August 16, 2022


New TREC articles
This was my Crimean War: COVID-19 Experiences of Nursing Home Leaders
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Savage A, Young S, Titley HK, Thorne TE, Spiers J, Estabrooks CA.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association [Internet]. 2022 Aug.
Objective To describe professional and personal experiences of nursing home care leaders during early waves of the COVID-19 pandemic.

A Matter for Life and Death: Managing Psychological Trauma in Care Homes
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Estabrooks CA, Titley HK, Thorne T, Banerjee S, Feldman HH, Silvius J, et al.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. 2022 Jul;23(7):1123–6.
People experience profound aftereffects throughout their lifespan from psychological trauma: severe psychological distress following a disturbing, horrendous event, such as war, genocide, natural disaster, abuse (sexual, physical, emotional), or complex developmental trauma, including severe neglect. Trauma results from overwhelming stress that exceeds ability to cope. It affects ∼50% to 70% of all people and up to 90% of people with histories of mental disorders. Although not all trauma results in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), up to 40% of people who experience a traumatic event will develop clinically significant symptoms during their lives. The estimated prevalence of PTSD is 7% to 9% in the general population and up to 65% in care homes (nursing homes) for veterans and Holocaust survivors. PTSD affects brain, mind, and body. Rather than abating with age, the impact of trauma can intensify with conditions including dementia. For older adults who successfully managed past trauma, new stresses, such as care home admission, can reactivate PTSD or activate late-onset PTSD. For people in care homes, the COVID-19 pandemic has both presented new and exacerbated past trauma.

New article by Andrea Gruneir, Carole Estabrooks, and Greta Cummings
Instruments to assess frailty in community dwelling older adults: A systematic review.
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Rasiah J, Gruneir A, Oelke ND, Estabrooks C, Holroyd-Leduc J, Cummings GG.
International journal of nursing studies. 2022 Jun;134:104316.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Frailty has been investigated for decades with a proliferation of frailty instruments attributed to many existing conceptual models and operational criteria. The purpose of this systematic review was to understand how instruments were developed to assess frailty in community dwelling older adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This review followed standard conduct, reporting, and quality assessment guidelines. Articles published in English that described instruments used to measure frailty in community dwelling older adults 65 years of age or older; and instruments developed for research purposes or in clinical practice were included. MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE (March 2022) and Abstracts in Social Gerontology (March 2020) were searched. RESULTS: A total of 32 frailty instruments were identified with self-reported, performance-based, or researcher/clinician observed items. Common characteristics across instruments were categorized as follows: frailty conceptualized as a state or a syndrome; frailty operationalized as continuous, categorical, or dichotomous; and instruments developed for clinical, research or both purposes. All items in the instruments were developed based on theories of frailty; some were informed by panels of experts; and others used statistical methods to compare variables across instruments. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Results from this review will assist clinicians/researchers select appropriate instruments to assess frailty in older adults living in the community. It is time to pause on the development of more instruments. Instead, efforts must be directed toward advancing research and clinical practice using existing validated instruments to inform clinical decision-making and health care coordination to avoid, delay, or manage frailty in the community. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: More research and clinical practice using existing validated frailty instruments to assess frailty in older adults living in the community is a must!

New movie on dementia experience

Gaspar Noé, Director
Available to stream or purchase via Apple TV
With his latest film, outré director Gaspar Noé (Enter the Void) goes from enfant terrible to old age. Presented almost entirely in split-screen, Vortex charts the decline of an elderly couple largely limited to their claustrophobic Paris flat. “The Mother” — played by Françoise Lebrun — struggles with dementia. Through her eyes we see the confounding terror of her condition, in which a simple wander to the shops can feel like an inescapable nightmare. Legendary giallo director Dario Argento plays her husband (credited as “The Father”), a film critic chiefly concerned with cinema’s relation to dreams, and whose physical health — namely his heart — is similarly in decline. As relentless as ever, Noé eschews the extremes of drugs and violence present in his past work for the unique brand of havoc that only time can wreak, made clear in the film’s dedication: “To all those whose brains will decompose before their hearts.”

Canadian LTC COVID data no longer being collected
Project tracking COVID-19 in Canadian long-term care paused due to lack of data from provinces

A think tank that’s been compiling data on COVID-19 in Canadian long-term care homes says it has to stop its work because provinces are no longer making enough information public about the spread of the virus in the sector.

New scoping review on dissemination frameworks
A scoping review of frameworks in empirical studies and a review of dissemination frameworks.
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Baumann A, Crea-Arsenio M, Lavoie-Tremblay M, Meershoek A, Norman P, Deber R.
Healthcare policy = Politiques de sante. 2022;17(SP):27–39.
BACKGROUND: The field of dissemination and implementation (D&I) research has grown immensely in recent years. However, the field of dissemination research has not coalesced to the same degree as the field of implementation research. To advance the field of dissemination research, this review aimed to (1) identify the extent to which dissemination frameworks are used in dissemination empirical studies, (2) examine how scholars define dissemination, and (3) identify key constructs from dissemination frameworks. METHODS: To achieve aims 1 and 2, we conducted a scoping review of dissemination studies published in D&I science journals. The search strategy included manuscripts published from 1985 to 2020. Articles were included if they were empirical quantitative or mixed methods studies about the dissemination of information to a professional audience. Studies were excluded if they were systematic reviews, commentaries or conceptual papers, scale-up or scale-out studies, qualitative or case studies, or descriptions of programs. To achieve aim 1, we compiled the frameworks identified in the empirical studies. To achieve aim 2, we compiled the definitions from dissemination from frameworks identified in aim 1 and from dissemination frameworks identified in a 2021 review (Tabak RG, Am J Prev Med 43:337-350, 2012). To achieve aim 3, we compile the constructs and their definitions from the frameworks. FINDINGS: Out of 6017 studies, 89 studies were included for full-text extraction. Of these, 45 (51%) used a framework to guide the study. Across the 45 studies, 34 distinct frameworks were identified, out of which 13 (38%) defined dissemination. There is a lack of consensus on the definition of dissemination. Altogether, we identified 48 constructs, divided into 4 categories: process, determinants, strategies, and outcomes. Constructs in the frameworks are not well defined. IMPLICATION FOR D&I RESEARCH: This study provides a critical step in the dissemination research literature by offering suggestions on how to define dissemination research and by cataloging and defining dissemination constructs. Strengthening these definitions and distinctions between D&I research could enhance scientific reproducibility and advance the field of dissemination research.

New Canadian article on why leadership in LTC during COVID is so important
Exemplars in Long-Term Care during COVID-19: The Importance of Leadership.
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Baumann AA, Hooley C, Kryzer E, Morshed AB, Gutner CA, Malone S, et al.
Implementation science : IS. 2022 Aug;17(1):53.
Early in the pandemic, many long-term care (LTC) homes struggled to manage resources and care for vulnerable residents. Using an appreciative inquiry approach, we analyzed exemplar homes in Ontario that remained free of COVID-19 in wave one and interviewed executive directors, directors of care and staff. Findings demonstrate the importance of leadership styles; clear, consistent communication; focusing on staff and resident safety; using a team-based approach; and adapting staff roles to meet care needs. The exemplar homes showed what works in practice. The decisions and approaches that they implemented could be used to develop standards to improve LTC and strengthen the sector. Copyright © 2022 Longwoods Publishing.

New position statement on policy recommendations for Long Term Care from the American College of Physicians
Long-Term Services and Supports for Older Adults: A Position Paper From the American College of Physicians.
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Crowley R, Atiq O, Hilden D.
Annals of internal medicine. 2022 Jul.
The number of Americans aged 65 years or older is expected to increase in the coming decades. Because the risk for disability increases with age, more persons will need long-term services and supports (LTSS) to help with bathing, eating, dressing, and other everyday tasks. Long-term services and supports are delivered in nursing homes, assisted living facilities, the person’s home, and other settings. However, the LTSS sector faces several challenges, including keeping patients and staff safe during the COVID-19 pandemic, workforce shortages, quality problems, and fragmented coverage options. In this position paper, the American College of Physicians offers policy recommendations on LTSS coverage, financing, workforce, safety and quality, and emergency preparedness and calls on policymakers and other stakeholders to reform and improve the LTSS sector so that care is high quality, accessible, equitable, and affordable.

New Canadian article on policy implications of COVID for the LTC Sector
COVID-19 and Long-Term Care: What Have We Learned?
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Deber R, Crea-Arsenio M, Lavoie-Tremblay M, Baumann A.
Healthcare Policy | Politiques de Santé. 2022 Jun;17(SP):8–13.
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to thousands of deaths; of these, a disproportionate number has occurred in long-term care settings. The papers presented here deal with a number of issues highlighted by this crisis in several jurisdictions, including Ontario, Quebec and the Netherlands. Analyzing these may give us some insight into what is necessary to prevent this disaster from happening again.

New article on best practices for managing COVID in LTC
Managing the Impact of COVID-19 in Nursing Homes and Long-Term Care Facilities: An Update.
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Dyer AH, Fallon A, Noonan C, Dolphin H, O’Farrelly C, Bourke NM, et al.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. 2022 Jul.
Older adults in nursing homes are at greatest risk of morbidity and mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nursing home residents constituted one-third to more than half of all deaths during the early waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. Following this, widespread adaptation of infection prevention and control measures and the supply and use of personal protective equipment resulted in a significant decrease in nursing home infections and deaths. For nursing homes, the most important determinant of experiencing a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in the first instance appears to be community-transmission levels (particularly with variants of concern), although nursing home size and quality, for-profit status, and sociodemographic characteristics are also important. Use of visitation bans, imposed to reduce the impact of COVID-19 on residents, must be delicately balanced against their impact on resident, friend or family, and staff well-being. The successful rollout of primary vaccination has resulted in a sharp decrease in morbidity and mortality from SARS-CoV-2 in nursing homes. However, emerging evidence suggests that vaccine efficacy may wane over time, and the use of a third or additional vaccine “booster” doses in nursing home residents restores protection afforded by primary vaccination. Ongoing monitoring of vaccine efficacy in terms of infection, morbidity, and mortality is crucial in this vulnerable group in informing ongoing SARS-CoV-2 vaccine boosting strategies. Here, we detail the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on nursing home residents and discuss important considerations in the management of nursing home SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks. We additionally examine the use of testing strategies, nonpharmacologic outbreak control measures and vaccination strategies in this cohort. Finally, the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the sector is reflected on as we emphasize the need for adoption of universal standards of medical care and integration with wider public health infrastructure in nursing homes in order to provide a safe and effective long-term care sector.

New article on NH employees’ perspectives on staffing issues during COVID
Perspectives of certified nursing assistants and administrators on staffing the nursing home frontline during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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Franzosa E, Mak W, R Burack O, Hokenstad A, Wiggins F, Boockvar KS, et al.
Health services research. 2022;57(4):905–13.
OBJECTIVE: To identify best practices to support and grow the frontline nursing home workforce based on the lived experience of certified nursing assistants (CNAs) and administrators during COVID-19., STUDY SETTING: Primary data collection with CNAs and administrators in six New York metro area nursing homes during fall 2020., STUDY DESIGN: Semi-structured interviews and focus groups exploring staffing challenges during COVID-19, strategies used to address them, and recommendations moving forward., DATA COLLECTION: We conducted interviews with 6 administrators and held 10 focus groups with day and evening shift CNAs (n = 56) at 6 nursing homes. Data were recorded and transcribed verbatim and analyzed through directed content analysis using a combined inductive and deductive approach to compare perceptions across sites and roles., PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: CNAs and administrators identified chronic staffing shortages that affected resident care and staff burnout as a primary concern moving forward. CNAs who felt most supported and confident in their continued ability to manage their work and the pandemic described leadership efforts to support workers’ emotional health and work-life balance, teamwork across staff and management, and accessible and responsive leadership. However, not all CNAs felt these strategies were in place., CONCLUSIONS: Based on priorities identified by CNAs and administrators, we recommend several organizational/industry and policy-level practices to support retention for this workforce. Practices to stabilize the workforce should include 1) teamwork and person-centered operational practices including transparent communication; 2) increasing permanent staff to avoid shortages; and 3) evaluating and building on successful COVID-related innovations (self-managed teams and flexible benefits). Policy and regulatory changes to promote these efforts are necessary to developing industry-wide structural practices that target CNA recruitment and retention. Copyright © 2022 Health Research and Educational Trust.

New review identifies the factors that contribute to the innovation readiness of health care organizations
Factors contributing to innovation readiness in health care organizations: a scoping review.
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van den Hoed MW, Backhaus R, de Vries E, Hamers JPH, Daniëls R.
BMC health services research. 2022 Aug;22(1):997.
BACKGROUND: Increasing innovation readiness of healthcare organizations is necessary to meet upcoming challenges, including population aging, staff shortages and reduced funding. Health care organizations differ in the extent to which they are innovation ready. This review aims to clarify the concept of innovation readiness and identify which factors contribute to innovation readiness in health care organizations. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted based on the framework from Arksey and O’Malley. PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL and Web of Science were searched for studies that (a) aimed to contribute to scientific knowledge about innovation readiness of health care organizations, (b) were peer-reviewed, (c) reported empirical data and (d) were written in English, Dutch or German. Factors researched in the included studies were bundled into 4 overarching main factors and 10 sub-factors. RESULTS: Of the 6,208 studies identified, 44 were included. The majority (n = 36) of the studies had been conducted since 2011 and almost half of the studies (n = 19) were performed in hospitals. Of the 44 studies, 21 researched factors contributing to innovation readiness in the implementation stage of the innovation process. The authors used a variety of words and descriptions addressing innovation readiness, with hardly any theoretical frameworks for innovation readiness presented. Four main factors and 10 sub-factors contributing to the innovation readiness of health care organizations were summarized: strategic course for innovation, climate for innovation, leadership for innovation and commitment to innovation. Climate for innovation (n = 16) was studied the most and individual commitment to innovation (n = 6) was the least studied. CONCLUSION: Our study identified four main factors contributing to the innovation readiness of health care organizations. Research into innovation readiness of health care organizations is a rather new field. Future research could be directed towards defining the concept of innovation readiness and the development of a framework for innovation readiness. More understanding of the interplay of factors contributing to innovation readiness in all stages of the innovation process and in diverse health care settings can support health care managers to structurally embed innovation. This review contributes to the first stage of theory building on factors contributing to innovation readiness of health care organizations.

New articles on trauma informed care
Implementation of Trauma-Informed Care in Nursing Home Settings
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Kusmaul N, Wallace BH, Cheon JH, Sundborg S.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. 2022 Jun.
Trauma-informed care (TIC) emphasizes the need for engagement at every level, including management, direct care staff, and clients, assuming that all stakeholders involved might have a past traumatic experience affecting current behavior. Through TIC, staff realizes the pervasive nature of trauma; recognizes it in clients, themselves, and peers; and the agency responds with policies and practices resisting retraumatization. TIC mitigates the long-term effects of traumatic experiences, including earlier morbidity and mortality, and posttraumatic stress disorder by ensuring safety; trustworthiness and transparency; peer support; collaboration and mutuality; empowerment, voice, and choice—contextualized by historical and cultural factors. Medicare- and Medicaid-certified nursing homes must use TIC as part of person-centered care, such that a resident’s plan of care must be culturally competent and trauma informed, take a resident’s preferences into consideration, and reduce or eliminate retraumatization triggers. However, there is little research examining TIC in aging services.

Trauma informed care in nursing: A concept analysis.
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Goddard A, Jones R, Etcher L.
Nursing outlook. 2022;70(3):429–39.
BACKGROUND: Pandemic-related community-wide trauma on have forced examination of chronic stress exposure response. PURPOSE: The aim of this concept analysis was to provide definition and framework for the conceptual meaning of trauma-informed care as foundation for all nursing professionals as we together meet the needs for a changing patient population in a post-pandemic world. METHODS: Using Walker and Avant’s (2019) concept analysis method, exhaustive multidisciplinary and ancestry searches were conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, ERIC, and PsychINFO with 15 relevant manuscripts that were evaluated for relevance to the concept analysis in the context of nursing. DISCUSSION: This analysis proposes a working definition of trauma-informed care in nursing to provide framework for clinical care and research inquiry. Trauma-informed care decreases the impact of psychological trauma for individuals within the healthcare system. CONCLUSION: A comprehensive, multi-disciplinary approach to trauma through trauma-informed care requires universal recognition and screening. Targeted interventions create a system of healing through empowerment, relationship building, and reduction in trauma triggers.

New article on measuring research impact for implementation scientists
Metrics to evaluate implementation scientists in the USA: what matters most?
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Maddox BB, Phan ML, Byeon YV, Wolk CB, Stewart RE, Powell BJ, et al.
Implementation science communications. 2022 Jul;3(1):75.
BACKGROUND: Implementation science has grown rapidly as a discipline over the past two decades. An examination of how publication patterns and other scholarly activities of implementation scientists are weighted in the tenure and promotion process is needed given the unique and applied focus of the field. METHODS: We surveyed implementation scientists (mostly from the USA) to understand their perspectives on the following matters: (1) factors weighted in tenure and promotion for implementation scientists, (2) how important these factors are for success as an implementation scientist, (3) how impact is defined for implementation scientists, (4) top journals in implementation science, and (5) how these journals are perceived with regard to their prestige. We calculated univariate descriptive statistics for all quantitative data, and we used Wilcoxon signed-rank tests to compare the participants’ ratings of various factors. We analyzed open-ended qualitative responses using content analysis. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-two implementation scientists completed the survey (response rate = 28.9%). Four factors were rated as more important for tenure and promotion decisions: number of publications, quality of publication outlets, success in obtaining external funding, and record of excellence in teaching. Six factors were rated as more important for overall success as an implementation scientist: presentations at professional meetings, involvement in professional service, impact of the implementation scientist’s scholarship on the local community and/or state, impact of the implementation scientist’s scholarship on the research community, the number and quality of the implementation scientist’s community partnerships, and the implementation scientist’s ability to disseminate their work to non-research audiences. Participants most frequently defined and described impact as changing practice and/or policy. This expert cohort identified Implementation Science as the top journal in the field. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, there was a significant mismatch between the factors experts identified as being important to academic success (e.g., tenure and promotion) and the factors needed to be a successful implementation scientist. Findings have important implications for capacity building, although they are largely reflective of the promotion and tenure process in the USA.

New article analyzing documents on the COVID LTC crisis in Ontario
COVID-19 Issues in Long-Term Care in Ontario: A Document Analysis.
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Oldenburger D, Baumann A, Crea-Arsenio M, Deber R, Baba V.
Healthcare policy = Politiques de sante. 2022 Jun;17(SP):53–65.
The COVID-19 crisis in long-term care in Canada has been characterized as a crisis upon a crisis. This study examines recent documents on the crisis in long-term care in Ontario, using document and thematic analysis to synthesize issues and recommendations from the perspectives of different groups and organizations. Thirty-three documents from 20 organizations were analysed and six thematic areas were identified: resident care; human resources; governance, leadership and management; financing; physical infrastructure and supplies; and training and preparation. The six common themes, as perceived by different perspectives, can inform policy makers on long-term care issues.

New article on the rationing of care in NHs
Increasing implicit rationing of care in nursing homes: A time-series cross-sectional analysis.
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Renner A, Ausserhofer D, Zúñiga F, Simon M, Serdaly C, Favez L..
International journal of nursing studies. 2022 Jun;134:104320.
BACKGROUND: Implicit rationing of nursing care is a socio-ecological problem where care workers, due to lack of resources, have to leave necessary nursing care activities undone. Cross-sectional studies on implicit rationing of nursing home care revealed associations with organizational and work environment characteristics. However, little is known on how implicit rationing of nursing care varies over time in nursing homes. OBJECTIVE: This study’s purpose was to describe changes in levels and patterns of implicit rationing of nursing care in Swiss nursing homes over time, while accounting for key explanatory factors related to organizational, work environment, and individual characteristics. DESIGN: Time-series cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: Nursing homes in Switzerland. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 47 nursing homes and 3269 care workers from all educational levels participating in two multicenter cross-sectional studies (the Swiss Nursing Home Human Resources Project) conducted in 2013 and 2018. METHODS: To quantify implicit rationing of nursing care, care workers’ data were collected via the nursing home version of the Basel Extent of Rationing of Nursing Care instrument. To control for leadership ability, staffing and resource adequacy, we used the Nursing Work Index-Practice Environment Scale. Objective measures including turnover, staffing and skill mix levels were aggregated at the nursing home level. Our analyses included multiple linear mixed models, using time as a fixed effect and nursing home as a random effect. RESULTS: We found overall increases of rationing of care activities over the five-year period studied, with documentation and social activities most rationed at both measurement points (overall coefficients varied between 0.11 and 0.23, as well as the 95%-confidence intervals between 0.05 and 0.30). Moreover, a considerable increase in rationing of activities of daily living (coefficient of 0.47 in 2013 and 0.63 in 2018) was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Alongside long-term deterioration of staff resources, increases in rationing of nursing care are a worrying development, particularly given their potential negative impacts both on residents and on care workers. To assess nursing home care quality and to determine adequate staffing levels and skill mixes, policy makers and nursing home managers should consider regular monitoring of rationing of nursing care. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Time-series cross-sectional analysis reveals increasing rationing of nursing care activities in Swiss nursing homes from 2013 to 2018.

New Canadian article on intersectionality and KT
Development and usability testing of tools to facilitate incorporating intersectionality in knowledge translation.
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Sibley KM, Kasperavicius D, Rodrigues IB, Giangregorio L, Gibbs JC, Graham ID, et al.
BMC health services research. 2022 Jun;22(1):830.
BACKGROUND: The field of knowledge translation (KT) has been criticized for neglecting contextual and social considerations that influence health equity. Intersectionality, a concept introduced by Black feminist scholars, emphasizes how human experience is shaped by combinations of social factors (e.g., ethnicity, gender) embedded in systemic power structures. Its use has the potential to advance equity considerations in KT. Our objective was to develop and conduct usability testing of tools to support integrating intersectionality in KT through three key phases of KT: identifying the gap; assessing barriers to knowledge use; and selecting, tailoring, and implementing interventions. METHODS: We used an integrated KT approach and assembled an interdisciplinary development committee who drafted tools. We used a mixed methods approach for usability testing with KT intervention developers that included semi-structured interviews and the System Usability Scale (SUS). We calculated an average SUS score for each tool. We coded interview data using the framework method focusing on actionable feedback. The development committee used the feedback to revise tools, which were formatted by a graphic designer. RESULTS: Nine people working in Canada joined the development committee. They drafted an intersectionality primer and one tool that included recommendations, activities, reflection prompts, and resources for each of the three implementation phases. Thirty-one KT intervention developers from three countries participated in usability testing. They suggested the tools to be shorter, contain more visualizations, and use less jargon. Average SUS scores of the draft tools ranged between 60 and 78/100. The development committee revised and shortened all tools, and added two, one-page summary documents. The final toolkit included six documents. CONCLUSIONS: We developed and evaluated tools to help embed intersectionality considerations in KT. These tools go beyond recommending the use of intersectionality to providing practical guidance on how to do this. Future work should develop guidance for enhancing social justice in intersectionality-enhanced KT.

New article by Lisa Cranley
Knowledge, skills, attitudes, beliefs, and implementation of evidence-based practice among nurses in low- and middle-income countries: a scoping review protocol
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Adombire S, Puts M, Puchalski Ritchie LM, Ani-Amponsah M, Cranley L.
JBI Evidence Synthesis.
Objective: The objective of this scoping review is to identify and map the evidence reporting the knowledge, skills, attitudes, beliefs, and implementation of evidence-based practice among nurses in low- and middle-income countries. Introduction: Evidence-based practice is well documented to improve health care quality, safety, and health system efficiency. Research studies exploring nurses’ engagement in evidence-based practice in high-income countries have been widely reported. Developing nations have recently joined the evidence-based practice movement, and primary research about nurses’ engagement with it are emerging. Inclusion criteria: The scoping review will include primary studies (quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods) and grey literature addressing knowledge, skills, attitudes, beliefs, and implementation of evidence-based practice. Participants will include registered nurses working in low- and middle-income countries. Studies conducted in all health care settings, including acute and community settings, in low- and middle-income countries will be included. Methods: We will search MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Scopus, ERIC, JBI Evidence-based Practice Database, Cochrane Library, LILACS, and AIM. Grey literature will be sourced from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global and Google Scholar for primary studies. Studies published in the English language will be included, with no limit on publication date. Titles, abstracts, and full-text articles will be assessed against the inclusion criteria by two independent reviewers. The extracted data will be analyzed quantitatively using frequencies and counts. Textual data from qualitative studies will be analyzed using descriptive content analysis. Results of the data analysis will be presented using graphs, tables, and a narrative format. Scoping review registration: Open Science Framework ( Correspondence: Stephen Adombire, The authors declare no conflict of interest. © 2022 by Lippincott williams & Wilkins, Inc.

New articles by Janet Squires
The effectiveness of champions in implementing innovations in health care: a systematic review.
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Santos WJ, Graham ID, Lalonde M, Demery Varin M, Squires JE.
Implementation science communications. 2022 Jul;3(1):80.
BACKGROUND: Champions have been documented in the literature as an important strategy for implementation, yet their effectiveness has not been well synthesized in the health care literature. The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether champions, tested in isolation from other implementation strategies, are effective at improving innovation use or outcomes in health care. METHODS: The JBI systematic review method guided this study. A peer-reviewed search strategy was applied to eight electronic databases to identify relevant articles. We included all published articles and unpublished theses and dissertations that used a quantitative study design to evaluate the effectiveness of champions in implementing innovations within health care settings. Two researchers independently completed study selection, data extraction, and quality appraisal. We used content analysis and vote counting to synthesize our data. RESULTS: After screening 7566 records titles and abstracts and 2090 full text articles, we included 35 studies in our review. Most of the studies (71.4%) operationalized the champion strategy by the presence or absence of a champion. In a subset of seven studies, five studies found associations between exposure to champions and increased use of best practices, programs, or technological innovations at an organizational level. In other subsets, the evidence pertaining to use of champions and innovation use by patients or providers, or at improving outcomes was either mixed or scarce. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a small body of literature reporting an association between use of champions and increased instrumental use of innovations by organizations. However, more research is needed to determine causal relationship between champions and innovation use and outcomes. Even though there are no reported adverse effects in using champions, opportunity costs may be associated with their use. Until more evidence becomes available about the effectiveness of champions at increasing innovation use and outcomes, the decision to deploy champions should consider the needs and resources of the organization and include an evaluation plan. To further our understanding of champions’ effectiveness, future studies should (1) use experimental study designs in conjunction with process evaluations, (2) describe champions and their activities and (3) rigorously evaluate the effectiveness of champions’ activities. REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework ( ). Registered on November 15, 2020.

Validity, reliability, and acceptability of the Evidence-Informed Decision-Making (EIDM) competence measure.
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Belita E, Fisher K, Yost J, Squires JE, Ganann R, Dobbins M.
PloS one. 2022;17(8):e0272699.
Valid, reliable, and acceptable tools for assessing self-reported competence in evidence-informed decision-making (EIDM) are required to provide insight into the current status of EIDM knowledge, skills, attitudes/beliefs, and behaviours for registered nurses working in public health. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity, reliability, and acceptability of the EIDM Competence Measure. A psychometric study design was employed guided by the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing and general measurement development principles. All registered nurses working across 16 public health units in Ontario, Canada were invited to complete the newly developed EIDM Competence Measure via an online survey. The EIDM Competence Measure is a self-reported tool consisting of four EIDM subscales: 1) knowledge; 2) skills; 3) attitudes/beliefs; and 4) behaviours. Acceptability was measured by completion time and percentage of missing data of the original 40-item tool. The internal structure of the tool was first assessed through item-subscale total and item-item correlations within subscales for potential item reduction of the original 40-item tool. Following item reduction which resulted in a revised 27-item EIDM Competence Measure, a principal component analysis using an oblique rotation was performed to confirm the four subscale structure. Validity based on relationships to other variables was assessed by exploring associations between EIDM competence attributes and individual factors (e.g., years of nursing experience, education) and organizational factors (e.g., resource allocation). Internal reliability within each subscale was analyzed using Cronbach’s alphas. Across 16 participating public health units, 201 nurses (mean years as a registered nurse = 18.1, predominantly female n = 197; 98%) completed the EIDM Competence Measure. Overall missing data were minimal as 93% of participants completed the entire original 40-item tool (i.e., no missing data), with 7% of participants having one or more items with missing data. Only one participant (0.5%) had >10% of missing data (i.e., more than 4 out of 40 items with data missing). Mean completion time was 7 minutes and 20 seconds for the 40-item tool. Extraction of a four-factor model based on the 27-item version of the scale showed substantial factor loadings (>0.4) that aligned with the four EIDM subscales of knowledge, skills, attitudes/beliefs, and behaviours. Significant relationships between EIDM competence subscale scores and education, EIDM training, EIDM project involvement, and supportive organizational culture were observed. Cronbach’s alphas exceeded minimum standards for all subscales: knowledge (α = 0.96); skills (α = 0.93); attitudes/beliefs (α = 0.80); and behaviours (α = 0.94).

New article by Shannon Scott
Reporting guideline for overviews of reviews of healthcare interventions: development of the PRIOR statement.
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Gates M, Gates A, Pieper D, Fernandes RM, Tricco AC, Moher D, et al.
BMJ (Clinical research ed). 2022 Aug;378:e070849.
OBJECTIVE: To develop a reporting guideline for overviews of reviews of healthcare interventions. DESIGN: Development of the preferred reporting items for overviews of reviews (PRIOR) statement. PARTICIPANTS: Core team (seven individuals) led day-to-day operations, and an expert advisory group (three individuals) provided methodological advice. A panel of 100 experts (authors, editors, readers including members of the public or patients) was invited to participate in a modified Delphi exercise. 11 expert panellists (chosen on the basis of expertise, and representing relevant stakeholder groups) were invited to take part in a virtual face-to-face meeting to reach agreement (≥70%) on final checklist items. 21 authors of recently published overviews were invited to pilot test the checklist. SETTING: International consensus. INTERVENTION: Four stage process established by the EQUATOR Network for developing reporting guidelines in health research: project launch (establish a core team and expert advisory group, register intent), evidence reviews (systematic review of published overviews to describe reporting quality, scoping review of methodological guidance and author reported challenges related to undertaking overviews of reviews), modified Delphi exercise (two online Delphi surveys to reach agreement (≥70%) on relevant reporting items followed by a virtual face-to-face meeting), and development of the reporting guideline. RESULTS: From the evidence reviews, we drafted an initial list of 47 potentially relevant reporting items. An international group of 52 experts participated in the first Delphi survey (52% participation rate); agreement was reached for inclusion of 43 (91%) items. 44 experts (85% retention rate) completed the second Delphi survey, which included the four items lacking agreement from the first survey and five new items based on respondent comments. During the second round, agreement was not reached for the inclusion or exclusion of the nine remaining items. 19 individuals (6 core team and 3 expert advisory group members, and 10 expert panellists) attended the virtual face-to-face meeting. Among the nine items discussed, high agreement was reached for the inclusion of three and exclusion of six. Six authors participated in pilot testing, resulting in minor wording changes. The final checklist includes 27 main items (with 19 sub-items) across all stages of an overview of reviews. CONCLUSIONS: PRIOR fills an important gap in reporting guidance for overviews of reviews of healthcare interventions. The checklist, along with rationale and example for each item, provides guidance for authors that will facilitate complete and transparent reporting. This will allow readers to assess the methods used in overviews of reviews of healthcare interventions and understand the trustworthiness and applicability of their findings.

New articles by Gillian Harvey
Blending Individualistic and Collective Leadership in a University-Healthcare Partnership
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Kislov R, Harvey G, Bresnen M.
Academy of Management Proceedings. 2022 Jul;2022(1):14064.
This paper reports a qualitative longitudinal study conducted in a large-scale UK-based collaborative research partnership to examine how collective leadership develops over time, what implications this evolution has for the tension between production and implementation of research, and how the transition from individualistic to collective leadership can be supported. It shows that this transition can be both enabled and constrained by the asymmetrical power relationships within a leadership team, whereby upward, downward and lateral directions of agency are exercised by multiple actors. It also demonstrates that the development of collective leadership can provide a clear direction for the partnership as a whole, whilst allowing for a plurality of approaches to enact this direction at the level of individual programmes of work. Finally, it argues that the development of collective leadership can be enabled by a combination of process-focused, reflection-focused and action-focused interventions.

Impact of relational continuity of primary care in aged care: a systematic review.
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Dyer SM, Suen J, Williams H, Inacio MC, Harvey G, Roder D, et al.
BMC geriatrics. 2022 Jul;22(1):579. CHECK GILLIAN HARVEY
BACKGROUND: Greater continuity of care has been associated with lower hospital admissions and patient mortality. This systematic review aims to examine the impact of relational continuity between primary care professionals and older people receiving aged care services, in residential or home care settings, on health care resource use and person-centred outcomes. METHODS: Systematic review of five databases, four trial registries and three grey literature sources to October 2020. Included studies (a) aimed to increase relational continuity with a primary care professional, (b) focused on older people receiving aged care services (c) included a comparator and (d) reported outcomes of health care resource use, quality of life, activities of daily living, mortality, falls or satisfaction. Cochrane Collaboration or Joanna Briggs Institute criteria were used to assess risk of bias and GRADE criteria to rate confidence in evidence and conclusions. RESULTS: Heterogeneity in study cohorts, settings and outcome measurement in the five included studies (one randomised) precluded meta-analysis. None examined relational continuity exclusively with non-physician providers. Higher relational continuity with a primary care physician probably reduces hospital admissions (moderate certainty evidence; high versus low continuity hazard ratio (HR) 0.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-0.96, n = 178,686; incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.99, 95%CI 0.76-1.27, n = 246) and emergency department (ED) presentations (moderate certainty evidence; high versus low continuity HR 0.90, 95%CI 0.89-0.92, n = 178,686; IRR 0.91, 95%CI 0.72-1.15, n = 246) for older community-dwelling aged care recipients. The benefit of providing on-site primary care for relational continuity in residential settings is uncertain (low certainty evidence, 2 studies, n = 2,468 plus 15 care homes); whilst there are probably lower hospitalisations and may be fewer ED presentations, there may also be an increase in reported mortality and falls. The benefit of general practitioners’ visits during hospital admission is uncertain (very low certainty evidence, 1 study, n = 335). CONCLUSION: Greater relational continuity with a primary care physician probably reduces hospitalisations and ED presentations for community-dwelling aged care recipients, thus policy initiatives that increase continuity may have cost offsets. Further studies of approaches to increase relational continuity of primary care within aged care, particularly in residential settings, are needed. REVIEW REGISTRATION: CRD42021215698.

New article by Adrian Wagg
Changes in Urinary Continence After Admission to a Complex Care Setting: A Multistate Transition Model.
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Northwood M, Turcotte LA, McArthur C, Egbujie BA, Berg K, Boscart VM, et al.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. 2022 Jul.
OBJECTIVES: To examine changes in urinary continence for post-acute, Complex Continuing Care hospital patients from time of admission to short-term follow-up, either in hospital or after discharge to long-term care or home with services. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of patients in Complex Continuing Care hospitals using clinical data collected with interRAI Minimum Data Set 2.0 and interRAI Resident Assessment Instrument Home Care. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged 18 years and older, admitted to Complex Continuing Care hospitals in Ontario, Canada, between 2009 and 2015 (n = 78,913). METHODS: A multistate transition model was used to characterize the association between patient characteristics measured at admission and changes in urinary continence state transitions (continent, sometimes continent, and incontinent) between admission and follow-up. RESULTS: The cohort included 27,896 patients. At admission, 9583 (34.3%) patients belonged to the continent state, 6441 (23.09%) patients belonged to the sometimes incontinent state, and the remaining 11,872 (42.6%) patients belonged to the incontinent state. For patients who were continent at admission, the majority (62.7%) remained continent at follow-up. However, nearly a quarter (23.9%) transitioned to the sometimes continent state, and an additional 13.4% became incontinent at follow-up. Several factors were associated with continence state transitions, including cognitive impairment, rehabilitation potential, stroke, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias, and hip fracture. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: This study suggests that urinary incontinence is a prevalent problem for Complex Continuing Care hospital patients and multiple factors are associated with continence state transitions. Standardized assessment of urinary incontinence is helpful in this setting to identify patients in need of further assessment and patient-centered intervention and as a quality improvement metric to examine changes in continence from admission to discharge.

New articles by Greta Cummings
Factors influencing older persons’ transitions to facility-based care settings: A scoping review.
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Tate K, Bailey S, Deschenes S, Grabusic C, Cummings GG.
The Gerontologist. 2022 Jul.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Older adults (≥65 years) are living longer with complex health needs and wish to remain at home as their care needs change. We aimed to determine which factors influence older persons’ transitions from home living to facility-based care (FBC) settings such as long-term care facilities or assisted living. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Through a scoping review of 7 databases, we considered all academic literature examining factors influencing transitions from home living to FBC. Only English articles were reviewed. Based on the Meleis’ Health Transition model, we categorized findings into: a) transition conditions; b) patterns of response; and c) health services and interventions. RESULTS: We included 204 unique studies. Age, cognitive/functional impairments and caregiver burden were the most consistent risk factors for older persons’ transitions to FBC. Caregiver burden was the only consistent risk factor in both quantitative and qualitative literature. Other factors around health service use or nonmedical factors were examined in a small number of studies, or demonstrated mixed or non-significant results. Key research gaps relate to transitions to intermediate levels of FBC, research in public health systems, and research employing qualitative and interventional methods. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: We expanded Meleis’ Health Transition Model to capture informal caregivers and their critical role in transitions from home to FBC settings. More research is needed to address practical needs of clients and caregivers while at home, and self-directed care funding models could be expanded. Theory-driven interventional research focusing on caregivers and successful hospital discharge is critically needed.

Investing in Canada’s nursing workforce post-pandemic: A call to action
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Tomblin Murphy G, Sampalli T, Bourque Bearskin L, Cashen N, Cummings G, Elliott Rose A, et al.
FACETS. 2022 Jan;7:1051–120.
Nurses represent the highest proportion of healthcare workers globally and have played a vital role during the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic has shed light on multiple vulnerabilities that have impacted the nursing workforce including critical levels of staffing shortages in Canada. A review sponsored by the Royal Society of Canada investigated the impact of the pandemic on the nursing workforce in Canada to inform planning and implementation of sustainable nursing workforce strategies. The review methods included a trend analysis of peer-reviewed articles, a jurisdictional scan of policies and strategies, analyses of published surveys and interviews of nurses in Canada, and a targeted case study from Nova Scotia and Saskatchewan. Findings from the review have identified longstanding and COVID-specific impacts, gaps, and opportunities to strengthen the nursing workforce. These findings were integrated with expert perspectives from national nursing leaders involved in guiding the review to arrive at recommendations and actions that are presented in this policy brief. The findings and recommendations from this policy brief are meant to inform a national and sustained focus on retention and recruitment efforts in Canada.

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