Hoben M, Banerjee S, Beeber AS, Chamberlain SA, Hughes L, O’Rourke HM, et al.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2021 aug.
OBJECTIVES: Maximizing quality of life (QoL) is the ultimate goal of long-term dementia care. However, routine QoL measurement is rare in nursing home (NH) and assisted living (AL) facilities. Routine QoL measurement might lead to improvements in resident QoL. Our objective was to assess the feasibility of using DEMQOL-CH, completed by long-term care staff in video calls with researchers, to assess health-related quality of life (HrQoL) of NH and AL residents with dementia or other cognitive impairment. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We included a convenience sample of 5 NHs and 5 AL facilities in the Canadian province of Alberta. Forty-two care staff who had worked in the facility for ≥3 months completed DEMQOL-CH assessments of 183 residents who had lived in the facility for 3 months or more and were aged ≥65 years. Sixteen residents were assessed independently by 2 care staff to assess inter-rater reliability. METHODS: We assessed HrQoL in people with dementia or other cognitive impairment using DEMQOL-CH, and assessed time to complete, inter-rater reliability, internal consistency reliability, and care staff ratings of feasibility of completing the DEMQOL-CH. RESULTS: Average time to complete DEMQOL-CH was <5 minutes. Staff characteristics were not associated with time to complete or DEMQOL-CH scores. Inter-rater reliability [0.735, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.712-0.780] and internal consistency reliability (0.834, 95% CI: 0.779-0.864) were high. The DEMQOL-CH score varied across residents (mean = 84.8, standard deviation = 11.20, 95% CI: 83.2-86.4). Care aides and managers rated use of the DEMQOL-CH as highly feasible, acceptable, and valuable. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: This study provides a proof of concept that DEMQOL-CH can be used to assess HrQoL in NH and AL residents and provides initial indications of feasibility and resources required. DEMQOL-CH may be used to support actions to improve the QoL of residents.
Clavijo-Chamorro MZ, Sanz-Martos S, Gomez-Luque A, Romero-Zarallo G, Lopez-Medina IM.
West J Nurs Res 2020 jan;43(1):60-72.
Nurses have numerous difficulties in implementing science due to obstacles related to the work context. The aim is to explore the work-context-related facilitators of the application of evidence in clinical practice by nursing professionals. Qualitative meta-synthesis of primary studies on nurses’ experiences of work-context-related facilitators, as defined by the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services model. Using the Qualitative Appraisal and Review Instrument of the Joanna Briggs Institute. Of the total 57 primary research articles included, an explanatory model of the facilitating factors related to the work context was generated on the basis of four general categories: institutional support (leadership), multidisciplinary support (teamwork and communication), culture of improving quality of care (nursing professionals’ attitudes towards change) and use of research (valuing research). Action can be taken on the facilitating factors of the evidence-based practice application in nursing clinical environments, providing resources and motivation from the organization.
Health & social care in the community 2021 aug.
Long-term care (LTC) facilities have emerged as the single most critical location for the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic across Canada and internationally. Yet the voices of health care aides (HCAs), an overwhelmingly female and racialized workforce who provide essential daily care to LTC residents, have largely been ignored to-date. This community-based research study provides new data collected from 25 in-depth individual interviews with immigrant women HCAs who were working in LTC in Calgary, Alberta between January 1 and March 30, 2021. The data, analysed through the lens of intersectional exclusion, highlight how the pandemic has impacted the working lives of immigrant women employed in LTC facilities on a daily basis, as well as their suggestions for enhancing their safety and employment conditions. Two key themes emerged during the process of data analysis: (a) HCA experiences of economic exclusion and workplace precarity-many of which pre-dated the pandemic but have been exacerbated by current policies and practices that prioritize profits over quality of community care, and (b) experiences of broader social exclusion, many of which are tied to being considered “just HCAs” who are doing “immigrant’s work”, rather than including HCAs in broader conversations about how to reform and improve the LTC sector for future. Concluding thoughts discuss how to improve policy to support low wage workers within LTC in order to address intersectional inequalities and to better support front-line care workers during current and future health pandemic recovery efforts.
Toles M, Colon-Emeric C, Moreton E, Frey L, Leeman J.
BMC health services research 2021 aug;21(1):803.
BACKGROUND: Quality improvement (QI) is used in nursing homes (NH) to implement and sustain improvements in patient outcomes. Little is known about how QI strategies are used in NHs. This lack of information is a barrier to replicating successful strategies. Guided by the Framework for Implementation Research, the purpose of this study was to map-out the use, evaluation, and reporting of QI strategies in NHs. METHODS: This scoping review was completed to identify reports published between July 2003 through February 2019. Two reviewers screened articles and included those with (1) the term “quality improvement” to describe their methods, or reported use of a QI model (e.g., Six Sigma) or strategy (e.g., process mapping) (2), findings related to impact on service and/or resident outcomes, and (3) two or more NHs included. Reviewers extracted data on study design, setting, population, problem, solution to address problem, QI strategies, and outcomes (implementation, service, and resident). Vote counting and narrative synthesis were used to describe the use of QI strategies, implementation outcomes, and service and/or resident outcomes. RESULTS: Of 2302 articles identified, the full text of 77 articles reporting on 59 studies were included. Studies focused on 23 clinical problems, most commonly pressure ulcers, falls, and pain. Studies used an average of 6 to 7 QI strategies. The rate that strategies were used varied substantially, e.g., the rate of in-person training (55%) was more than twice the rate of plan-do-study-act cycles (20%). On average, studies assessed two implementation outcomes; the rate these outcomes were used varied widely, with 37% reporting on staff perceptions (e.g., feasibility) of solutions or QI strategies vs. 8% reporting on fidelity and sustainment. Most studies (n = 49) reported service outcomes and over half (n = 34) reported resident outcomes. In studies with statistical tests of improvement, service outcomes improved more often than resident outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This study maps-out the scope of published, peer-reviewed studies of QI in NHs. The findings suggest preliminary guidance for future studies designed to promote the replication and synthesis of promising solutions. The findings also suggest strategies to refine procedures for more effective improvement work in NHs.
Stigma and discrimination heighten the already significant psychological, social, emotional and financial impacts that dementia has on individuals, their carers, families and communities. To address this challenge, the Global action plan on the public health response to dementia 2017–2025 dedicates one action area on dementia awareness and friendliness.
Towards a dementia-inclusive society: WHO toolkit for dementia-friendly initiatives supports individuals, communities and countries in raising awareness of, and empowering people living with, dementia to remain in, and be a significant part of, their community. The toolkit provides practical guidance and tools that can support efforts, including planning and implementation activities, to create dementia-inclusive societies.
The toolkit is divided into two parts. Part I contains background information and a conceptual framework for creating dementia-inclusive societies. Part II includes four practical modules, each featuring a series of practical steps and exercises. The four modules focus on: starting a new dementia-friendly initiative (DFI), integrating dementia into an existing initiative, monitoring and evaluation a DFI, and scaling a DFI. The modules can be used together or separately and offer guidance that can be adapted to suit local needs and settings.
There is no question that COVID-19 has had devastating consequences in long-term care for residents, staff and families. Media provided heart-wrenching stories about conditions in care homes and pictures of residents peering through windows. Numerous reports have been documenting the factors that contributed to the disaster, identifying once again what needs to change.
However, as is often the case in disasters, there are signs of light emerging from the devastation. Here we highlight three promising developments based on our current research project, “COVID-19, Families and Long-Term Care.”