Why does Canada, one of the wealthiest, most stable countries in the world, with universal healthcare and a social safety net, fail so profoundly in dementia care? Don’t we have a National Dementia Strategy? Where are we on our progress towards implementing that strategy? At CanAge, we wanted to get answers. We wanted to find out where Canada is on the path to making this country dementia-inclusive. We wanted answers for the individuals, caregivers and social service sector workers who are increasingly raising their voices in desperation.
Guiding questions in the brief:
What barriers and facilitators support psychological self-care and protection from moral distress for long-term care workers and their organizations?
How has the pandemic impacted these workers and the organizations in relation to the barriers and facilitators identified?
Organizations support psychological self-care when they encourage staff to care for their own psychological health and safety. This psychosocial factor can include paid sick leave, protected break times, designated break spaces, paid education and learning opportunities, or replacement staff to enable self-care.
They protect staff from moral distress when they create an environment that lets workers do their work with a sense of integrity (while being supported by their professional bodies, employer, and peers). Examples include dedicated staff and resources for wellness, de-briefing sessions, and clearly defined and consistently followed policies and protocols.
Support for psychological self-care and protection from moral distress build on the 13 psychosocial factors identified in the National Standard of Canada for Psychological Health and Safety in the Workplace. Since its 2013 publication, organizations have been using the Standard as a guide for promoting mental health and preventing psychological harm at work.
This report presents policy change considerations that can better support the psychological well-being of health-care professionals in Canada’s long-term care sector.
This project supplements a larger, national exploration that included all health-care workers and various types of health-care workplaces, entitled Exploring Two Psychosocial Factors in Health-Care: Support for Psychological Self-Care and Protection From Moral Distress in the Workplace: Facilitators and Barriers.
Eivind Engebretsen, Priya Umachandran, John Ødemark, Trisha Greenhalgh
WHO Health Evidence Network synthesis report 76
This report explores how knowledge translation (KT) and cultural contexts are conceptualized and utilized, with a focus on health policy-making theory and practice. KT takes place within cultural contexts that can powerfully frame what policy problems are and what type of research is accepted by policy-makers. This is illustrated with studies from the COVID-19 pandemic regarding the use of face masks across cultures and of the influence of cultural contexts on KT and evidence-informed decision-making arising from the Black Lives Matter movement. Many Indigenous cultures conceptualize physical health in a holistic manner that encompasses both social and ecological aspects, which are often not considered in the biomedical understanding of health. Effective KT within local cultural contexts requires going beyond general categories (such as Indigenous culture) and assumptions about particular types of culture. Some KT models and frameworks include local context as a factor in translation, identifying community-, culture- and language-focused strategies to improve cultural competency for health-care interventions. Policy considerations are suggested that support the adoption of complex understandings of cultures in knowledge production, communication, translation and use.
Government Accountability Office
GAO-21-367; May 19, 2021
GAO analysis of data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) shows that, from May 2020 through January 2021, nursing homes commonly experienced multiple COVID-19 outbreaks. According to CDC, an outbreak starts the week a nursing home reports a new resident or staff COVID-19 case and ends when there are 2 weeks with no new cases. GAO found that nursing homes had an average of about three outbreaks during the review period, with most of the nursing homes (94 percent, or 12,555 of the 13,380 nursing homes) experiencing more than one COVID-19 outbreak.
US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General
OEI-02-20-00490; June 22, 2021
Nursing home residents have been particularly affected by COVID-19, as they are predominately elderly, tend to have underlying conditions, and live in close quarters. However, data on the number of nursing home residents who were diagnosed with COVID-19 or likely COVID-19 have not been readily available, particularly for early in the pandemic. Nursing homes are not required to report cases and deaths that occurred before May 8, 2020.
This data snapshot provides objective, standardized data based on Medicare claims for all Medicare beneficiaries in nursing homes throughout the country. This data snapshot is the first in a three-part series. Subsequent work will address the characteristics of the hardest hit nursing homes and strategies used by nursing homes to confront the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic.
INTRODUCTION: The overarching goal of research on physical settings for individuals living with dementia is to identify associations between designed features within the built environment and outcomes of interest. Over the past three decades numerous environmental assessment tools have been developed in several countries, responding to a changing set of care industry values that increasingly prioritize a holistic, quality-of-life-driven person-centered care (PCC) model over a biomedical approach to long-term care (LTC) provision. This article reviews the diversity, constructs, strengths, and limitations of existing environmental assessment tools and identifies gaps for future tool development. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using four databases (Medline, CINAHL, PsycInfo, and Avery Index) and terms related to health-care environments and assessment tools. RESULTS: A total of 13 environmental assessment tools for people living with dementia within shared residential settings were identified. Evaluation of the environmental assessment tools includes a synthesis of published data for each tool’s reliability, validity, ease of use, interpretability, strengths and weaknesses, as well as a comparison of various tool characteristics including date of development, country of origin, applicable care setting(s), number and variety of measures and underlying constructs, format, and descriptive versus evaluative content. DISCUSSION: While the shift to person-centered values encompasses all aspects of care and care settings, the majority of person-centered definitions exclude the important role of the designed, physical environment. However, this review of environmental assessment tools clearly demonstrates that newer tools are embracing the full array of PCC values. In the United States, this is shown in the shift from tools designed to assess segregated dementia care settings to tools that integrate the needs and preferences both of individuals living with and without dementia. Next-generation tools need to specifically address the household model of design. HIGHLIGHTS: The overarching goal of research on physical settings for individuals living with dementia is to identify associations between designed features within the built environment and outcomes of interest.A systematic literature search identified a total of 13 environmental assessment tools for people living with dementia within shared residential settings; these tools were then described and evaluated based on reliability, validity, ease of use, interpretability, strengths, and weaknesses.This review of environmental assessment tools clearly demonstrates that newer tools are embracing the full array of person-centered care values.
Connelly DM, Garnett A, Snobelen N, Guitar N, Flores-Sandoval C, Sinha S, et al.
J Adv Nurs. 2022 Oct 11.
AIMS: This study aimed to understand how the personal and professional resilience of Registered Practical Nurses working in long-term care (LTC) homes in Ontario were impacted during the Coronavirus 2019 pandemic. BACKGROUND: Registered Practical Nurses are primary regulated healthcare providers that have worked in Ontario LTC homes during the COVID-19 pandemic. As frontline workers, they have experienced increased stress secondary to lockdowns, changing Ministry of Health recommendations, social isolation and limited resources. LTC homes experienced almost a third of all COVID-19-related deaths in Ontario. Understanding registered practical nurses’ (RPNs) resilience in this context is vital in developing the programs and supports necessary to help nurses become and stay resilient in LTC and across a range of settings. METHODS: Purposive sampling was used to recruit 40 Registered Practical Nurses working in LTC homes across Ontario for interviews. Charmaz’s Grounded theory guided in-depth one-on-one interviews and analyses completed between April to September 2021. RESULTS: Registered Practical Nurse participants represented 15 (37.5%) private, and 25 (62.5%) public LTC homes across Ontario Local Health Integration Networks. Findings informed two distinct perspectives on resilience, one where nurses were able to maintain resilience and another where they were not. Sustaining and fraying resilience, presented as bimodal processes, was observed in four themes: ‘Dynamic Role of the Nurse’, ‘Preserving Self’, ‘Banding Together’ and ‘Sense of Leadership Support’. CONCLUSION: Resilience was largely drawn from themselves as individuals. Resources to support self-care and work-life balance are needed. Additionally, workplace supports to build capacity for team-based care practices, collegial support in problem-solving and opportunities for ‘connecting’ with LTC nursing colleagues would be beneficial. Our findings suggest a role for professional development resources in the workplace that could help rebuild this workforce and support RPNs in providing quality care for older adults living in LTC. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: Our research team included two members of the Registered Practical Nurses Association of Ontario, and these team members contributed to the discussion and design of the study methodology, recruitment, analysis and interpretation. Further, RPNs working in long-term care during the COVID-19 pandemic were the participants in this study and, therefore, contributed to the data. They did not contribute to data analysis or interpretation.
Haslam-Larmer L, Grigorovich A, Quirt H, Engel K, Stewart S, Rodrigues K, et al.
Dementia (London). 2022 Oct 14;14713012221124996.
Healthcare providers caring for people living with dementia may experience moral distress when faced with ethically challenging situations, such as the inability to provide care that is consistent with their values. The COVID-19 pandemic produced conditions in long-term care homes (hereafter referred to as ‘care homes’) that could potentially contribute to moral distress. We conducted an online survey to examine changes in moral distress during the pandemic, its contributing factors and correlates, and its impact on the well-being of care home staff. Survey participants (n = 227) working in care homes across Ontario, Canada were recruited through provincial care home organizations. Using a Bayesian approach, we examined the association between moral distress and staff demographics and roles, and characteristics of the long-term care home. We performed a qualitative analysis of the survey’s free-text responses. More than 80% of care home healthcare providers working with people with dementia reported an increase in moral distress since the start of the pandemic. There was no difference in the severity of distress by age, sex, role, or years of experience. The most common factors associated with moral distress were lack of activities and family visits, insufficient staffing and high turnover, and having to follow policies and procedures that were perceived to harm residents with dementia. At least two-thirds of respondents reported feelings of physical exhaustion, sadness/anxiety, frustration, powerlessness, and guilt due to the moral distress experienced during the pandemic. Respondents working in not-for-profit or municipal homes reported less sadness/anxiety and feelings of not wanting to go to work than those in for-profit homes. Front-line staff were more likely to report not wanting to work than those in management or administrative positions. Overall, we found that increases in moral distress during the pandemic negatively affected the well-being of healthcare providers in care homes, with preliminary evidence suggesting that individual and systemic factors may intensify the negative effect.
Zhang H, Wu Y, Wang N, Sun X, Wang Y, Zhang Y.
J Nurs Manag. 2022 Oct 8.
AIMS: The goal of this study was to explore caregivers’ experiences, perspectives, emotions, knowledge and needs in caring for older people during the COVID-19 pandemic. These included, but were not limited to, experiences in hospital care, home care and nursing home care. BACKGROUND: Because of the high mortality rate associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, senior care is critical. During the COVID-19 pandemic, caregivers caring for older people have had unique experiences potentially affecting the quality of care provided. This topic has received substantial attention since the start of the pandemic and has been studied by numerous researchers. However, experiences may differ among countries and time periods. In addition, no qualitative systematic reviews on this topic appear to have been published. EVALUATION: In this systematic review of qualitative studies, data were collected from the following electronic databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, Science Direct and PsycINFO. Titles and abstracts were screened according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, full texts were screened and the methodological quality of included studies was assessed with the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for Qualitative Research by two independent reviewers. KEY ISSUE(S): A total of 141 findings were extracted and aggregated into 20 categories; six synthesized findings were identified. CONCLUSION: This review indicates caregivers’ experiences and perceptions regarding caring for older people during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results of a qualitative systematic review show that caregivers’ emotions, cognitions and knowledge have affected the quality of caregivers’ senior care services during the pandemic. Caregivers caring for older adults should practice self-awareness, understanding their knowledge and attitudes to improve the quality of senior care. Moreover, healthcare administrators and policymakers should make concerted efforts to cultivate a better working environment. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Managers should formulate timely and effective management strategies. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the workload of caregivers has increased, thus requiring better scheduling by managers. Furthermore, managers should consider the negative emotions of caregivers and prevent negative emotions from affecting their work. Besides, virtual technology should be applied to senior care and psychological support be provided for caregivers in this special care setting.
Kang YJ, Monsen KA, Jeppesen B, Hanson C, Nichols K, O’Neill K, et al.
Interdiscip J Partnersh Stud. 2022 May 24;9(1):7.
Nursing home experts and informatics nurses collaborated to develop guidelines for nursing homes that revealed partnership principles in action during the COVID-19 pandemic. This article describes efforts to define interprofessional nursing home staff roles within the partnership-based COVID-19 Response Guideline, and to examine changes in nursing practice compared to the pre-pandemic practice of nurses. The qualitative process of identification of nursing home staff roles revealed the extensive scope of interprofessional partnership needed to respond to the pandemic. Using the Omaha System structure, we compared these collective COVID-19 response interventions of Nursing Service roles with nursing interventions of RNs and LPN/LVNs defined in previous nursing home studies. This comparison showed the necessary transformation and collaboration among nurses needed for the pandemic response in nursing homes. The Omaha System Pandemic Guideline is available online and in the Omaha System Guidelines app for immediate use as COVID-19 response practice guidelines and references for interprofessional roles in nursing homes, as well as for multidisciplinary roles across diverse care settings. The guideline is an exemplar of how informatics can facilitate interprofessional and multidisciplinary partnership for nursing homes and other care settings. Future use of the guidelines for decision making and documentation related to infection prevention and control in nursing homes may improve care quality and health outcomes of residents and population.
Potrebny T, Igland J, Espehaug B, Ciliska D, Graverholt B.
BMC Health Serv Res. 2022 Oct 10;22(1):1244.
BACKGROUND: The organizational context in healthcare (i.e., the work environment) is associated with patient outcomes and job satisfaction. Long-term care is often considered to be a challenging work environment, characterized by high job demands, low job control, a fast work pace and job dissatisfaction, which may affect patient care and increase staff turnover.This study aims to investigate the organizational context in nursing homes and the features of favorable or less favorable work environments. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional study of registered nurses and licensed practical nurses in Bergen, Norway (n = 1014). The K-means clustering algorithm was used to differentiate between favorable and less favorable work environments, based on the Alberta Context Tool. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between individual sociodemographic factors, nursing home factors and the probability of experiencing a favorable work environment. RESULTS: 45% of the sample (n = 453) experienced working in a favorable work environment. Contextual features (especially a supportive work culture, more evaluation mechanisms and greater organizational slack resources) and individual features (having a native language other than Norwegian, working day shifts, working full time and belonging to a younger age group) significantly increased the likelihood of experiencing a favorable work environment. CONCLUSION: The work environment in nursing homes is composed of modifiable contextual features. Action in relation to less favorable features and their associated factors should be a priority for nursing home management. This survey indicates that specific steps can be taken to reduce the reliance on part-time workers and to promote the work environment among staff working the night shift.
Kay S, Unroe KT, Lieb KM, Kaehr EW, Blackburn J, Stump TE, et al.
J Appl Gerontol. 2022 Oct 7;7334648221131469.
BACKGROUND: Incomplete communication between staff and providers may cause adverse outcomes for nursing home residents. The Situation-Background-Assessment-Recommendation (SBAR) tool is designed to improve communication around changes in condition (CIC). An adapted SBAR was developed for the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services demonstration project, OPTIMISTIC, to increase its use during a resident CIC and to improve documentation. METHODS: Four Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles to develop and refine successive protocol implementation of the OPTIMISTIC SBAR were deployed in four Indiana nursing homes. Use of SBAR, documentation quality, and participant surveys were assessed pre- and post-intervention implementation. RESULTS: OPTIMISTIC SBAR use and documentation quality improved in three of the four buildings. Participants reported improved collaboration between nurses and providers after SBAR intervention. CONCLUSION: Successive PDSA cycles implementing changes in an OPTIMISTIC SBAR protocol for resident CIC led to an increase in SBAR use, improved documentation, and better collaboration between nursing staff and providers.
Beeber AS, Hoben M, Leeman J, Palmertree S, Kistler CE, Ottosen T, et al.
Res Nurs Health. 2022 Aug;45(4):413–23.
Assisted living (AL) communities are experiencing rising levels of resident acuity, challenging efforts to balance person-centered care-which prioritizes personhood, autonomy, and relationship-based care practices-with efforts to keep residents safe. Safety is a broad-scale problem in AL that encompasses care concerns (e.g., abuse/neglect, medication errors, inadequate staffing, and infection management) as well as resident issues (e.g., falls, elopement, and medical emergencies). Person and family engagement (PFE) is one approach to achieving a balance between person-centered care and safety. In other settings, PFE interventions have improved patient care processes, outcomes, and experiences. In this paper, we describe the protocol for a multiple methods AHRQ-funded study (Engage) to develop a toolkit for increasing resident and family engagement in AL safety. The study aims are to engage AL residents and family caregivers, AL staff, and other AL stakeholders to (1) identify common AL safety problems; (2) prioritize safety problems and identify and evaluate existing PFE interventions with the potential to address safety problems in the AL setting; and (3) develop a testable toolkit to improve PFE in AL safety. We discuss our methods, including qualitative interviews, a scoping review of existing PFE interventions, and stakeholder panel meetings that involved a Delphi priority-setting exercise. In addition to describing the protocol, we detail how we modified the protocol to address the unique challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic. Study findings will result in a toolkit to improve resident and family engagement in the safety of AL that will be tested in future research.
AIMS: To explore the nuances of theory utilization in qualitative methodologies, discuss the different relationships that applied qualitative methodologies have with theory and use the foundational underpinnings of interpretive description to challenge strongly entrenched ideas of theory that have extended into applied qualitative nursing research. DESIGN: Methodology discussion paper. DATA SOURCES: Narrative literature review and personal observations. CONCLUSION: Many qualitative research traditions have viewed the use of an explicit theoretical framework as an integral grounding for qualitative research studies. Much of the discussion of theory in extant qualitative methodological literature focuses on its use in the context of traditional methodologies such as ethnography, phenomenology and grounded theory, with less attention on methodological approaches developed for applied and practice disciplines such as nursing. Uncritical adoption of ideas about theory based on traditional qualitative methodological conventions can result in findings with little utility for application to the practice context. IMPACT: Nursing researchers should think critically about how theory is used in research endeavours geared towards applied practice and ensure that their methodological choices are in alignment with their philosophical and disciplinary epistemological positionings.
Flynn R, Stevens B, Bains A, Kennedy M, Scott SD.
Syst Rev. 2022 Oct 15;11(1):221.
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence to evaluate the sustainability of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) for healthcare improvement. Through an integrative review, we aimed to identify approaches to evaluate the sustainability of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) and sustainability outcomes. METHODS: Following Whittemore and Knafl’s methodological process: (1) problem identification; (2) literature search; (3) data evaluation; (4) data analysis; and (5) presentation, a comprehensive search strategy was applied across five databases. Included studies were not restricted by research design; and had to evaluate the sustainability of an EBI in a healthcare context. We assessed the methodological quality of studies using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. RESULTS: Of 18,783 articles retrieved, 64 fit the inclusion criteria. Qualitative designs were most commonly used for evaluation (48%), with individual interviews as the predominant data collection method. Timing of data collection varied widely with post-intervention data collection most frequent (89%). Of the 64 studies, 44% used a framework, 26% used a model, 11% used a tool, 5% used an instrument, and 14% used theory as their primary approach to evaluate sustainability. Most studies (77%) did not measure sustainability outcomes, rather these studies focused on sustainability determinants. DISCUSSION: It is unclear which approach/approaches are most effective for evaluating sustainability and what measures and outcomes are most commonly used. There is a disconnect between evaluating the factors that may shape sustainability and the outcomes approaches employed to measure sustainability. Our review offers methodological recommendations for sustainability evaluation research and highlights the importance in understanding mechanisms of sustainability to advance the field.
Grinspun D, Wallace K, Li SA, McNeill S, Squires JE, Bujalance J, et al.
International Journal of Nursing Sciences.
Objectives To share a concept analysis of social movement aimed at advancing its application to evidence uptake and sustainability in health-care. Methods We applied Walker and Avant method to clarify the concept of social movement in the context of knowledge uptake and sustainability. Peer-reviewed and grey literature databases were systematically searched for relevant reports that described how social movement action led to evidence-based practice changes in health and community settings. Titles, abstracts and full texts were reviewed independently and in duplicate, resulting in 38 included articles. Results Social movement action for knowledge uptake and sustainability can be defined as individuals, groups, or organizations that, as voluntary and intrinsically motivated change agents, mobilize around a common cause to improve outcomes through knowledge uptake and sustainability. The 10 defining attributes, three antecedents and three consequences that we identified are dynamic and interrelated, often mutually reinforcing each other to fortify various aspects of the social movement. Examples of defining attributes include an urgent need for action, collective action and collective identity. The concept analysis resulted in the development of the Social Movement Action Framework. Conclusions Social movement action can provide a lens through which we view implementation science. Collective action and collective identity – concepts less frequently canvassed in implementation science literature – can lend insight into grassroots approaches to uptake and sustainability. Findings can also inform providers and change leaders on the practicalities of harnessing social movement action for real-world change initiatives. By mobilizing individuals, groups, or organizations through social movement approaches, they can engage as powered change agents and teams that impact the individual, organizational and health systems levels to facilitate knowledge uptake and sustainability.
Variath C, Peter E, Cranley L, Godkin D.
Palliat�Care. 2022 Jan 1;16:26323524221128840.
Background:In Canada, under Bill C-14, patients who met all eligibility requirements were prevented from accessing medical assistance in dying (MAiD) following their loss of decision-making capacity while awaiting MAiD. The changes introduced with Bill C-7 continue to limit access to patients who did not enter a waiver of final consent agreement with their healthcare providers. Little is known about the experiences with patients? loss of capacity to consent and subsequent ineligibility for MAiD. Understanding healthcare providers? experiences has important implications for improving end-of-life care for those with capacity-limiting conditions.Purpose:To explore Canadian healthcare providers? experiences with end-of-life of eligible patients who became ineligible for MAiD due to their loss of decision-making capacity to consent and the relational influences on their experiences prior to the implementation of Bill C-7 in Canada.Method:A critical qualitative methodology and a feminist ethics theoretical lens guided this study. A voice-centred relational approach that allowed an in-depth exploration of how power, relationality and moral agency influenced participants? experiences was used for data analysis. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews with 30 healthcare providers.Findings:The analysis resulted in the following four main themes and corresponding subthemes: (1) identifying factors that may result in ineligibility for MAiD due to capacity loss; (2) maintaining eligibility required to access MAiD; (3) preparing for an alternative end-of-life; (4) experiencing patients? capacity loss.Discussion:This study highlights that while MAiD is legally available to eligible Canadians, access to MAiD and care for eligible patients who were unable to access MAiD due to their loss of decision-making varied based on the geographical locations and access to willing MAiD and end-of-life care providers. The availability of high-quality palliative care for patients throughout the MAiD process, including following the loss of capacity to consent and subsequent ineligibility, would improve the end-of-life experience for all those involved. The need to establish a systematic approach to prepare and care for patients and their families following the patients? loss of capacity and subsequent ineligibility for MAiD is also identified.
Zhao J, Jull J, Finderup J, Smith M, Kienlin SM, Rahn AC, et al.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2022 Oct 8;22(1):265.
BACKGROUND: Decision coaching is non-directive support delivered by a trained healthcare provider to help people prepare to actively participate in making healthcare decisions. This study aimed to understand how and under what circumstances decision coaching works for people making healthcare decisions. METHODS: We followed the realist review methodology for this study. This study was built on a Cochrane systematic review of the effectiveness of decision coaching interventions for people facing healthcare decisions. It involved six iterative steps: (1) develop the initial program theory; (2) search for evidence; (3) select, appraise, and prioritize studies; (4) extract and organize data; (5) synthesize evidence; and (6) consult stakeholders and draw conclusions. RESULTS: We developed an initial program theory based on decision coaching theories and stakeholder feedback. Of the 2594 citations screened, we prioritized 27 papers for synthesis based on their relevance rating. To refine the program theory, we identified 12 context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) configurations. Essential mechanisms for decision coaching to be initiated include decision coaches’, patients’, and clinicians’ commitments to patients’ involvement in decision making and decision coaches’ knowledge and skills (four CMOs). CMOs during decision coaching are related to the patient (i.e., willing to confide, perceiving their decisional needs are recognized, acquiring knowledge, feeling supported), and the patient-decision coach interaction (i.e., exchanging information, sharing a common understanding of patient’s values) (five CMOs). After decision coaching, the patient’s progress in making or implementing a values-based preferred decision can be facilitated by the decision coach’s advocacy for the patient, and the patient’s deliberation upon options (two CMOs). Leadership support enables decision coaches to have access to essential resources to fulfill their role (one CMOs). DISCUSSION: In the refined program theory, decision coaching works when there is strong leadership support and commitment from decision coaches, clinicians, and patients. Decision coaches need to be capable in coaching, encourage patients’ participation, build a trusting relationship with patients, and act as a liaison between patients and clinicians to facilitate patients’ progress in making or implementing an informed values-based preferred option. More empirical studies, especially qualitative and process evaluation studies, are needed to further refine the program theory.