December 7, 2021


New TREC article
Rushing Care by Care Aides Associated With Experiences of Responsive Behaviors From Residents in Nursing Homes.
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Song Y, Thorne TE, Norton PG, Poss J, DeGraves B, Estabrooks CA.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2021 nov.
OBJECTIVES: Residents with cognitive impairment favor “slow care,” so rushed care may cause additional responsive behaviors (eg, verbal threats, hitting) among residents. We assessed the association of rushed care (physical and social) by care aides with their experiences of responsive behaviors from residents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of survey data. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 3547 care aides (response rate: 69.97%) in 282 care units in a stratified random sample (health region, nursing home size, owner-operator model) of 87 urban nursing homes in Western Canada. METHODS: Data collection occurred between September 2019 and February 2020. The dependent variables were care aide self-report of 4 types of verbal and physical responsive behavior (yes/no). The independent variables were care aide self-report of rushed physical care (count, range = 0-6) and rushed social care (yes/no). We conducted a 2-level random-intercept logistic regression with each dependent variable, controlling for care aide, care unit, and nursing home characteristics. RESULTS: In their most recent shift, 2182 (61.5%) care aides reported having rushed at least 1 physical care task and 1782 (50.2%) reported having rushed talking with residents (social care task). When care aides rushed an additional physical care task, they had 8% higher odds of reporting having experienced yelling and screaming [odds ratio (OR) 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.15; P = .019]. When care aides rushed social care (talking with residents), they had 70% higher odds of reporting having experienced yelling and screaming (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.28-2.25; P < .001). We observed the same pattern for the other types of responsive behaviors. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Rushing of physical or social care tasks by care aides was associated with increased likelihood of responsive behaviors from residents. One approach to reducing both rushed care and resident responsive behaviors may be to improve the care environment for care aides and residents.

New article by Lisa Cranley
Capacity of nurses working in long-term care: A systematic review qualitative synthesis.
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Compton RM, Hubbard Murdoch Natasha, Press MM, Lowe ME, Ottley KM, Barlow M, et al.
J Clin Nurs 2021 nov.
BACKGROUND: The United Nations calculates there were 703 million adults 65 years and older globally as of 2019 with this number projected to double by 2050. A significant number of older adults live with comorbid health conditions, making the role of a nurse in long-term care (LTC) complex. Our objective was to identify the challenges, facilitators, workload, professional development and clinical environment issues that influence nurses and nursing students to seek work and continue to work in LTC settings. METHODS: Eligibility criteria included being a nurse in a LTC setting and research with a substantial qualitative component. Multiple databases (including Medline and CINAHL) were searched between 2013 and 2019 along with grey literature. Covidence was used to organise a team of 10 into a paired review of titles and abstracts to the final full text screening, extraction and appraisal with the CASP Qualitative Studies Checklist. Analysis involved a thematic synthesis approach. The Enhancing Transparency in Reporting the Synthesis of Qualitative Research (ENTREQ) checklist informed the writing of the review. RESULTS: The search resulted in 18 articles and dissertations. Areas investigated included recruitment, resilience, employment and retention, how nurses perceived their professional work, rewards and difficulties, supervision, student preceptorship and career aspiration, nurses’ perceptions of occupational status, along with leadership, education and development needs, and intentions to manage resident deteriorating health. The five themes were (1) perspectives of nursing influenced by the organisation, (2) pride in, and capacity to build relationships, (3) stretching beyond the technical skills, (4) autonomy, and (5) taking on the challenge of societal perceptions. DISCUSSION: This review revealed what is required to recruit nursing students to careers in LTC and retain nurses. To be explored is how staff can work to their full scope of practice and the resultant impact on resident care, including how to maximise a meaningful life for residents and their families. REGISTRATION: National Institute for Health Research UK (Prospero ID: CRD42019125214).

New article by Janice Keefe
How Residents’ Quality of Life are Represented in Long-Term Care Policy: A Novel Method to Support Policy Analysis
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Taylor D, Keefe J.
Journal of Long-Term Care 2021.
Context: In one’s final years, quality of life (QoL) is a fundamental desire. In Canada, a publicly-funded long-term care (LTC) system is governed provincially through multiple policies about housing and care provision. A pan-Canadian research team investigated federal and provincial policies’ influence on the QoL of older people living in residential LTC in four provinces: British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, and Nova Scotia. Objective(s): This paper describes a novel method of policy analysis developed by the authors to analyse the inclusion of QoL domains within these LTC policies, and assess implications for residents, their families, and staff. Method(s): Within the novel method mentioned there were four stages in the method that consisted of an iterative and collaborative approach to understanding the relationships between LTC regulations and resident QoL domains through four perspectives (resident, staff, family, volunteer). At first, inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied to select appropriate policies, and secondly, policy texts were to coded according to Kane’s (2001) QoL domains. The third stage involved assigning a level of regulatory power, with the final stage interrogating the policy categorisation data from four perspectives: residents, families, volunteers and workers. Findings: The outcome revealed a dominant discourse of safety, security, and order over other domains such as dignity, privacy, and spirituality. Limitations: Policies dictate regulatory and guiding principles, and are only one part of the story. How these policies are implemented is beyond the scope of our research, but we recognize that understanding these implementation practices are essential to fully capture the experiences of residents, their families, and staff. Implications: This novel method is useful in exploring how QoL is supported across a high number of complex cross-jurisdictional policies. We conclude that our approach to policy analysis enables a re-examination of policies affecting LTC and assesses whether these policies reflect the values of the residents and society at large.

New article by Greta Cummings
Policy Advocacy and Nursing Organizations: A Scoping Review.
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Chiu P, Cummings GG, Thorne S, Schick-Makaroff K.
Policy, politics & nursing practice 2021 nov;22(4):271-291.
Policy advocacy is a fundamental component of nursing’s social mandate. While it has become a core function of nursing organizations across the globe, the discourse around advocacy has focused largely on the responsibilities and accountabilities of individual nurses, with little attention to the policy advocacy work undertaken by nursing organizations. To strengthen this critical function, an understanding of the extant literature is needed to identify areas that require further research. We conducted a scoping review to examine the nature, extent, and range of scholarly work focused on nursing organizations and policy advocacy. A systematic search of six databases produced 4,731 papers and 68 were included for analysis and synthesis. Findings suggest that the literature has been increasing over the years, is largely non-empirical, and covers a broad range of topics ranging from the role and purpose of nursing organizations in policy advocacy, the identity of nursing organizations, the development and process of policy advocacy initiatives, the policy advocacy products of nursing organizations, and the impact and evaluation of organizations’ policy advocacy work. Based on the review, we identify several research gaps and propose areas for further research to strengthen the influence and impact of this critical function undertaken by nursing organizations.

New book on aging in Canada
The Four Lenses of Population Aging: Planning for the Future in Canada’s Provinces
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Patrik Marier
University of Toronto Press, 2021
This book analyses the actions and plans enacted by the ten Canadian provinces to prepare for the new reality of an aging society.

Scan of LTC Visitor Policies
Care home visitor policies: a global scan of the latest strategies in countries with high vaccination rates

International Public Policy Observatory, November 25, 2021
This scan has been carried out by members of LTCcovid network, a global platform that shares learning on COVID policy and practice responses in long-term care systems. It includes detailed case studies from six countries: Australia, Canada, Iceland, Israel, Norway and the Netherlands.

New article on iKT in LTC
Integrated knowledge translation in nursing homes: exploring the experiences of practice development nurses.
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Steinskog TD, Tranv\aag O, Ciliska D, Nortvedt MW, Graverholt B.
BMC health services research 2021 nov;21(1):1283.
BACKGROUND: Practice Development Nurses (PDNs) in Norwegian nursing homes (NHs) hold a specific responsibility for knowledge translation in this increasingly complex healthcare setting. They were involved as end users in an integrated knowledge translation (IKT) study, developing, testing and evaluating the IMPAKT (IMPlementation of Action to Knowledge Translation) intervention. PDNs participated in an educational programme tailored to their own defined needs. In a second intervention component, the PDNs applied their new skills with facilitation, in implementing the National Early Warning Score (NEWS2) in their respective NHs. The aim of this study was to explore 1) the PDNs’ experiences of participating in an IKT educational intervention, and 2) how they applied the learning in planning, tailoring and initial implementation of the NEWS2. METHODS: This is a qualitative exploratory study based on a phenomenological hermeneutical method. Study participants were PDNs working in the nine NHs in the intervention group of the IMPAKT trial. We conducted nine in-depth interviews and eight non-participatory observational sessions of the intervention delivery. RESULTS: The PDNs expressed that the educational programme met their needs and enhanced their understanding about leading knowledge translation (KT). They reported a move from operating in a “big black box of implementation” to a professional and structured mode of KT. The gamechanger was a shift from KT as the PDNs’ individual responsibility to KT as an organizational matter. The PDNs reported enhanced competencies in KT and in their ability to involve and collaborate with others in their facility. Organizational contextual factors challenged their KT efforts and implementation of the NEWS2. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that an IKT approach has the potential to advance and improve staff competencies and NH readiness for KT. However, individual motivations and competencies were challenged within an organizational culture which was less receptive to this new leadership role and level of KT activity.

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