 has exposed long-standing issues in how nursing home services are structured and financed.

Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic, Meaningful Communication between Family Caregivers and Residents of Long-Term Care Facilities is Imperative.
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E. Hado and L. Friss Feinberg.
J Aging Soc Policy 2020 May 22:1-6
Older adults residing in long-term care facilities are especially vulnerable for severe illness or death from COVID-19. To contain the transmission of the virus in long-term care facilities, federal health officials have issued strict visitation guidelines, restricting most visits between residents and all visitors, including family members. Yet, many older adults rely on family care for social support and to maintain their health, well-being, and safety in long-term care facilities, and therefore need to stay connected to their families. The federal government, state and local leaders, and long-term care facilities should take further actions to enable the relationship between residents of long-term care facilities and families during the COVID-19 pandemic.

A Framework for Aging-Friendly Services and Supports in the Age of COVID-19
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G. J. Hoffman, N. J. Webster and J. P. W. Bynum.
J Aging Soc Policy 2020 May 22:1-10
COVID-19 has revealed gaps in services and supports for older adults, even as needs for health and social services have dramatically increased and may produce a cascade of disability after the pandemic subsides. In this essay, we discuss the perfect storm of individual and environmental risk factors, including deconditioning, reductions in formal and informal care support, and social isolation. We then evaluate opportunities that have arisen for strengthening person-centered services and supports for older adults, through in-home acute and primary medical care, aggressive use of video telehealth and social interaction, and implementation of volunteer or paid intergenerational service.

Achieving Safe, Effective, and Compassionate Quarantine or Isolation of Older Adults With Dementia in Nursing Homes.
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A. Iaboni, A. Cockburn, M. Marcil, et al.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2020 May 4
Nursing homes are facing the rapid spread of COVID-19 among residents and staff and are at the centre of the public health emergency due to the COVID-19 pandemic. As policy changes and interventions designed to support nursing homes are put into place, there are barriers to implementing a fundamental, highly effective element of infection control, namely the isolation of suspected or confirmed cases. Many nursing home residents have dementia, associated with impairments in memory, language, insight, and judgment that impact their ability to understand and appreciate the necessity of isolation and to voluntarily comply with isolation procedures. While there is a clear ethical and legal basis for the involuntary confinement of people with dementia, the potential for unintended harm with these interventions is high, and there is little guidance for nursing homes on how to isolate safely, while maintaining the human dignity and personhood of the individual with dementia. In this commentary, we discuss strategies for effective, safe, and compassionate isolation care planning, and present a case vignette of a person with dementia who is placed in quarantine on a dementia unit.

International COVID-19 palliative care guidance for nursing homes leaves key themes unaddressed.
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G. Joni, P. Lara, T. Unroe Kathleen and V. D. B. Lieve.
J Pain Symptom Manage 2020 May 10
COVID-19 mortality disproportionally affects nursing homes, creating enormous pressures to deliver high-quality end-of-life care. Comprehensive palliative care should be an explicit part of both national and global COVID-19 response plans. Therefore, we aimed to identify, review and compare national and international COVID-19 guidance for nursing homes concerning palliative care, issued by government bodies and professional associations. We performed a directed documentary and content analysis of newly developed or adapted COVID-19 guidance documents from across the world. Documents were collected via expert consultation and independently screened against pre-specified eligibility criteria. We applied thematic analysis and narrative synthesis techniques. We identified 21 eligible documents covering both nursing homes and palliative care; from the World Health Organization (n=3), and eight individual countries: USA (n=7), the Netherlands (n=2), Ireland (n=1), United Kingdom (n=3), Switzerland (n=3), New Zealand (n=1), Belgium (n=1). International documents focused primarily on infection prevention and control, including only a few sentences on palliative care related topics. Palliative care themes most frequently mentioned across documents were end-of-life visits, advance care planning documentation, and clinical decision-making towards the end of life (focusing on hospital transfers). There is a dearth of comprehensive international COVID-19 guidance on palliative care for nursing homes. Most have a limited focus both regarding breadth of topics and recommendations made. Key aspects of palliative care, i.e. symptom management, staff education and support, referral to specialist services or hospice, and family support, need greater attention in future guidelines.

Nursing homes and the elderly regarding the COVID-19 pandemic: situation report from Hungary.
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G. Kemenesi, L. Kornya, G. E. Toth, et al.
Geroscience 2020 May 18:1-7
The global impact of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is significant in terms of public health effects and its long-term socio-economic implications. Among all social groups, the elderly is by far the most affected age group regarding morbidity and mortality. In multiple countries spanning several continents, there are an increasing number of reports referencing the novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) spread among nursing homes. These areas are now recognized as potent hotspots regarding the pandemic, which one considers with special regard. Herein, we present currently available data of fatal COVID-19 cases throughout Hungary, along with the analysis of the co-morbidity network. We also report on viral genomic data originating from a nursing home resident. The genomic data was used for viral haplotype network analysis. We emphasize the urgent need for public health authorities to focus on nursing homes and residential service units worldwide, especially in the care of the elderly and infirmed. Our results further emphasize the recent statement released by the World Health Organization (WHO) regarding the vulnerability among seniors and especially the high risk of COVID-19 emergence throughout nursing and social homes.

Is social connectedness a risk factor for the spreading of COVID-19 among older adults? The Italian paradox.
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G. Liotta, M. C. Marazzi, S. Orlando and L. Palombi.
PLoS One 2020 May 21;15(5):e0233329
Italy was one of the first European countries affected by the new coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, with over 105,000 infected people and close to 13,000 deaths, until March 31st. The pandemic has hit especially hard because of the country’s demographic structure, with a high percentage of older adults. The authors explore the possibility, recently aired in some studies, of extensive intergenerational contact as a possible determinant of the severity of the pandemic among the older Italian adults. We analyzed several variables to test this hypothesis, such as the percentage of infected patients aged >80 years, available nursing home beds, COVID-19 incidence rate, and the number of days from when the number of positive tests exceeded 50 (epidemic maturity). We also included in the analysis mean household size and percentage of households comprising one person, in the region. Paradoxically, the results are opposite of what was previously reported. The pandemic was more severe in regions with higher family fragmentation and increased availability of residential health facilities.

Psychological Well-being among Older Adults during the Covid-19 Outbreak: a Comparative Study of the Young-Old and the Old-Old Adults.
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J. Lopez, G. Perez-Rojo, C. Noriega, et al.
Int Psychogeriatr 2020 May 22:1-17
The COVID-19 outbreak could be considered as an uncontrollable stressful life event. Lockdown measures have provoked a disruption of daily life with a great impact over older adults´ health and well-being. Nevertheless, eudaimonic well-being plays a protective role in confronting adverse circumstances, such as the COVID-19 situation. This study aims to assess the association between age and psychological well-being (personal growth and purpose in life). Young-old (60-70 years) and Old-old (71 to 80 years) community-dwelling Spaniards (N = 878) completed a survey and reported on their sociodemographic characteristics and their levels of health, COVID-19 stress-related, appraisal and personal resources. Old-old did not evidence poorer psychological well-being than young-old. Age has only a negative impact on personal growth. The results also suggest that the nature of the COVID-19 impact (except for the loss of a loved one) may not be as relevant for the older adults’ well-being as their appraisals and personal resources for managing COVID-related problems. In addition, these results suggest that some sociodemographic and health-related variables have an impact on older adults’ well-being. Thus, perceived-health, family functioning, resilience, gratitude and acceptance had significant associations with both personal growth and purpose in life. Efforts to address older adults’ psychological well-being focusing on older adults’ personal resources should be considered.

Outbreak Investigation of COVID-19 Among Residents and Staff of an Independent and Assisted Living Community for Older Adults in Seattle, Washington.
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A. C. Roxby, A. L. Greninger, K. M. Hatfield, et al.
JAMA Intern Med 2020 May 21
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused epidemic spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the Seattle, Washington, metropolitan area, with morbidity and mortality concentrated among residents of skilled nursing facilities. The prevalence of COVID-19 among older adults in independent/assisted living is not understood. OBJECTIVES: To conduct surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 and describe symptoms of COVID-19 among residents and staff of an independent/assisted living community. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In March 2020, public health surveillance of staff and residents was conducted on site at an assisted and independent living residence for older adults in Seattle, Washington, after exposure to 2 residents who were hospitalized with COVID-19. EXPOSURES: Surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 infection in a congregate setting implementing social isolation and infection prevention protocols. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: SARS-CoV-2 real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed on nasopharyngeal swabs from residents and staff; a symptom questionnaire was completed assessing fever, cough, and other symptoms for the preceding 14 days. Residents were retested for SARS-CoV-2 7 days after initial screening. RESULTS: Testing was performed on 80 residents; 62 were women (77%), with mean age of 86 (range, 69-102) years. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 3 of 80 residents (3.8%); none felt ill, 1 male resident reported resolved cough and 1 loose stool during the preceding 14 days. Virus was also detected in 2 of 62 staff (3.2%); both were symptomatic. One week later, resident SARS-CoV-2 testing was repeated and 1 new infection detected (asymptomatic). All residents remained in isolation and were clinically stable 14 days after the second test. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic residents highlights challenges in protecting older adults living in congregate settings. In this study, symptom screening failed to identify residents with infections and all 4 residents with SARS-CoV-2 remained asymptomatic after 14 days. Although 1 asymptomatic infection was found on retesting, a widespread facility outbreak was avoided. Compared with skilled nursing settings, in assisted/independent living communities, early surveillance to identify asymptomatic persons among residents and staff, in combination with adherence to recommended preventive strategies, may reduce viral spread.

COVID-19: The Italian Viral “Gerocide” of the 21 st Century.
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A. Servello and E. Ettorre.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2020 May 13;89:104111
Italy is one of the longest-lived countries in the world and, during the New-Coronavirus pandemic, one of the most affected countries in Europe and with the highest number of deaths. Always proud to have the class of older-people amongst the best performing ever, we suddenly found ourselves plunged in a world in which everything we had built was totally subverted and cancelled.

A Hospital Partnership with a Nursing Home Experiencing a COVID-19 Outbreak: Description of a Multi-Phase Emergency Response in Toronto, Canada.
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N. M. Stall, C. Farquharson, C. Fan-Lun, et al.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2020 May 22
Nursing homes have become “ground zero” for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in North America, with homes experiencing widespread outbreaks resulting in severe morbidity and mortality among its residents. This manuscript describes a 371-bed acute care hospital’s emergency response to a 126-bed nursing home experiencing a COVID-19 outbreak in Toronto, Canada. Like other health care system responses to COVID-19 outbreaks in nursing homes, this hospital-nursing home partnership can be characterized in several phases: 1) engagement, relationship and trust-building; 2) environmental scan, team-building and immediate response; 3) early phase response; and 4) stabilization and transition period. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Comment on: Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Geriatrics and Long-Term Care: The ABCDs of COVID-19.
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P. A. Wachholz and A. F. Jacinto.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2020 May 11
More than 160,000 older adults live in LTCFs in Latin American and the Caribbean. In Brazil, more than 65% of LTCFs are nonprofits, mostly run by philanthropic entities, and the average monthly expenditure per resident in Brazilian institutions is US$170, which is extremely low even for Brazilian standards. Unfortunately, we barely identify the few LTCFs that receive any kind of support by local health units and the Brazilian public health system itself.

Long-Term Care Policy after Covid-19 – Solving the Nursing Home Crisis.
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R. M. Werner, A. K. Hoffman and N. B. Coe.
N Engl J Med 2020 May 27
Nursing homes have been caught in the crosshairs of the coronavirus pandemic. As of early May 2020, Covid-19 had claimed the lives of more than 28,000 nursing home residents and staff in the United States.1 But U.S. nursing homes were unstable even before Covid-19 hit. They were like tinderboxes, ready to go up in flames with just a spark. The tragedy unfolding in nursing homes is the result of decades of neglect of long-term care policy.

Mortality in Older Patients with Covid-19.
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H. L. Zhao, Y. M. Huang and Y. Huang.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2020 May 25
In hospital mortality rate is much higher than case fatality rate (CFR).

Ethical guidance for people who work in long-term care: What is the right thing to do in a pandemic?

Dementia Isolation Toolkit Working Group, 2020
COVID-19 is a contagious illness. This means that it spreads rapidly from one person to another. The COVID-19 pandemic is raising a lot of questions about the right things to do in many different situations at work and at home. The stress associated with these new and scary situations can make it hard to make decisions. A framework can help you think through these situations and make the best possible decisions for you and the residents you care for. We all have a role to play in responding to the pandemic and our actions have an impact on many other people. We hope that this guide will help you to decide what are the best actions to take.

For-profit nursing homes and the risk of COVID-19 outbreaks and resident deaths in Ontario, Canada. [Pre-Print]

Nathan M. Stall, Aaron Jones, Kevin A. Brown, Paula A. Rochon and Andrew P. Costa.
medRxiv 2020
Nursing homes have become the epicentre of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Canada. Previous research demonstrates that for-profit nursing homes deliver inferior care across a variety of outcome and process measures, raising the question of whether for-profit homes have had worse COVID-19 outcomes than non-profit homes. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all nursing homes in Ontario, Canada from March 29-May 20, 2020 using a COVID-19 outbreak database maintained by the Ontario Ministry of Long-Term Care. We used hierarchical logistic and count-based methods to model the associations between nursing home profit status (for-profit, non-profit or municipal) and nursing home COVID-19 outbreaks, COVID-19 outbreak sizes, and COVID-19 resident deaths. Results: The analysis included all 623 Ontario nursing homes, of which 360 (57.7\%) were for-profit, 162 (26.0\%) were non-profit, and 101 (16.2\%) were municipal homes. There were 190 (30.5\%) COVID-19 nursing home outbreaks involving 5218 residents (mean of 27.5 +/- 41.3 residents per home), resulting in 1452 deaths (mean of 7.6 +/- 12.7 residents per home) with an overall case fatality rate of 27.8\%. The odds of a COVID-19 outbreak was associated with the incidence of COVID-19 in the health region surrounding a nursing home (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.94; 95\% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-3.09) and number of beds (aOR, 1.40; 95\% CI 1.20-1.63), but not profit status. For-profit status was associated with both the size of a nursing home outbreak (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 1.96; 95\% CI 1.26-3.05) and the number of resident deaths (aRR, 1.78; 95\% CI 1.03-3.07), compared to non-profit homes. These associations were mediated by a higher prevalence of older nursing home design standards in for-profit homes. Interpretation: For-profit status is associated with the size of a COVID-19 nursing home outbreak and the number of resident deaths, but not the likelihood of outbreaks. Differences between for profit and non-profit homes are largely explained by older design standards, which should be a focus of infection control efforts and future policy.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.Funding StatementThis work was not funded.Author DeclarationsI confirm all relevant ethical guidelines have been followed, and any necessary IRB and/or ethics committee approvals have been obtained.YesThe details of the IRB/oversight body that provided approval or exemption for the research described are given below:The study was approved by the Research Ethics Board of the University of Toronto as well as the Hamilton Integrated Research Ethics Board.All necessary patient/participant consent has been obtained and the appropriate institutional forms have been archived.YesI understand that all clinical trials and any other prospective interventional studies must be registered with an ICMJE-approved registry, such as ClinicalTrials.gov. I confirm that any such study reported in the manuscript has been registered and the trial registration ID is provided (note: if posting a prospective study registered retrospectively, please provide a statement in the trial ID field explaining why the study was not registered in advance).Yes I have followed all appropriate research reporting guidelines and uploaded the relevant EQUATOR Network research reporting checklist(s) and other pertinent material as supplementary files, if applicable.YesThe underlying analytic code are available from the authors upon request (e-mail, nathan.stall@sinaihealth.ca), understanding that the computer programs may rely upon coding templates or macros that are unique and are therefore either inaccessible or may require modification.

SARS-CoV-2 infection, clinical features and outcome of COVID-19 in United Kingdom nursing homes. [Pre-Print]

Neil SN Graham, Cornelia Junghans, Rawlda Downes, et al.
medRxiv 2020


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A pragmatic method for costing implementation strategies using time-driven activity-based costing.
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Z. Cidav, D. Mandell, J. Pyne, R. Beidas, G. Curran and S. Marcus.
Implement Sci 2020 May 5;15(1):28-020-00993-1
Implementation strategies increase the adoption of evidence-based practices, but they require resources. Although information about implementation costs is critical for decision-makers with budget constraints, cost information is not typically reported in the literature. This is at least partly due to a need for clearly defined, standardized costing methods that can be integrated into implementation effectiveness evaluation efforts. METHODS: We present a pragmatic approach to systematically estimating detailed, specific resource use and costs of implementation strategies that combine time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC), a business accounting method based on process mapping and known for its practicality, with a leading implementation science framework developed by Proctor and colleagues, which guides specification and reporting of implementation strategies. We illustrate the application of this method using a case study with synthetic data. RESULTS: This step-by-step method produces a clear map of the implementation process by specifying the names, actions, actors, and temporality of each implementation strategy; determining the frequency and duration of each action associated with individual strategies; and assigning a dollar value to the resources that each action consumes. The method provides transparent and granular cost estimation, allowing a cost comparison of different implementation strategies. The resulting data allow researchers and stakeholders to understand how specific components of an implementation strategy influence its overall cost. CONCLUSION: TDABC can serve as a pragmatic method for estimating resource use and costs associated with distinct implementation strategies and their individual components. Our use of the Proctor framework for the process mapping stage of the TDABC provides a way to incorporate cost estimation into implementation evaluation and may reduce the burden associated with economic evaluations in implementation science.

Mentored training and its association with dissemination and implementation research output: a quasi-experimental evaluation.
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R. R. Jacob, A. Gacad, M. Padek, et al.
Implement Sci 2020 May 11;15(1):30-020-00994-0
There is a continued need to evaluate training programs in dissemination and implementation (D&I) research. Scientific products yielded from trainees are an important and objective measure to understand the capacity growth within the D&I field. This study evaluates our mentored training program in terms of scientific productivity among applicants. METHODS: Post-doctoral and early-career cancer researchers were recruited and applied to the R25 Mentored Training for Dissemination and Implementation Research in Cancer (MT-DIRC) between 2014 and 2017. Using application details and publicly available bibliometric and funding data, we compared selected fellows with unsuccessful applicants (nonfellows). We extracted Scopus citations and US federal grant funding records for all applicants (N = 102). Funding and publication abstracts were de-identified and coded for D&I focus and aggregated to the applicant level for analysis. Logistic regression models were explored separately for the odds of (1) a D&I publication and (2) US federal grant funding post year of application among fellows (N = 55) and nonfellows (N = 47). Additional models were constructed to include independent variables that attenuated the program’s association by 5% or more. Only US-based applicants (N = 87) were included in the grant funding analysis. RESULTS: Fellows and nonfellows were similar across several demographic characteristics. Fellows were more than 3 times more likely than nonfellows to have grant funding after MT-DIRC application year (OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.1-11.0) while controlling for time since application year; the association estimate was 3.1 (95% CI 0.98-11.0) after adjusting for both cancer research area and previous grant funding. For publications, fellows were almost 4 times more likely to publish D&I-focused work adjusting for time (OR 3.8; 95% CI 1.7-9.0). This association lessened after adjusting for previous D&I publication and years since undergraduate degree (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.2-7.5). CONCLUSIONS: We document the association of a mentored training approach with built-in networks of peers to yield productive D&I researchers. Future evaluation efforts could be expanded to include other forms of longer-term productivity such as policy or practice change as additional objective measures. D&I research trainings in the USA and internationally should consider common evaluation measures.

Engaging knowledge users in a systematic review on the comparative effectiveness of geriatrician-led models of care is possible: A cross-sectional survey using the Patient Engagement Evaluation Tool.
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C. Soobiah, S. E. Straus, G. Manley, et al.
J Clin Epidemiol 2019 Sep;113:58-63
A systematic review (SR) was conducted to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of geriatrician-led models of care, and an integrated knowledge translation (iKT) approach facilitated SR relevance. Activities to engage knowledge users (KUs) in the SR were evaluated for perceived level of engagement. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: KUs included patients, caregivers, geriatricians, and policymakers from three Canadian provinces. Activities included 1) modified Delphi to select outcomes; 2) cross-sectional survey to select outcome measures, and 3) in-person meeting to discuss SR findings. KU engagement was assessed using the Patient Engagement Evaluation Tool (PEET) after the second and third activities. KUs rated the extent of successful engagement using a 7-point Likert scale ranging from “no extent” to “very large extent.” RESULTS: In total, 15 KUs completed the PEET: eight geriatricians, four policymakers, two patients, and one caregiver. Median engagement scores across all activities (median range: 6.00-6.50) indicated that KUs felt engaged. Differences were observed for activity type; perceived engagement at in-person meeting resulted in higher meta-criteria scores for trust (PÂ =Â 0.005), legitimacy (PÂ =Â 0.003), fairness (PÂ =Â 0.013), and competency (PÂ =Â 0.035) compared with online activities. CONCLUSIONS: KUs can be engaged meaningfully in SR processes. Their perceived engagement was higher for in-person than for online activities.


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Health Care Administration and Organization

Implementation of a Complex Intervention to Support Leadership Development in Nursing Homes: A Multimethod Participatory Study.
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B. Dewar, K. Barrie, C. Sharp and J. Meyer.
J Appl Gerontol 2019 Jul;38(7):931-958
Leadership is key to quality improvement in nursing homes. This article reports on the initial analysis of the transformational My Home Life Leadership Support program for nursing home managers being implemented in Scotland. It analyses learning from a multimethod participatory descriptive study. Contribution analysis theory informed the evaluation. Evidence-Based Practice, Relationship-Centered Care, Appreciative Inquiry, and Caring Conversations informed the intervention to develop transformational leadership. Data generation methods included baseline and postintervention questionnaires to describe culture change within the study population, together with more in-depth qualitative data generated from group discussions throughout the leadership support program. Qualitative data analysis was an iterative collaborative process with participants to generate themes about the impact of the program on themselves and their practice. Data showed positive changes in managers’ perceptions of their self-awareness, leadership communication and relationship skills, and development of positive cultures. This model offers lessons for those interested in ways to approach the emotional, educational, and cultural dynamics of change in other human service contexts.

“Current dementia care: what are the difficulties and how can we advance care globally?”.
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C. Giebel.
BMC Health Serv Res 2020 May 13;20(1):414-020-05307-1
Dementia is a growing global public health concern, with post-diagnostic care often very limited. Depending on where people live, both within a country and depending on high-, middle-, and low-income countries, they might also face barriers in accessing the right care at the right time. Therefore, it is important to highlight recent evidence on the facilitators and barriers to dementia care, but also evidence on how to move dementia care forward. MAIN TEXT: Current dementia care is subject to several inequalities, including living in rural regions and being from a minority ethnic background. Evidence in this collection highlights the issues that both people living with dementia and unpaid carers are facing in accessing the right care, with evidence from Australia, Canada, Uganda, to the Netherlands, and further afield. Providing improved dementia-specific training to health care professionals and supporting medication and reablement interventions have been identified as possible ways to improve dementia care for all. CONCLUSIONS: This special issue focuses on recent evidence on inequalities in dementia care across the globe and how dementia care can be advanced in various areas.

Neurogeriatrics-a vision for improved care and research for geriatric patients with predominating neurological disabilities.
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A. H. Jacobs, K. Emmert, R. Baron, et al.
Z Gerontol Geriatr 2020 May 19
Geriatric medicine is a rapidly evolving field that addresses diagnostic, therapeutic and care aspects of older adults. Some disabilities and disorders affecting cognition (e.g. dementia), motor function (e.g. stroke, Parkinson’s disease, neuropathies), mood (e.g. depression), behavior (e.g. delirium) and chronic pain disorders are particularly frequent in old subjects. As knowledge about these age-associated conditions and disabilities is steadily increasing, the integral implementation of neurogeriatric knowledge in geriatric medicine and specific neurogeriatric research is essential to develop the field. This article discusses how neurological know-how could be integrated in academic geriatric medicine to improve care of neurogeriatric patients, to foster neurogeriatric research and training concepts and to provide innovative care concepts for geriatric patients with predominant neurological conditions and disabilities.

Staff members’ prioritisation of care in residential aged care facilities: a Q methodology study.
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K. Ludlow, K. Churruca, V. Mumford, L. A. Ellis and J. Braithwaite.
BMC Health Serv Res 2020 May 14;20(1):423-020-05127-3
When healthcare professionals’ workloads are greater than available resources, care activities can be missed, omitted or delayed, potentially leading to adverse patient outcomes. Prioritisation, a precursor to missed care, involves decision-making about the order of care task completion based on perceived importance or urgency. Research on prioritisation and missed care has predominantly focused on acute care settings, which differ from residential aged care facilities in terms of funding, structure, staffing levels, skill mix, and approaches to care. The objective of this study was to investigate how care staff prioritise the care provided to residents living in residential aged care. METHODS: Thirty-one staff members from five Australian residential aged care facilities engaged in a Q sorting activity by ranking 34 cards representing different care activities on a pre-defined grid from ‘Least important’ (- 4) to ‘Most important’ (+ 4). Concurrently, they participated in a think-aloud task, verbalising their decision-making processes. Following sorting, participants completed post-sorting interviews, a demographics questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. Q sort data were analysed using centroid factor analysis and varimax rotation in PQMethod. Factor arrays and data from the think-aloud task, field notes and interviews facilitated interpretation of the resulting factors. RESULTS: A four-factor solution, representing 22 participants and 62% of study variance, satisfied the selection criteria. The four distinct viewpoints represented by the solution were: 1. Prioritisation of clinical care, 2. Prioritisation of activities of daily living, 3. Humanistic approach to the prioritisation of care, and 4. Holistic approach to the prioritisation of care. Participants’ prioritisation decisions were largely influenced by their occupations and perceived role responsibilities. Across the four viewpoints, residents having choices about their care ranked as a lower priority. CONCLUSIONS: This study has implications for missed care, as it demonstrates how care tasks deemed outside the scope of staff members’ defined roles are often considered a lower priority. Our research also shows that, despite policy regulations mandating person-centred care and the respect of residents’ preferences, staff members in residential aged care facilities tend to prioritise more task-oriented aspects of care over person-centredness.

Implementing an evidence-based dementia care program in the Australian health context: A cost-benefit analysis.
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M. Rahja, K. H. Nguyen, K. Laver, L. Clemson, M. Crotty and T. Comans.
Health Soc Care Community 2020 May 19
The World Health Organisation has called for the implementation of evidence-based interventions that enhance function and capability in people with dementia. In response, the Boosting Dementia Research Initiative in Australia has funded a number of projects aimed at improving such outcomes for people with dementia and their caregivers. What is not known is the economic and societal outcomes of these projects and of program implementation to the Australian healthcare system. The purpose of this study was to identify the costs and benefits of implementing an evidence-based reablement program within Australian health context. A well-used methodology familiar to governments and decision-makers was used to calculate the costs and benefits of implementing the program in Australia. Four different perspectives: market, private, efficiency (social) and referent group (key stakeholders) were considered in the cost-benefit evaluation. Almost A$6.2 million societal gain is presented through a social cost-benefit analysis. The referent (stakeholder) group analysis is used to demonstrate that people with dementia and their caregivers are the bearers of the costs and the Australian health and social care system gains the most from the program implementation. The results of this cost-benefit analysis suggest that there is a need to plan and provide subsidies or other financial incentives to assist people with dementia and their caregivers to engage in reablement programs in Australia; thus the whole society can be advantaged. Funding bodies and decision-makers are urged to recognise the potential societal benefits that can be achieved from participating in such reablement programs.

Defining the characteristics of intermediate care models including transitional care: an international Delphi study.
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D. Sezgin, R. O’Caoimh, M. R. O’Donovan, et al.
Aging Clin Exp Res 2020 May 19
Although there is growing utilisation of intermediate care to improve the health and well-being of older adults with complex care needs, there is no international agreement on how it is defined, limiting comparability between studies and reducing the ability to scale effective interventions. AIM: To identify and define the characteristics of intermediate care models. METHODS: A scoping review, a modified two-round electronic Delphi study involving 27 multi-professional experts from 13 countries, and a virtual consensus meeting were conducted. RESULTS: Sixty-six records were included in the scoping review, which identified four main themes: transitions, components, benefits and interchangeability. These formed the basis of the first round of the Delphi survey. After Round 2, 16 statements were agreed, refined and collapsed further. Consensus was established for 10 statements addressing the definitions, purpose, target populations, approach to care and organisation of intermediate care models. DISCUSSION: There was agreement that intermediate care represents time-limited services which ensure continuity and quality of care, promote recovery, restore independence and confidence at the interface between home and acute services, with transitional care representing a subset of intermediate care. Models are best delivered by an interdisciplinary team within an integrated health and social care system where a single contact point optimises service access, communication and coordination. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified key defining features of intermediate care to improve understanding and to support comparisons between models and studies evaluating them. More research is required to develop operational definitions for use in different healthcare systems.

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Health Care Innovation and Quality Assurance

Re-design of Aged Care Environments is Key to Improved Care Quality and Cost Effective Reform of Aged and Health System Care
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S. Eckermann, L. Phillipson and R. Fleming.
Appl Health Econ Health Policy 2019 Apr;17(2):127-130
Health and aged care reforms for treating and caring for aged populations, including those with dementia, are increasingly being called for internationally in the context of a threefold increase in numbers associated with the ageing of baby boomers projected from 2010 to 2050. In this commentary we consider the importance of environmental versus pharmacological solutions, and the right policy balance of community and care based environmental strategies to enable successful budget constrained ageing across health and aged care systems.

Optimising and profiling pre-implementation contexts to create and implement a public health network intervention for tackling loneliness
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J. Ellis, R. Band, K. Kinsella, et al.
Implement Sci 2020 May 19;15(1):35-020-00997-x
The implementation of complex interventions experiences challenges that affect the extent to which they become embedded and scaled-up. Implementation at scale in complex environments like community settings defies universal replication. Planning for implementation in such environments requires knowledge of organisational capacity and structure. Pre-implementation work is an important element of the early phase of preparing the setting for the introduction of an intervention, and the factors contributing towards the creation of an optimal pre-implementation community context are under-acknowledged. METHODS: To explore the factors contributing towards the creation of an optimal pre-implementation context, a quasi-ethnographic approach was taken. The implementation of a social network intervention designed to tackle loneliness in a community setting acts as the case in example. Observations (of meetings), interviews (with community partners) and documentary analysis (national and local policy documents and intervention resources) were conducted. Layder’s adaptive theory approach was taken to data analysis, with the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) and a typology of third-sector organisations used to interpret the findings. RESULTS: Community settings were found to sit along a continuum with three broad categories defined as Fully Professionalised Organisations; Aspirational Community, Voluntary and Social Enterprises; and Non-Professionalised Community-Based Groups. The nature of an optimal pre-implementation context varied across these settings. Using the CFIR, the results illustrate that some settings were more influenced by political landscape (Fully professional and Aspirational setting) and others more influenced by their founding values and ethos (Non-Professionalised Community-Based settings). Readiness was achieved at different speeds across the categories with those settings with more resource availability more able to achieve readiness (Fully Professional settings), and others requiring flexibility in the intervention to help overcome limited resource availability (Aspirational and Non-Professionalised Community-Based settings). CONCLUSIONS: The CFIR is useful in highlighting the multiple facets at play in creating the optimal pre-implementation context, and where flex is required to achieve this. The CFIR illuminates the similarities and differences between and across settings, highlighting the complexity of open system settings and the important need for pre-implementation work. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN19193075.

Association between High Proportions of Seriously Mentally Ill Nursing Home Residents and the Quality of Resident Care.
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B. E. McGarry, N. R. Joyce, T. G. McGuire, S. L. Mitchell, S. J. Bartels and D. C. Grabowski.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2019 Nov;67(11):2346-2352
To examine the association between the quality of care delivered to nursing home residents with and without a serious mental illness (SMI) and the proportion of nursing home residents with SMI. DESIGN: Instrumental variable study. Relative distance to the nearest nursing home with a high proportion of SMI residents was used to account for potential selection of patients between high- and low-SMI facilities. Data were obtained from the 2006-2010 Minimum Data Set assessments linked with Medicare claims and nursing home information from the Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting database. SETTING: Nursing homes with high (defined as at least 10% of a facility’s population having an SMI diagnosis) and low proportions of SMI residents. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 58 571 Medicare nursing residents with an SMI diagnosis (ie, schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) and 558 699 individuals without an SMI diagnosis who were admitted to the same nursing homes. MEASUREMENTS: Outcomes were nursing home quality measures: (1) use of physical restraints, (2) any hospitalization in the last 3 months, (3) use of an indwelling catheter, (4) use of a feeding tube, and (5) presence of pressure ulcer(s). RESULTS: For individuals with SMI, admission to a high-SMI facility was associated with a 3.7 percentage point (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-6.0) increase in the probability of feeding tube use relative to individuals admitted to a low-SMI facility. Among individuals without SMI, admission to a high-SMI facility was associated with a 1.7 percentage point increase in the probability of catheter use (95 CI = .03-3.47), a 3.8 percentage point increase in the probability of being hospitalized (95% CI = 2.16-5.44), and a 2.1 percentage point increase in the probability of having a feeding tube (95% CI = .43-3.74). CONCLUSION: Admission to nursing homes with high concentrations of residents with SMI is associated with worse outcomes for both residents with and without SMI. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:2346-2352, 2019.

Comparison of Consumer Rankings With Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Five-Star Rankings of Nursing Homes.
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D. B. Mukamel, D. L. Weimer, Y. Shi, H. Ladd and D. Saliba.
JAMA Netw Open 2020 May 1;3(5):e204798
The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Five-Star measure for nursing homes is designed with input from expert panels about the importance of multiple quality indicators. Consumers may assign different values to these indicators, creating different 5-star ratings. OBJECTIVE: To compare nursing homes’ rankings based on the CMS Five-Star measure with rankings based on consumers’ judgment about the importance of the same quality indicators. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In this quality improvement study, CMS Five-Star data were linked with a measure calculated from CMS quality indicators and consumer values obtained from a national survey. Data covered the last quarter of 2016 and the first three quarters of 2017. The study included 10 676 nursing homes, comprising 69.8% of those with reported Five-Star measures. The national survey included adults, either nursing home residents or their family members who reported being familiar with the quality of care their relative received. Data analysis was performed from January 2019 to February 2020. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The contingent valuation method was administered via the survey to obtain consumers’ relative values of the quality indicators, and statistical analyses were used to create the contingent valuation measure. Agreement in nursing home rankings was assessed using the Five-Star measure, which is based on weights developed by expert panels, compared with rankings based on the contingent valuation measure. RESULTS: Among 10 676 study nursing homes with a mean (SD) of 119.4 (59.4) beds, 7845 (73.5%) were for profit, 6424 (61.8%) were part of a chain, and 8009 (75.0%) were urban. The 4310 survey respondents (mean [SD] age, 39.9 [15.6] years; 1143 [26.5%] men; 3448 [80%] white) included mostly family members (3879 participants [90.0%]). The Pearson correlation coefficient (0.65) and weighted κ statistics (0.48) indicated only moderate agreement between ranking of nursing homes’ performance by the 2 measures and disagreement on ranking for approximately one-half of the nursing homes. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Current nursing home report cards might not reflect consumers’ values and the relative importance consumers place on each of the quality indicators that compose the overall Five-Star measure. Quality report cards might be more relevant to consumers by augmenting the Five-Star measure with a measure reflecting consumers’ preferences. It is unknown whether these conclusions are generalizable to other report cards, such as Hospital and Home Health Compare, without conducting similar studies for these report cards.

Adapting Strategies for Optimal Intervention Implementation in Nursing Homes: A Formative Evaluation.
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C. B. Pimentel, W. L. Mills, A. L. Snow, et al.
Gerontologist 2020 May 25
Nursing homes pose unique challenges for implementation of research and quality improvement (QI). We previously demonstrated successful implementation of a nursing home-led intervention to improve relationships between frontline staff and residents in 6 U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Community Living Centers (CLCs). This article discusses early adaptations made to the intervention and its implementation to enhance frontline staff participation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a formative evaluation of intervention implementation at the first 2 participating CLCs. Formative evidence-including site visitors’ field notes, implementation facilitation records, and semistructured frontline staff interviews-were collected throughout the study period. Data analysis was informed by the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation, and Behavior model of behavior change. RESULTS: Adaptations were made to 5 a priori intervention implementation strategies: (a) training leaders, (b) training frontline staff, (c) adapting the intervention to meet local needs, (d) auditing and providing feedback, and (e) implementation facilitation. On the basis of a 6-month implementation period at the first CLC, we identified elements of the intervention and aspects of the implementation strategies that could be adapted to facilitate frontline staff participation at the second CLC. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Incremental implementation, paired with ongoing formative evaluation, proved critical to enhancing capability, opportunity, and motivation among frontline staff. In elucidating what was required to initiate and sustain the nursing home-led intervention, we provide a blueprint for responding to emergent challenges when performing research and QI in the nursing home setting.

Identifying and selecting implementation theories, models and frameworks: a qualitative study to inform the development of a decision support tool.
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L. Strifler, J. M. Barnsley, M. Hillmer and S. E. Straus.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2020 May 14;20(1):91-020-01128-8
Implementation theories, models and frameworks offer guidance when implementing and sustaining healthcare evidence-based interventions. However, selection can be challenging given the myriad of potential options. We propose to inform a decision support tool to facilitate the appropriate selection of an implementation theory, model or framework in practice. To inform tool development, this study aimed to explore barriers and facilitators to identifying and selecting implementation theories, models and frameworks in research and practice, as well as end-user preferences for features and functions of the proposed tool. METHODS: We used an interpretive descriptive approach to conduct semi-structured interviews with implementation researchers and practitioners in Canada, the United States and Australia. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim. Data were inductively coded by a single investigator with a subset of 20% coded independently by a second investigator and analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-four individuals participated in the study. Categories of barriers/facilitators, to inform tool development, included characteristics of the individual or team conducting implementation and characteristics of the implementation theory, model or framework. Major barriers to selection included inconsistent terminology, poor fit with the implementation context and limited knowledge about and training in existing theories, models and frameworks. Major facilitators to selection included the importance of clear and concise language and evidence that the theory, model or framework was applied in a relevant health setting or context. Participants were enthusiastic about the development of a decision support tool that is user-friendly, accessible and practical. Preferences for tool features included key questions about the implementation intervention or project (e.g., purpose, stage of implementation, intended target for change) and a comprehensive list of relevant theories, models and frameworks to choose from along with a glossary of terms and the contexts in which they were applied. CONCLUSIONS: An easy to use decision support tool that addresses key barriers to selecting an implementation theory, model or framework in practice may be beneficial to individuals who facilitate implementation practice activities. Findings on end-user preferences for tool features and functions will inform tool development and design through a user-centered approach.

Strengthening Geriatric Expertise in Swiss Nursing Homes: INTERCARE Implementation Study Protocol.
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F. Zuniga, S. De Geest, R. A. Guerbaai, et al.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2019 Oct;67(10):2145-2150
Nursing home (NH) residents with complex care needs ask for attentive monitoring of changes and appropriate in-house decision making. However, access to geriatric expertise is often limited with a lack of geriatricians, general practitioners, and/or nurses with advanced clinical skills, leading to potentially avoidable hospitalizations. This situation calls for the development, implementation, and evaluation of innovative, contextually adapted nurse-led care models that support NHs in improving their quality of care and reducing hospitalizations by investing in effective clinical leadership, geriatric expertise, and care coordination. DESIGN: An effectiveness-implementation hybrid type 2 design to assess clinical outcomes of a nurse-led care model and a mixed-method approach to evaluate implementation outcomes will be applied. The model development, tailoring, and implementation are based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). SETTING: NHs in the German-speaking region of Switzerland. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven NHs were recruited. The sample size was estimated assuming an average of .8 unplanned hospitalizations/1000 resident days and a reduction of 25% in NHs with the nurse-led care model. INTERVENTION: The multilevel complex context-adapted intervention consists of six core elements (eg, specifically trained INTERCARE nurses or evidence-based tools like Identify, Situation, Background, Assessment and Recommendation [ISBAR]). Multilevel implementation strategies include leadership and INTERCARE nurse training and support. MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcomes are unplanned hospitalizations/1000 care days. Secondary outcomes include unplanned emergency department visits, quality indicators (eg, physical restraint use), and costs. Implementation outcomes included, for example, fidelity to the model’s core elements. CONCLUSION: The INTERCARE study will provide evidence about the effectiveness of a nurse-led care model in the real-world setting and accompanying implementation strategies. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:2145-2150, 2019.


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Organizational Culture and Change

Perceived organizational culture and its relationship with job satisfaction in primary hospitals of Jimma zone and Jimma town administration, correlational study.
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D. Mesfin, M. Woldie, A. Adamu and F. Bekele.
BMC Health Serv Res 2020 May 19;20(1):438-020-05319-x
The concept of Organizational Culture (OC) which refers to the pattern of values, norms, beliefs, attitudes and assumptions may not be articulated through verbal language. However, it shapes the way people behave and the way things get done in an organization. The management of organizational culture is increasingly viewed as necessary part of health system reform. Major cultural transformation of an organization must be secured alongside structural and procedural changes in order to achieve desired quality and performances improvements in health systems. It is therefore essential to understand organizational culture, job satisfaction level of the health workers and the link between them. METHODOLOGY: Facility based cross sectional study was conducted in four primary hospitals of Jimma zone and town administration. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. The collected data were checked for completeness, entered and documented into Epi-data version 3.1 and Exported to SPSS version 21 for analysis. Finally descriptive statistics, Paired t-test and multiple linear regression analysis were used to assess the relationship between organizational culture and job satisfaction and the results were presented using tables and charts. RESULT: It was indicated from the finding that, the dominant existing organizational culture typology in the primary hospitals was Hierarchy culture (MS = 22.31, ±2.82).and the preferred organizational culture typology was Innovative culture (MS = 26.09, ±4.72). The health workers had low to medium level of job satisfaction where only (29.40%) of the health workers were very satisfied with their hospital physical working environment. Existing perceived clan culture had positive and significant correlation with health workers’ satisfaction in relation to work relation dimension (r = .16, p < 0.002). CONCLUSION: while acknowledging all limitation of observational study we reached to the conclusion that an employees of the respective primary hospitals would prefer to work in environment characterized by innovative and clan culture and their satisfaction level is medium so that the managers should undertake major cultural transformation and must work to improve the job satisfaction level of health workers within their respective hospitals.

A Qualitative study assessing organisational readiness to implement caregiver support programmes in Ontario, Canada.
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V. Tseung, S. Jaglal, N. M. Salbach and J. I. Cameron.
BMJ Open 2020 May 24;10(5):e035559-2019-035559
To qualitatively explore factors affecting implementation of caregiver support programmes in healthcare institutions in a regional stroke system. DESIGN: A qualitative descriptive study with the Ontario Stroke System (OSS) was conducted. Data were collected through focus groups and in-depth interviews. Transcripts were coded and analysed using inductive thematic analysis. SETTING: Regional Stroke System, Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: OSS stakeholders including medical directors, executives, programme directors, education coordinators, rehabilitation and community and long-term care specialists, primary care leaders and healthcare professionals. INTERVENTION: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Data collection explored perceptions of the need for caregiver support programmes and factors that may affect their implementation. RESULTS: Four focus groups (n=43) and 29 interviews were completed. Analyses identified themes related to (1) evidence that a caregiver programme will improve health and health system outcomes, (2) personnel requirements, (3) barriers associated with current billing and referral processes and (4) integration with current practice and existing workflow processes. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation strategies to adopt caregiver programmes into clinical practice should incorporate evidence and consider personnel and existing workflow processes.

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Research Practice and Methodology

Advancing Evidence Synthesis from Effectiveness to Implementation: Integration of Implementation Measures into Evidence Reviews.
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A. A Tierney, M. C Haverfield, M. P McGovern and D. M Zulman.
J Gen Intern Med 2020 Apr;35(4):1219-1226
In order to close the gap between discoveries that could improve health, and widespread impact on routine health care practice, there is a need for greater attention to the factors that influence dissemination and implementation of evidence-based practices. Evidence synthesis projects (e.g., systematic reviews) could contribute to this effort by collecting and synthesizing data relevant to dissemination and implementation. Such an advance would facilitate the spread of high-value, effective, and sustainable interventions. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to evaluate the feasibility of extracting factors related to implementation during evidence synthesis in order to enhance the replicability of successes of studies of interventions in health care settings. DESIGN: Drawing on the implementation science literature, we suggest 10 established implementation measures that should be considered when conducting evidence synthesis projects. We describe opportunities to assess these constructs in current literature and illustrate these methods through an example of a systematic review. SUBJECTS: Twenty-nine studies of interventions aimed at improving clinician-patient communication in clinical settings. KEY RESULTS: We identified acceptability, adoption, appropriateness, feasibility, fidelity, implementation cost, intervention complexity, penetration, reach, and sustainability as factors that are feasible and appropriate to extract during an evidence synthesis project. CONCLUSIONS: To fully understand the potential value of a health care innovation, it is important to consider not only its effectiveness, but also the process, demands, and resource requirements involved in downstream implementation. While there is variation in the degree to which intervention studies currently report implementation factors, there is a growing demand for this information. Abstracting information about these factors may enhance the value of systematic reviews and other evidence synthesis efforts, improving the dissemination and adoption of interventions that are effective, feasible, and sustainable across different contexts.

Maintaining Intervention Fidelity When Using Technology Delivery Across Studies.
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J. R. M. Bonar, S. Wright, D. M. Yadrich, et al.
Comput Inform Nurs 2020 May 16

The current standard in healthcare research is to maintain scientific fidelity of any intervention being tested. Fidelity is defined as the consistent delivery of interventions that ensures that all participants are provided the same information, guidance, and/or materials. Notably, the methods for ensuring fidelity of intervention delivery must also be consistent. This article describes our Intervention and Technology Delivery Fidelity Checklists used to ensure consistency. These checklists were completed by trained nurse observers who rated the intervention implementation and the technology delivery. Across our clinical trials and pilot studies, the fidelity scores were tabulated and compared. Intervention information and materials were delivered by a variety of devices including telehealth monitors, videophones, and/or iPads. Each of the devices allows audiovisual connections between health professionals from their offices and patients and participants in their homes. Our checklists guide the monitoring of fidelity of technology delivery. Overall checklist ratings across our studies demonstrate consistent intervention, implementation, and technology delivery approaches. Uniquely, the fidelity checklist verifies the interventionist’s correct use of the technology devices to ensure consistent audiovisual delivery. Checklist methods to ensure intervention fidelity and technology delivery are essential research procedures, which can be adapted for use by researchers across multiple disciplines.

A review of reviews on principles, strategies, outcomes and impacts of research partnerships approaches: a first step in synthesising the research partnership literature.
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F. Hoekstra, K. J. Mrklas, M. Khan, et al.
Health Res Policy Syst 2020 May 25;18(1):51-020-0544-9
Conducting research in partnership with stakeholders (e.g. policy-makers, practitioners, organisations, patients) is a promising and popular approach to improving the implementation of research findings in policy and practice. This study aimed to identify the principles, strategies, outcomes and impacts reported in different types of reviews of research partnerships in order to obtain a better understanding of the scope of the research partnership literature. METHODS: This review of reviews is part of a Coordinated Multicenter Team approach to synthesise the research partnership literature with five conceptually linked literature reviews. The main research question was ‘What principles, strategies, outcomes and impacts are reported in different types of research partnership approaches?’. We included articles describing a literature review of research partnerships using a systematic search strategy. We used an adapted version of the Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews tool to assess quality. Nine electronic databases were searched from inception to April 2018. Principles, strategies, outcomes and impacts were extracted from the included reviews and analysed using direct content analysis. RESULTS: We included 86 reviews using terms describing several research partnership approaches (e.g. community-based participatory research, participatory research, integrated knowledge translation). After the analyses, we synthesised 17 overarching principles and 11 overarching strategies and grouped them into one of the following subcategories: relationship between partners; co-production of knowledge; meaningful stakeholder engagement; capacity-building, support and resources; communication process; and ethical issues related to the collaborative research activities. Similarly, we synthesised 20 overarching outcomes and impacts on researchers, stakeholders, the community or society, and the research process. CONCLUSIONS: This review of reviews is the first that presents overarching principles, strategies, outcomes and impacts of research partnerships. This review is unique in scope as we synthesised literature across multiple research areas, involving different stakeholder groups. Our findings can be used as a first step to guide the initiation and maintenance of research partnerships and to create a classification system of the key domains of research partnerships, which may improve reporting consistency in the research partnership literature. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered via Open Science Framework: https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/GVR7Y.

Measuring Community-Engaged Research Contexts, Processes, and Outcomes: A Mapping Review.
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T. M. Luger, A. B. Hamilton and G. True.
Milbank Q 2020 May 19
Community-engaged research (CEnR) engenders meaningful academic-community partnerships to improve research quality and health outcomes. CEnR has increasingly been adopted by health care systems, funders, and communities looking for solutions to intractable problems. It has been difficult to systematically measure CEnR’s impact, as most evaluations focus on project-specific outcomes. Similarly, partners have struggled with identifying appropriate measures to assess outcomes of interest. To make a case for CEnR’s value, we must demonstrate the impacts of CEnR over time. We compiled recent measures and developed an interactive data visualization to facilitate more consistent measurement of CEnR’s theoretical domains. CONTEXT: Community-engaged research (CEnR) aims to engender meaningful academic-community partnerships to increase research quality and impact, improve individual and community health, and build capacity for uptake of evidence-based practices. Given the urgency to solve society’s pressing public health problems and increasing competition for funding, it is important to demonstrate CEnR’s value. Most evaluations focus on project-specific outcomes, making it difficult to demonstrate CEnR’s broader impact. Moreover, it is challenging for partnerships to identify assessments of interest beyond process measures. We conducted a mapping review to help partnerships find and select measures to evaluate CEnR projects and to characterize areas where further development of measures is needed. METHODS: We searched electronic bibliographic databases using relevant search terms from 2009 to 2018 and scanned CEnR projects to identify unpublished measures. Through review and reduction, we found 69 measures of CEnR’s context, process, or outcomes that are potentially generalizable beyond a specific health condition or population. We abstracted data from descriptions of each measure to catalog purpose, aim (context, process, or outcome), and specific domains being measured. FINDINGS: We identified 28 measures of the conditions under which CEnR is conducted and factors to support effective academic-community collaboration (context); 43 measures evaluating constructs such as group dynamics and trust (process); and 43 measures of impacts such as benefits and challenges of CEnR participation and system and capacity changes (outcomes). CONCLUSIONS: We found substantial variation in how academic-community partnerships conceptualize and define even similar domains. Achieving more consistency in how partnerships evaluate key constructs could reduce measurement confusion apparent in the literature. A hybrid approach whereby partnerships discuss common metrics and develop locally important measures can address CEnR’s multiple goals. Our accessible data visualization serves as a convenient resource to support partnerships’ evaluation goals and may help to build the evidence base for CEnR through the use of common measures across studies.

What makes an effective grants peer reviewer? An exploratory study of the necessary skills.
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M. L. E. Steiner Davis, T. R. Conner, K. Miller-Bains and L. Shapard.
PLoS One 2020 May 13;15(5):e0232327
This exploratory mixed methods study describes skills required to be an effective peer reviewer as a member of review panels conducted for federal agencies that fund research, and examines how reviewer experience and the use of technology within such panels impacts reviewer skill development. Two specific review panel formats are considered: in-person face-to-face and virtual video conference. Data were collected through interviews with seven program officers and five expert peer review panelists, and surveys from 51 respondents. Results include the skills reviewers’ consider necessary for effective review panel participation, their assessment of the relative importance of these skills, how they are learned, and how review format affects skill development and improvement. Results are discussed relative to the peer review literature and with consideration of the importance of professional skills needed by successful scientists and peer reviewers.

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Changing needs in advanced dementia.
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M. Brown, D. Tolson and L. Ritchie.
Nurs Older People 2020 May 20
This is the first article in a six-part series in Nursing Older People exploring the nursing care of people living with advanced dementia. This article discusses the changes that may occur as dementia progresses, from the perspective of the individual, their family and other carers. A person living with advanced dementia is likely to experience physical, cognitive and social changes that can be profound and debilitating. Healthcare needs intensify as new and co-existing issues result in increasing dependency on others for support with activities of daily living. These activities can include eating, drinking, mobility and personal care. Consequently, family carers may find their role has to develop and change to provide increasing support in response to these complex needs. These increasing needs can result in care transitions to hospitals or care homes. Careful and collaborative management of care is crucial to maintain quality of life for the person with dementia and family carers.

Towards personalized care: Factors associated with the quality of life of residents with dementia in Australian rural aged care homes.
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M. Hamiduzzaman, A. Kuot, J. Greenhill, E. Strivens and V. Isaac.
PLoS One 2020 May 21;15(5):e0233450
Quality of dementia care improves with a personalized approach to aged care, and knowledge of the disease process and unique care needs of residents with dementia. A personalized model of care can have a significant impact on the overall organizational culture in aged care homes. However, the dimensions of personalized aged care relating to dementia often remain under-managed. We aim to explore the factors that shape the dimensions of personalized dementia care in rural nursing homes using qualitative data of a mixed-method ‘Harmony in the Bush’ dementia study. The study participants included clinical managers, registered nurses, enrolled nurses and care workers from five rural aged care homes in Queensland and South Australia. One hundred and four staff participated in 65 semi-structured interviews and 20 focus groups at three phases: post-intervention, one-month follow-up and three-months follow-up. A multidimensional model of nursing home care quality developed by Rantz et al. (1998) was used in data coding and analysis of the factors. Three key themes including seven dimensions emerged from the findings: resident and family [resident and family centeredness, and assessment and care planning]; staff [staff education and training, staff-resident interaction and work-life balance]; and organization [leadership and organizational culture, and physical environment and safety]. A lack of consideration of family members views by management and staff, together with poorly integrated, holistic care plan, limited resources and absence of ongoing education for staff, resulted in an ineffective implementation of personalized dementia care. Understanding the dimensions and associated factors may assist in interpreting the multidimensional aspects of personalized approach in dementia care. Staff training on person-centered approach, assessment and plan, and building relationships among and between staff and residents are essential to improve the quality of care residents receive.

The Negative Impact of Psychotropic Drug Use on Quality of Life in Nursing Home Patients at Different Stages of Dementia: Cross-Sectional Analyses from the COSMOS Trial.
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E. Ito, L. I. Berge, B. S. Husebo, R. Nouchi and R. K. N. M. Sandvik.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2020 May 24
The quality of life (QoL) in nursing home (NH) patients with dementia is threatened by neuropsychiatric symptoms. This may trigger the use of psychotropic drugs, yet it is unknown if this practice improves the QoL. We investigated the association between the number of psychotropic drugs and QoL at different stages of dementia, adjusted for neuropsychiatric symptoms. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the COSMOS study, a multicenter, cluster-randomized, single-blinded, controlled trial. SETTING AND PARTICIPATION: Four hundred thirty-one patients (aged ≥65 years) with and without dementia from 33 Norwegian NHs comprising 67 wards. MEASURES: QoL assessed by Quality of Life in Late Stage Dementia (QUALID) and Quality of Life in Dementia (QUALIDEM), neuropsychiatric symptoms by Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home version, and cognition by Mini-Mental State Examination. RESULTS: At least 1 psychotropic drug was prescribed to 71% of the 431 participants included in the final sample. We estimated the trend in mean QoL scores over the number of psychotropic drugs in patients with clinical significant neuropsychiatric symptom load. QoL assessed by QUALID and QUALIDEM decreased by increasing number of psychotropic drugs (P < .001). No psychotropic drugs (mean QUALID score 20 ± 0.5, mean QUALIDEM score 40 ± 8.1) compared to ≥3 psychotropic drug (mean QUALID score 25 ± 7.8, mean QUALIDEM score 33 ± 8.0). This association was evident in mild, moderate, and severe dementia but absent in people without dementia. Use of antidepressant agents in mild and moderate dementia was associated with increased QoL compared with no use of antidepressant agents. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Overall, our findings suggest that psychotropic drugs might pose a threat to QoL in NH patients at all stages of dementia, possibly with the exception of use of antidepressant agents in mild to moderate dementia. This underlines the need for updated knowledge on psychopharmacologic treatment and implementation of procedures for maintaining QoL in dementia care facilities.

Changes in prevalence of loneliness over time in institutional settings, and associated factors.
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A. H. Jansson, N. Savikko, H. Kautiainen, H. M. Roitto and K. H. Pitkälä.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2020 May 12;89:104043
The aim of this study was to examine changes in the prevalence of loneliness over time from 2011 to 2017 in long-term care facilities; and its related factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Repeated cross-sectional studies exploring loneliness and its associated factors among residents in long-term care facilities were conducted in Helsinki, Finland in 2011 (N = 4966) and 2017 (N = 3767). Residents in temporary respite care or with severe cognitive impairment, and those unable or refusing to respond to the loneliness item were excluded. The total number of participants in this analysis was 1563 in 2011, and 1367 in 2017. In both samples, we used the same loneliness measurement by asking “Do you suffer from loneliness?” (never/sometimes/often or always). When comparing the samples in order to reduce the effect of confounding between them, we used propensity score matching. A multivariable logistic regression model explored the relationship between various characteristics and loneliness. RESULTS: Loneliness showed no change in prevalence over time: propensity score-adjusted loneliness was 36 % in 2011 and 2017. In the multivariate logistic regression model, feeling depressed was the only independent characteristic associated with loneliness. Of the respondents who did not feel depressed, 24 % suffered from loneliness at least sometimes. Among the respondents who felt depressed, the respective figure was 55 %. CONCLUSION: Loneliness is common in institutional settings. It remained stable, and not decreased over time. Because loneliness impairs the well-being, quality of life and health of residents, it needs to be addressed. Screening loneliness and developing interventions to alleviate it, is essential.

The relationship between caregivers’ perceptions of end-of-life care in long-term care and a good resident death.
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E. Lee, T. Sussman, S. Kaasalainen, et al.
Palliat Support Care 2020 May 15:1-8
Quality end-of-life (EOL) care is critical for dying residents and their family/friend caregivers. While best practices to support resident comfort at EOL in long-term care (LTC) homes are emerging, research rarely explores if and how the type of care received at EOL may contribute to caregivers’ perceptions of a good death. To address this gap, this study explored how care practices at EOL contributed to caregivers’ perceptions of a good resident death. METHOD: This study used a retrospective cross-sectional survey design. Seventy-eight participants whose relative or friend died in one of five LTC homes in Canada completed self-administered questionnaires on their perceptions of EOL care and perceptions of a good resident death. RESULTS: Overall, caregivers reported positive experiences with EOL care and perceived residents to have died a good death. However, communication regarding what to expect in the final days of life and attention to spiritual issues were often missing components of care. Further, when explored alongside direct resident care, family support, and rooming conditions, staff communication was the only aspect of EOL care significantly associated with caregivers’ perceptions of a good resident death. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: The findings of this study suggest that the critical role staff in LTC play in supporting caregivers’ perceptions of a good resident death. By keeping caregivers informed about expectations at the very end of life, staff can enhance caregivers’ perceptions of a good resident death. Further, by addressing spiritual issues staff may improve caregivers’ perceptions that residents were at peace when they died.

Providing dignified continence care to older people at end of life.
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L. Nazarko.
Int J Palliat Nurs 2019 Oct 2;25(10):504-512
The prevalence of urinary incontinence increases as a person ages, as age-related changes make it more difficult to maintain continence. Long-term conditions and treatments prescribed to treat conditions, such as heart failure, can lead to an urgency to void the bladder. Frailty can make it difficult for an older person to respond this need. At end of life, mobility is often compromised and people can experience extreme fatigue. Caregivers can obtain support to manage an individual’s incontinence during the day but often struggle alone at night. Caregivers can become exhausted and a situation can reach breaking point. Working with the older person and caregivers to determine the goals of care and how to meet them can make a huge difference. It can take the pressure off the entire family, meet a person’s needs and enable the person to stay at home. This article aims to enable nurses to understand the problems older people may experience and how to work with the older person and caregivers to develop solutions that maintain dignity and enhance quality of life.

Video calls for reducing social isolation and loneliness in older people: a rapid review.
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C. Noone, J. McSharry, M. Smalle, et al.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 May 21;5:CD013632
The current COVID-19 pandemic has been identified as a possible trigger for increases in loneliness and social isolation among older people due to the restrictions on movement that many countries have put in place. Loneliness and social isolation are consistently identified as risk factors for poor mental and physical health in older people. Video calls may help older people stay connected during the current crisis by widening the participant’s social circle or by increasing the frequency of contact with existing acquaintances. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this rapid review is to assess the effectiveness of video calls for reducing social isolation and loneliness in older adults. The review also sought to address the effectiveness of video calls on reducing symptoms of depression and improving quality of life. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and CINAHL from 1 January 2004 to 7 April 2020. We also searched the references of relevant systematic reviews. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs (including cluster designs) were eligible for inclusion. We excluded all other study designs. The samples in included studies needed to have a mean age of at least 65 years. We included studies that included participants whether or not they were experiencing symptoms of loneliness or social isolation at baseline. Any intervention in which a core component involved the use of the internet to facilitate video calls or video conferencing through computers, smartphones or tablets with the intention of reducing loneliness or social isolation, or both, in older adults was eligible for inclusion. We included studies in the review if they reported self-report measures of loneliness, social isolation, symptoms of depression or quality of life. Two review authors screened 25% of abstracts; a third review author resolved conflicts. A single review author screened the remaining abstracts. The second review author screened all excluded abstracts and we resolved conflicts by consensus or by involving a third review author. We followed the same process for full-text articles. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: One review author extracted data, which another review author checked. The primary outcomes were loneliness and social isolation and the secondary outcomes were symptoms of depression and quality of life. One review author rated the certainty of evidence for the primary outcomes according to the GRADE approach and another review author checked the ratings. We conducted fixed-effect meta-analyses for the primary outcome, loneliness, and the secondary outcome, symptoms of depression. MAIN RESULTS: We identified three cluster quasi-randomised trials, which together included 201 participants. The included studies compared video call interventions to usual care in nursing homes. None of these studies were conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. Each study measured loneliness using the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Total scores range from 20 (least lonely) to 80 (most lonely). The evidence was very uncertain and suggests that video calls may result in little to no difference in scores on the UCLA Loneliness Scale compared to usual care at three months (mean difference (MD) -0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) -3.28 to 2.41; 3 studies; 201 participants), at six months (MD -0.34, 95% CI -3.41 to 2.72; 2 studies; 152 participants) and at 12 months (MD -2.40, 95% CI -7.20 to 2.40; 1 study; 90 participants). We downgraded the certainty of this evidence by three levels for study limitations, imprecision and indirectness. None of the included studies reported social isolation as an outcome. Each study measured symptoms of depression using the Geriatric Depression Scale. Total scores range from 0 (better) to 30 (worse). The evidence was very uncertain and suggests that video calls may result in little to no difference in scores on the Geriatric Depression Scale compared to usual care at three months’ follow-up (MD 0.41, 95% CI -0.90 to 1.72; 3 studies; 201 participants) or six months’ follow-up (MD -0.83, 95% CI -2.43 to 0.76; 2 studies, 152 participants). The evidence suggests that video calls may have a small effect on symptoms of depression at one-year follow-up, though this finding is imprecise (MD -2.04, 95% CI -3.98 to -0.10; 1 study; 90 participants). We downgraded the certainty of this evidence by three levels for study limitations, imprecision and indirectness. Only one study, with 62 participants, reported quality of life. The study measured quality of life using a Taiwanese adaptation of the Short-Form 36-question health survey (SF-36), which consists of eight subscales that measure different aspects of quality of life: physical function; physical role; emotional role; social function; pain: vitality; mental health; and physical health. Each subscale is scored from 0 (poor health) to 100 (good health). The evidence is very uncertain and suggests that there may be little to no difference between people allocated to usual care and those allocated to video calls in three-month scores in physical function (MD 2.88, 95% CI -5.01 to 10.77), physical role (MD -7.66, 95% CI -24.08 to 8.76), emotional role (MD -7.18, 95% CI -16.23 to 1.87), social function (MD 2.77, 95% CI -8.87 to 14.41), pain scores (MD -3.25, 95% CI -15.11 to 8.61), vitality scores (MD -3.60, 95% CI -9.01 to 1.81), mental health (MD 9.19, 95% CI 0.36 to 18.02) and physical health (MD 5.16, 95% CI -2.48 to 12.80). We downgraded the certainty of this evidence by three levels for study limitations, imprecision and indirectness. AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS: Based on this review there is currently very uncertain evidence on the effectiveness of video call interventions to reduce loneliness in older adults. The review did not include any studies that reported evidence of the effectiveness of video call interventions to address social isolation in older adults. The evidence regarding the effectiveness of video calls for outcomes of symptoms of depression was very uncertain. Future research in this area needs to use more rigorous methods and more diverse and representative participants. Specifically, future studies should target older adults, who are demonstrably lonely or socially isolated, or both, across a range of settings to determine whether video call interventions are effective in a population in which these outcomes are in need of improvement.

Serum adiponectin is associated with body composition and cognitive and psychological status in older adults living in long-term nursing homes.
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B. Sanz, H. Arrieta, G. Hervás, et al.
Exp Gerontol 2019 Jul 1;121:1-9
Frailty is a geriatric syndrome characterized by decreasing functional reserves and increasing vulnerability to falls, injuries and declining health, leading to dependence upon caregivers. Frailty is associated not only with physical decline, but also with cognitive and psychological impairments in aging people. Higher serum adiponectin concentration has been linked to better performance on frailty measures but also to worse cognitive status. Nonetheless, several studies have proposed adiponectin as a frailty biomarker. To further delineate the relationship between adiponectin serum levels and frailty-related parameters, we studied a population of 112 long-term nursing home residents (aged 84.9 ± 6.7) and analyzed their serum adiponectin levels in conjunction with frailty-related parameters including body composition, physical fitness, cognitive function, psychological parameters and quality of life. Frailty was assessed following the Fried Frailty Criteria, the Clinical Frailty Scale and the Tilburg Frailty Indicator. In women, higher serum adiponectin levels were associated with lower body weight, body mass index, body fat mass, fat mass/height(2), lean mass, lean mass/height(2) and smaller waist circumference and hip circumference (p < 0.05). In men, the association was positive (p < 0.05) between serum adiponectin and percentage of fat mass and negative between serum adiponectin and percentage of lean mass. Interestingly, in men, better cognitive function was inversely related to adiponectin (p < 0.05) while decreased anxiety was linked to a higher concentration of adiponectin in women (p < 0.05). According to the Tilburg Frailty Indicator, frail men had lower levels of adiponectin than those who were not frail (p < 0.05). Variables that predicted adiponectin concentration in multiple regression models were different for women and men. In women, lean mass and anxiety were independent negative predictors of blood adiponectin (β = -0.363, p = 0.002; β = -0.204, p = 0.067, respectively). In men, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) test was the only parameter to remain significant in the regression model (β = -439, p = 0.015). The results of our study show that adiponectin is linked to body composition, cognitive function and anxiety in long-term nursing home residents with differential relationships by sex. Further studies should be conducted to determine whether adiponectin is a valid and reliable frailty biomarker.

The Adaptation of Older Adults’ Transition to Nursing Homes in Mainland China: A Qualitative Study.
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C. Sun, R. Zhou, Y. Cui, et al.
J Transcult Nurs 2020 May 23:1043659620923387
An increasing number of older adults have moved to nursing homes in China. This study was to explore the adaptation of older adults’ transition to nursing homes in mainland China. Method: A qualitative study was conducted in two nursing homes in Nanjing, China. Data were collected from 11 residents and 5 staff members through purposeful sampling with semistructured interviews, and content analysis was performed. Results: Three themes were identified: Chinese culture, policy, and adaptation (staying modest and prudent, feeling shy to speak with males, familism suppressing the inner voice, and the new policy “combination of medical service and care” bringing benefits); the adaptation to nursing homes (poor quality of sleep and catering, relationship development, and emotional reactions); and needs of residents (emotional support, more interactions, and self-realization). Discussion: Health care providers consider cultural assessments. Further work is expected to develop programs that help older adults adjust to nursing homes.

Effect of Academic Detailing on Promoting Appropriate Prescribing of Antipsychotic Medication in Nursing Homes: A Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial.
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M. Tadrous, K. Fung, L. Desveaux, et al.
JAMA Netw Open 2020 May 1;3(5):e205724
Strategies to reduce the inappropriate prescription of antipsychotics have been the focus of recent attention but have shown considerable variation in their effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of academic detailing in nursing homes targeting appropriate prescribing of antipsychotics. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a pragmatic, cluster randomized clinical trial comparing the effect of academic detailing vs usual care on prescribing antipsychotics in 40 nursing homes with 5363 residents in Ontario, Canada. Data were collected from October 2015 to March 2016 and analyzed from April to August 2018. Primary analyses were conducted using intention to treat. INTERVENTION: Academic detailing delivered by health professionals (eg, nurses or pharmacists) who arranged meetings (with administrators, physicians, pharmacists, nurses, and support workers), presentations, group visits (with 2-6 clinicians), and 1-on-1 visits (traditional academic detailing visits). Academic detailers had direct and ongoing contact with the nursing homes from the time of launch. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome, defined at the level of the resident, was whether continuous antipsychotics were dispensed in the past week. Secondary outcomes included prescribing of other psychotropic medications and clinical outcomes and scores. Prescribing outcomes were assessed at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months, and clinical outcomes and scores were assessed at baseline and 3 and 6 months. RESULTS: A total of 40 nursing homes with 5363 residents were randomized, with 18 intervention homes (45.0%; 2303 [42.9%] residents) and 22 control homes (55.0%; 3060 [57.1%] residents). Participants in the intervention and control groups had similar median (interquartile range) age (86 [79-91] years vs 85 [78-90] years) and sex (674 [29.3%] men vs 970 [31.7%] men). At 12 months, there was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of daily antipsychotic use (intervention: 569 patients [25.2%]; control: 769 [25.6%]; odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.93-1.20; P = .49). There were no significant differences in the rates of health care utilization, but the intervention group did experience a statistically significant reduction in pain compared with the control group (mean [SD] pain score, 0.30 [0.59] vs 0.38 [0.66]; P < .001) and depression (mean [SD] Depression Rating Scale score, 2.18 [2.37] vs 2.81 [2.65]; P < .001) at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The intervention did not further reduce antipsychotic prescribing in nursing homes beyond system-level secular trends occurring alongside usual care. Our findings highlight the need for a more targeted approach to quality improvement strategies, including academic detailing, that account for the timing and topic of interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02604056.

Probiotics use for antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a pragmatic participatory evaluation in nursing homes.
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H. A. van Wietmarschen, M. Busch, A. van Oostveen, G. Pot and M. C. Jong.
BMC Gastroenterol 2020 May 13;20(1):151-020-01297-w
Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) occurs in 2-25% of nursing home residents, which may lead to dehydration, malnutrition, severe complications and hospitalizations. Research shows that probiotics can be effective and safe in reducing AAD. However, probiotics are not routinely used in Dutch nursing homes. The objectives of this evaluation were to develop a procedure for the implementation of probiotics to prevent AAD in nursing homes, to evaluate effects on AAD occurrence, and to evaluate the implementation process of probiotics in daily care. METHODS: A pragmatic participatory evaluation (PPE) design was chosen, as it seemed a suitable approach for implementation of probiotics, as well as for evaluation of its effectiveness in daily nursing home practice. Probiotics administration was implemented in three nursing homes of the Rivas Zorggroep for residents with somatic and/or psychogeriatric conditions. Ninety-three residents provided data on 167 episodes of antibiotics use, of which 84 episodes that included supplementation with probiotics and 83 episodes with no probiotics supplementation. A multispecies probiotics was administered twice daily upon start of antibiotic treatment, up to 1 week after completing the antibiotics course. The occurrence of AAD was monitored and a process evaluation was conducted to assess facilitators and barriers of probiotics implementation. RESULTS: The number of episodes with AAD when using probiotics was significantly lower than when no probiotics was used (20% vs 36%; p = 0,022, Chi-square). No significant differences in the occurrence of AAD were found between the residents taking amoxicillin/clavulanic acid or ciprofloxacin. Reported facilitators for implementation were perceived benefits of probiotics and prescription by medical staff. Reported challenges were probiotics intake by residents and individual decision-making as to which resident would benefit from it. CONCLUSION: Successful implementation of probiotics demonstrated the prevention of AAD in nursing home residents. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 94786163, retrospectively registered on 3 February 2020.

Optimizing sensory quality and variety: An effective strategy for increasing meal enjoyment and food intake in older nursing home residents.
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V. Van Wymelbeke, C. Sulmont-Rosse, V. Feyen, S. Issanchou, P. Manckoundia and I. Maitre.
Appetite 2020 May 22:104749
A decline in appetite and consequently in food intake is often observed with ageing, particularly in older adults living in nursing homes. Several strategies have been tested in nursing homes to counter this phenomenon. However, the approaches have rarely focused on food improvement, and most studies have assessed the impact of flavor enhancement on eating behavior. The present experiment aimed to assess the impact of improving sensory quality versus increasing sensory variety on food intake and meal enjoyment in elderly individuals living in a nursing home. Four conditions were compared: control condition, a Quality+ condition (recipes were improved according to sensory preference of the target population), a Variety+ condition (participants were offered a variety of main dishes and several condiments throughout the meal) and a Quality&Variety+ condition combining the two previous conditions. Eighty-two residents (age range: 71-101 years) participated in eight lunchtime sessions (2 replicates × 4 conditions). Compared to control condition, our results showed that improving the sensory quality of the dishes and/or providing variety led to increased meal enjoyment and food intake (energy intake: +5% for Quality+; +7% for Variety+). No additional effect was observed when the two factors were combined (+7% for Quality&Variety+). These results suggest that meal improvement strategies can be used to increase food intake in order to prevent and treat malnutrition in dependent older adults.


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Events & Training Opportunities

UNC Institute On Implementation Science – Virtual Summer Session

18 June 08:00-10:00 MT
Welcome and Introduction to New Practice Resources
Implementation Practice: Skills and Competencies
Leading with Principles: Reflections on Supporting Implementation during the COVID-19 Pandemic
How is our practice changing during the pandemic?
What principles are we relying on?
What skills and competencies seem most important now?
What are we learning and observing from the communities and systems we work in?
What will we carry with us in a post-pandemic world?
Closing and Preview of December Implementation Institute

Implementation Matters: Get People Ready For Implementation

9 June 10:00–12:00 MT
Purchase your ticket by 5 June $240
Presenters: Jonathan Scaccia, Julia Moore, Sobia Khan, and Jenny Kolodny-Goetz
While change is hard, it is often necessary – particularly now with the consequences of COVID-19 affecting us all. That’s why it’s important to understand ways to reduce barriers and friction to implementing programs, policies, and/or processes. Join professionals in this online event to gain practical tools, methods, and approaches to enhance readiness and inspire change.

Simplify the Research Process Using the SAGE Research Methods Project Planner

Tuesday Jun 09:30 MT
SAGE Research Methods provides access to a wealth of materials designed to help learn, teach, and explore methods across the social sciences. But did you also know that there are incredible tools built right into the platform that can aid faculty and students in meeting their various teaching and learning needs? This session will take attendees on a journey into the SRM Project Planner to discover how it guides users through the research process and why it is instrumental in aiding instruction design, research planning, and independent study.
After this session you will be able to:
• Use the Project Planner as a step-by-step guide to the research process
• Incorporate its content for instruction on the various research stages
• Locate additional content in SRM across disciplines and methods using this tool

Testing/Cohorting to Minimize Risk of COVID19 Transmission in Nursing Homes

Tuesday 2 June 10:00-11:30 MT
NASEM Health and Medicine
Nursing home residents make up less than one-half of one percent of the U.S. population, but represent approximately 27 percent of COVID-19 related deaths to date according to one recent estimate. Safeguarding frail, vulnerable nursing home patients, who tend to have multiple chronic conditions–and the health care professionals who care for them—is a very difficult, but surmountable challenge amidst the COVID-19 pandemic.
On April 22, 2020 the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine hosted a webinar on keeping nursing home residents and staff safe in the era of COVID-19, highlighting the innovative approaches to address these complex challenges that are currently being implemented in the state of Maryland. The collaborative approach involves health care professionals at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, the state department of health, emergency medicine professionals, and newly formed “strike teams” made up of members of the National Guard. A recording of the first webinar can be viewed here: https://www.nationalacademies.org/event/04-22-2020/keeping-nursing-home-residents-and-staff-safe-in-the-era-of-covid-19-a-webinar.Building on the first webinar, on June 2, 2020 the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine will host a webinar to:• Explore the challenges to—and appreciate the urgency of—effective cohorting of nursing home residents during the COVID-19 outbreak to prevent virus transmission• Discuss the design and implementation of an actionable cohorting strategy based on CDC Guidance

• Examine approaches to mitigate risk associated with new admissions, readmissions and residents who must routinely leave the nursing home or long-term care facility for medical appointments

Please join us for an informative discussion of pragmatic approaches to keeping nursing home residents and staff safe during the COVID-19 outbreak. The webinar will be recorded and archived at this webpage: https://www.nationalacademies.org/event/06-02-2020/keeping-nursing-home-residents-and-staff-safe-in-the-era-of-covid-19-effective-testing-and-cohorting-to-minimize-risk-of-transmission

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Supports for LTC Team Members during COVID-19

Communication Tip Sheet for redeployed staff working in long-term care with residents with cognitive impairment

CDC: Preparing for COVID-19 in Nursing Homes

Key Strategies to Prepare for COVID-19 in Long-Term Care Facilities (LTCFs)

CMS Term Care Nursing Homes Telehealth and Telemedicine Tool Kit

CMS Toolkit on State Actions to Mitigate COVID-19 Prevalence in Nursing Homes

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Do you have any of these 4 bad habits of managers? Here’s how to change them

Why did it take a pandemic to pay attention to LTC?

The Striking Racial Divide in How Covid-19 Has Hit Nursing Homes

Ontario Takes Immediate Action to Investigate Worst Hit Long-Term Care Homes

Canadian military releases ‘deeply disturbing’ report on Ontario long-term care facilities

CAF Canadian Armed Forces Operational Observations of LTCF

If Doug Ford wants long-term care reform, he should be bold and decisive and just do it

COVID-19: Scientists have lost their passive social check-in

Inspection reports reveal critical gaps inside Quebec nursing homes ravaged by COVID-19

Over 90% of Corporate Directors at Canada’s Biggest For-Profit Nursing Homes Have No Medical Qualifications

Covid-19: “Huge rise” in deaths at home is not fully explained by virus, say experts

New temporary program announced to support research staff in Canada

Coronavirus: Care homes should have been prioritised from the start, MPs told (UK)

Political fallout of long-term care reports [podcast]

Integrating implementation science into covid-19 response and recovery

Highlighting the ethics of implementation research

The decline of women’s research production during the coronavirus pandemic

UK MPs hear why Hong Kong had no Covid-19 care home deaths

How shoring up hospitals for COVID-19 contributed to Canada’s long-term care crisis

Women make up over half of COVID-19 deaths in Canada, counter to trends in most of world

How to Improve and Protect Nursing Homes From Outbreaks

‘We were kept in the dark’: life in a long-term care facility during the COVID-19 outbreak
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