The COVID-19 pandemic wreaked havoc on long-term care in Canada. During the first two waves in 2020, over 80 percent of all Canadian COVID-19 deaths happened in long-term care homes. While vaccination and policy changes have helped to reduce the number of deaths, long-term care homes are still experiencing COVID-19 outbreaks and severe staffing shortages.
Canadian health economist Robert Evans called them zombies: ideas killed long ago by evidence, but re-emerging from the grave — often in disguise.
He was talking about user fees for health services. Such fees primarily mean that the poor go without care while the rich may get care they don’t need, but they also add to the bureaucracy required to bill for services.
Now the zombie is re-emerging in the form of handing over more publicly funded services to for-profit companies.
Kuhnow J, Hoben M, Weeks LE, Barber B, Estabrooks CA.
Can Geriatr J. 2022 Dec 1;25(4):328–35.
Background Half of Canadians living in long-term care (LTC) homes will fall each year resulting in consequences to independence, quality of life, and health. The objective in this study was to analyze factors that contribute to, or are protective against, falls in Canadian LTC homes. Methods We analyzed of a retrospective cohort of a stratified random sample of Canadian LTC homes in Western Canada from 2011–2017. We accessed variables from the RAI–MDS 2.0 to assess the association of the dependent variable “fall within the last 31–180 days” with multiple independent factors, using generalized estimating equation models. Results ;A total of 28,878 LTC residents were analyzed. Factors found to increase the odds of falling were other fractures (OR 3.64 [95% confidence interval; CI 3.27, 4.05]), hip fractures (OR 3.58 [3.27, 3.93]), moderately impaired cognitive skills (OR 2.45 [2.28, 2.64]), partial support to balance standing (OR 2.44 [2.30, 2.57]), wandering (OR 2.31 [2.18, 2.44]). Conclusion A range of factors identified were associated with falls for people living in LTC homes. Individual physical ability represented the largest group of independent factors contributing to falls. Residents who experience any fracture or an acute change in behaviour, mobility, or activities of daily living (ADL) should be considered at increased risk of falls.
Duan Y, Iaconi A, Wang J, Perez JS, Song Y, Chamberlain SA, et al.
Implement Sci. 2022 Dec 7;17(1):78.
BACKGROUND: The number of research publications reporting the use of the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework and the integrated PARIHS (i-PARIHS) framework has grown steadily. We asked how the last decade of implementation research, predicated on the (i-)PARIHS framework (referring to the PARIHS or i-PARIHS framework), has contributed to our understanding of the conceptualizations of, relationships between, and dynamics among the core framework elements/sub-elements. Building on the Helfrich et al. (2010) review of research on the PARIHS framework, we undertook a critical interpretive synthesis to: (1) identify conceptual and relational advances in the (i-)PARIHS framework and (2) identify conceptual and relational aspects of the (i-)PARIHS framework that warrant further work. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in PubMed/PubMed Central, Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, JSTOR, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and PsycInfo. Articles were eligible for synthesis if they (a) were peer-reviewed articles, written in English, and published between January 2009 and December 2021, (b) applied the (i-)PARIHS framework explicitly to guide implementation research, and (c) made conceptual (expanding the conceptualization of core elements) and/or relational contributions (elaborating relationships among elements/sub-elements, or theorizing the relationships using empirical data). We used a critical interpretive synthesis approach to synthesize conceptual-relational advances of the (i-)PARIHS framework. RESULTS: Thirty-seven articles were eligible for synthesis. Twenty-four offered conceptual contributions, and 18 offered relational contributions (5 articles contributed in both ways). We found conceptual expansion of all core (i-)PARIHS elements, with most emphasis on context (particularly outer context and leadership), facilitation, and implementation success. Articles also gave insights into the complex relationships and relational dynamism among these elements, characterized as contingent, interactive, multilevel, and temporal effects. CONCLUSIONS: We observed developmental advances of the (i-)PARIHS framework and proposed several directions to further advance the framework. Conceptualization of (i-)PARIHS elements (particularly evidence/innovation and recipients) need to be further developed by specifying conceptual and operational definitions of underlying sub-elements. Relationships among (i-)PARIHS elements/sub-elements need to be further elaborated through empirical studies that consider situational contingencies and causal complexities. This will require examining necessity and sufficiency of (i-)PARIHS elements/sub-elements in relation to implementation outcomes, interactions among elements, and mechanism-based explanations.
Estabrooks CA, Duan Y, Cummings GG, Doupe M, Hoben M, Keefe J, et al.
J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2022 Dec 27;S1525-8610(22)00964-1.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in mental health and well-being (eg, quality of work life, health, intention to leave) among nursing home managers from a February 2020 prepandemic baseline to December 2021 in Alberta, Canada. DESIGN: Repeated cross-sectional survey. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A random sample of nursing homes (n = 35) in urban areas of Alberta was selected on 3 strata (region, size, ownership). Care managers were invited to participate if they (1) managed a unit, (2) worked there for at least 3 months, and (3) worked at least 6 shifts per month. METHODS: We measured various mental health and well-being outcomes, including job satisfaction (Michigan Organizational Assessment Questionnaire Job Satisfaction Subscale), burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory-exhaustion, cynicism, efficacy), organizational citizenship behaviors (constructive efforts by individuals to implement changes to improve performance), mental and physical health (Short Form-8 Health Survey), burden of worry, and intention to leave. We use mixed effects regression to examine changes at the survey time points, controlling for staffing and resident acuity. RESULTS: The final sample included 181 care managers (87 in the pre-COVID survey; 94 in the COVID survey). Response rates were 66.9% and 82.5% for the pre-COVID and COVID surveys, respectively. In the regression analysis, we found statistically significant negative changes in job satisfaction (mean difference -0.26, 95% CI -0.47 to -0.06; P = .011), cynicism (mean difference 0.43, 95% CI 0.02-0.84; P = .041), exhaustion (mean difference 0.84, 95% CI 0.41-1.27; P < .001), and SF-8 mental health (mean difference -6.49, 95% CI -9.60 to -3.39; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Mental health and well-being of nursing home managers worsened during the pandemic, potentially placing them at risk for leaving their jobs and in need of improved support. These findings should be a major concern for policy makers, particularly given serious prepandemic workforce shortages. Ongoing assessment and support of this understudied group are needed.
As the US was entering the 2022 holiday season—a time when public health experts anticipated a spike in cases of COVID-19—most nursing home residents and staff members were not up to date with their vaccinations against the disease, according to a new report by the Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF).
Nora Super, Rajiv Ahuja, Mac Mcdermott, Milken Institute
Washington DC: November 10, 2022.
Despite scientific progress over the past 25 years, dementia remains one of the toughest health-care challenges. Alzheimer’s disease is the sixth-leading cause of death in the United States, and the number of deaths from all related dementias may be twice as high. Years of investment and research in Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD) are sowing seeds of hope. New treatments aim to slow cognitive decline and manage symptoms. However, because of the complexity of dementia, people living with dementia will likely need a combination of drug treatments, comprehensive care, and supportive services to help them live their lives to the fullest after diagnosis.
Advocacy organizations, policymakers, researchers, and health-care professionals are developing ways to meet the complex medical and social needs of the estimated 7.2 million Americans living with ADRD and their families. To advance the adoption of comprehensive dementia-care models, the Milken Institute Alliance to Improve Dementia Care convened a roundtable in June 2021. Leaders across industry, government, research, advocacy, philanthropy, health systems, and community-based organizations explored ways to improve and pay for comprehensive dementia care.
This report presents actionable recommendations to advance comprehensive dementia care and implement effective payment policies. These recommendations center around two overarching themes:
1. Developing a structured framework to test, implement, and scale comprehensive dementia-care models; and
2. Implementing effective payment policies to incentivize adoption and participation in comprehensive dementia-care models.
Reszel J, McCutcheon C, Kothari A, Graham ID, editors.
Ottawa: Integrated Knowledge Translation Research Network. 2022.
Do you want to learn more about integrated knowledge translation (IKT) in child and youth settings? The Integrated Knowledge Translation Research Network (IKTRN) is pleased to share Volume 6 of their casebook series. This casebook comprises eight cases that focus on IKT projects with and for children and youth. The authors share their stories about how they formed and managed their partnerships, the impact the partnerships had and their recommendations for others working in partnership. This casebook provides unique insights into how an IKT approach can be used with young people specifically.
Birt L, Lane K, Corner J, Sanderson K, Bunn D.
J Nurs Scholarsh. 2023 Jan;55(1):226–38.
INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic had an unprecedented effect on those living and working in care-homes for older people, as residents were particularly vulnerable to contracting the SARS-CoV-2 virus, associated with high morbidity and mortality. Often undervalued, care-home nurses (RNs) are leaders, managing complex care while working in isolation from their professional peers. The pandemic made this more apparent, when care and treatments for COVID-19 were initially unknown, isolation increased due to withdrawal of many professional health services, accompanied by staff shortages. OBJECTIVE: To explore RNs’ experiences of working in older people’s care-homes during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Qualitative interview study. SETTING: Care-homes for older people in England and Scotland, UK. METHODS: Recruitment via direct contact with care-homes, social media, and links provided by national partners, then purposive sampling for age, gender, type of care-home, and location. Data collected through one-to-one online interviews using topic guide developed collaboratively with care-home nurses, focusing on how COVID-19 impacted on nurses’ resilience and mental wellbeing. Data analyzed thematically using Tronto’s ethics of care framework to guide development of interpretative themes. RESULTS: Eighteen nurses (16 female; 16 adult, and two mental health nurses) were interviewed March-June 2021; majority aged 46-55 years; mean time registered with Nursing and Midwifery Council: 19 years; 17 had nursed residents with COVID-19. RNs’ experiences resonated with Tronto’s five tenets of ethical care: attentiveness, responsibility, competence, responsiveness, and solidarity. All nurses described being attentive to needs of others, but were less attentive to their own needs, which came at personal cost. RNs were aware of their professional and leadership responsibilities, being as responsive as they could be to resident needs, processing and sharing rapidly changing guidance and implementing appropriate infection control measures, but felt that relatives and regulatory bodies were not always appreciative. RNs developed enhanced clinical skills, increasing their professional standing, but reported having to compromise care, leading to moral distress. Broadly, participants reported a sense of solidarity across care-home staff and working together to cope with the crisis. CONCLUSION: Care-home nurses felt unprepared for managing the COVID-19 pandemic, many experienced moral distress. Supporting care-home nurses to recover from the pandemic is essential to maintain a healthy, stable workforce and needs to be specific to care-home RNs, recognizing their unique pandemic experiences. Support for RNs will likely benefit other care-home workers either directly through wider roll-out, or indirectly through improved wellbeing of nurse leaders. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The COVID-19 pandemic, an international public health emergency, created many challenges for Registered Nurses (RNs) working in long-term care facilities for older people, as residents were particularly vulnerable to the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Care-home RNs faced challenges distinct from their hospital-based nursing peers and non-nursing social care colleagues due to their isolation, leadership roles, professional legal obligations, and ethical responsibilities, leading to psychological distress on the one hand, but also a newly found confidence in their existing and newly developed skills, and increased recognition by the wider health community of their specialisms.
Boamah SA, Weldrick R, Havaei F, Irshad A, Hutchinson A.
J Appl Gerontol. 2022 Dec 21;7334648221146252.
Background: Although healthcare workers (HCWs) in long-term care (LTC) have experienced significant emotional and psychological distress throughout the pandemic, little is known about their unique experiences. Objective: This scoping review synthesizes existing research on the experiences of HCWs in LTC during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: Following Arksey and O’Malley’s framework, data published between March 2020 to June 2022, were extracted from six databases. Results: Among 3808 articles screened, 40 articles were included in the final analysis. Analyses revealed three interrelated themes: carrying the load (moral distress); building pressure and burning out (emotional exhaustion); and working through it (a sense of duty to care). Conclusion: Given the impacts of the pandemic on both HCW wellbeing and patient care, every effort must be made to address the LTC workforce crisis and evaluate best practices for supporting HCWs experiencing mental health concerns during and post-COVID-19.
Lai VSK, Yau SY, Lee LYK, Li BSY, Law SSP, Huang S.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Nov 19;19(22).
Older people and health care workers in residential care homes are particularly vulnerable to the adverse impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. As COVID-19 has been spreading around the world for more than two years, the nature of care delivery has been substantially transformed. This study aims at understanding the long-term and ongoing impacts of COVID-19 on the delivery of care in residential care homes. It investigates how the delivery of care has been transformed by the COVID-19 pandemic and how health care workers adapted to these changes from the perspectives of frontline health care workers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted from February to December 2021 with a purposive sample of 30 health care workers from six residential care homes in Hong Kong. Thematic analysis identified three themes, including (1) enhancing infection prevention and control measures; (2) maintaining the psychosocial wellbeing of residents; and (3) developing resilience. Discussions and implications were drawn from these findings.
Morvati D, Hilli Y.
Nurs Ethics. 2022 Dec 22;9697330221140520.
BACKGROUND: Middle managers play a key role in promoting a caring culture in nursing homes. However, there is limited knowledge about middle managers’ inner motives and their experiences of their responsibility in developing a caring culture. RESEARCH AIM: The aim of the study is to get a deeper understanding of middle managers’ motives and their experiences of their responsibility to develop a caring culture in nursing homes. RESEARCH DESIGN: A qualitative design with a hermeneutic approach inspired by Gadamer was chosen which guided the interpretation of data. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted. PARTICIPANTS AND RESEARCH CONTEXT: Data were collected from thirteen middle managers in nursing homes, in six municipalities in northern Norway in September and October 2021. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: The study was approved by the Norwegian Centre for Research Data. Oral and written informed consent was obtained from participants. FINDINGS: The findings show that the middle managers had non- egoistic motives to promote a caring culture as expressed in their attitudes and actions. They felt responsible to promote a caring culture where both patients and staff experienced care and were respected and recognized as unique individuals. Middle managers as good role models are responsible for being present and raising awareness of the importance of care in the nursing home culture by systematically reflecting on care values. However, a strong focus on the financial and administrative demands limits the middle managers’ possibilities to promote a caring culture and prevented them from always acting as they wanted to act, which often causes moral distress. CONCLUSION: Being in contact with inner motives, enables the leader to promote a homelike and caring culture where both patients and staff feels respected and recognized as unique individuals. This study highlights the importance of systematic reflection on caring values in nursing homes which leads to value awareness among all actors.
Podgorica N, Zenzmaier C, Rungg C, Bertini B, Perkhofer S.
Front Public Health. 2022;10:985702.
BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is now a worldwide public health emergency. As essential and central parts of the COVID-19 patient care team, nurses and nurse assistants are facing all kinds of challenges caused by the disease and the pandemic. Understanding these challenges and the way nurses and nurse assistants handle and cope with them provides important knowledge on how to improve management of future pandemics and endemic situations. Thus, the present study explored the challenges faced by nurses and nurse asssitants who cared for COVID-19 patients in hospitals and long term care facilities in Italy, Austria and Germany. METHODS: The study employed a qualitative design. Purposive sampling was used to select the participants consisting on nurses (n = 30), nurse coordinators (n = 6) and nurse assistants (n = 5) from hospitals (n = 32) and long-term care facilities (n = 9) in Austria, Germany, and Italy. Data were collected between August and December 2020 through semi-structured interviews. The collected data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: The analysis of the data revealed three main themes with twelve sub-categories: (i) Knowledge, skills, and training (lack of knowledge; skills; organizational issues; training); (ii) resources and risk (lack of protective equipment; difficulties with protective equipment; risk and infection; feelings and isolation); (iii) coping strategies (humor; adaption; team effort; self-care; family and friends). CONCLUSION: Nurses and nurse assistants who participated in this study faced many personal and professional challenges, and used different coping strategies to manage the situation. Some of these strategies can be applied to reduce these challenges and create better working conditions for nurses and nurse assistants in similar events. Further research, training of staff, and adaptation of institutional policies may help develop new strategies to face future pandemics successfully.
Ree E, Wiig S, Seljemo C, Wibe T, Lyng HB.
Leadersh Health Serv (Bradf Engl). 2022 Nov 29;ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print).
PURPOSE: This study aims to explore nursing home and home care managers’ strategies in handling the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: This study has a qualitative design with semistructured individual interviews conducted digitally by videophone (Zoom). Eight managers from nursing homes and five managers from home care services located in a large urban municipality in eastern Norway participated. Systematic text condensation methodology was used for the analysis. FINDINGS: The managers used several strategies to handle challenges related to the COVID-19 pandemic, including being proactive and thinking ahead in terms of possible scenarios that might occur, continuously training of staff in new procedures and routines and systematic information sharing at all levels, as well as providing different ways of disseminating information for staff, service users and next-of-kins. To handle staffing challenges, managers used strategies such as hiring short-term staff that were temporary laid off from other industries and bringing in students. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: The COVID-19 pandemic heavily affected health-care systems worldwide, which has led to many health-care studies. The situation in nursing homes and home care services, which were strongly impacted by the pandemic and in charge of a vulnerable group of people, has not yet received enough attention in research. This study, therefore, seeks to contribute to this research gap by investigating how managers in nursing homes and home care services used different strategies to handle the COVID-19 pandemic.
Wu Q, Yamaguchi Y, Greiner C.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Dec 8;19(24).
This study aimed to evaluate the factors related to the mental health of foreign care workers in Japan’s long-term care (LTC) facilities and compare their results with those of native care workers. We conducted a cross-sectional survey covering 80 LTC facilities across Japan between August and November 2021. The survey mainly included mental health, workload, reward, sense of coherence, loneliness, COVID-19-specific factors and sociodemographic variables. The results show that workload was a distinct feature associated with the mental health of foreign care workers (n = 172) when compared with those of native care workers (n = 154). In addition, we found that the relationship between cultural adaptation and mental health in a sample of foreign care workers was mediated by loneliness and sense of coherence (SOC). Finally, we found that reward, loneliness, SOC, and COVID-19-specific factors had significant impacts on the mental health of both foreign and native care workers. These findings highlight the importance of support measures from the workplace for foreign care workers. Workplace interventions that focus on workload, reward, and sense of coherence strategies are required to address mental health improvement and may still be of value in dealing with the continuing COVID-19 pandemic.
Yaraghi N, Henfridsson O, Gopal R.
BMJ Open. 2022 Dec 15;12(12):e065123.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research was to explore the lived experiences of long-term care facilities’ staff during the COVID-19 pandemic and examine if and how the pandemic played a role in their decision to leave their jobs. DESIGN: Qualitative study using thematic analysis of semistructured interviews. Interview transcripts were analysed using coding techniques based in grounded theory. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 29 staff with various roles across 21 long-term care facilities in 12 states were interviewed. RESULTS: The pandemic influenced the staff’s decision to leave their jobs in five different ways, namely: (1) It significantly increased the workload; (2) Created more physical and emotional hazards for staff; (3) Constrained the facilities and their staff financially; (4) Deteriorated morale and job satisfaction among the staff and (5) Increased concerns with upper management’s commitment to both general and COVID-19-specific procedures. CONCLUSIONS: Staff at long-term care facilities discussed a wide variety of reasons for their decision to quit their jobs during the pandemic. Our findings may inform efforts to reduce the rate of turnover in these facilities.
With the proliferation of social media networks, online discussions can serve as a microcosm of the greater public opinion about key issues that affect society as a whole. Online discussions have been catalyzed by the COVID-19 pandemic and have magnified challenges experienced by older adults, health care professionals, and caregivers of long-term care (LTC) residents. Our main goal was to examine how online discussions and public perceptions about LTC practices have been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a content analysis of Twitter posts about LTC to understand the nature of social media discussions regarding LTC practices prior to (March to June 2019) and following the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic (March to June 2020). We found that a much greater number of Twitter posts about LTC was shared during the COVID-19 period than in the year prior. Multiple themes emerged from the data including highlighting concerns about LTC, providing information about LTC, and interventions and ideas for improving LTC conditions. The proportion of posts linked to several of these themes changed as a function of the pandemic. Unsurprisingly, one major new issue that emerged in 2020 is that users began discussing the shortcomings of infection control during the pandemic. Our findings suggest that increased public concern offers momentum for embarking on necessary changes to improve conditions in LTC.
Gallant NL, Hardy MS, Beogo I, Conklin J, Connelly D, Kaasalainen S, et al.
Healthc Q. 2022 Dec;25(SP):34–40.
Family caregivers play a vital role in supporting the physical and mental health of long-term care (LTC) residents. Due to LTC visitor restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic, residents (as well as family caregivers) showed significant adverse health outcomes due to a lack of family presence. To respond to these outcomes, eight implementation science teams led research projects in conjunction with Canadian LTC homes to promote the implementation of interventions to improve family presence. Overall, technological and virtual innovations, increased funding to the sector and partnerships with family caregivers were deemed effective methods to promote stronger family presence within LTC.
Glowinski BJ, Vellani S, Aboumrad M, Beogo I, Franke T, Havaei F, et al.
Healthc Q. 2022 Dec;25(SP):20–6.
The COVID-19 pandemic rattled Canada’s long-term care (LTC) sector by exacerbating the ingrained systemic and structural issues, resulting in tragic consequences for the residents, family members and LTC staff. At the core of LTC’s challenges is chronic under-staffing, leading to lower quality of care for residents and higher degrees of moral distress among staff. A rejuvenation of the LTC sector to support its workforce is overdue. A group of diverse and renowned researchers from across Canada set out to implement innovative evidence-informed solutions in various LTC homes. Their findings call for immediate action from policy makers and LTC decision makers.
Jutkowitz E, Landsteiner A, Ratner E, Shippee T, Madrigal C, Ullman K, et al.
J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2023 Jan;24(1):75-81.e11.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the evidence on effects of nurse staffing in nursing homes on resident outcomes. DESIGN: Systematic review. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Studies evaluating the effects of nurse staffing levels, total staffing, or skill mix on pressure ulcers, nursing home associated infections, and pain outcomes for adult residents in US nursing homes. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Database for English-language articles published between January 2000 and May 2021. We also searched for gray literature and sought expert referrals. Two reviewers participated in determination of eligibility, assessment of methodological quality, and abstraction of data. Abstracted data included study design; setting and population characteristics; and resident outcomes. We rated overall certainty of evidence (very low, low, moderate, and high) for each outcome using GRADE. RESULTS: Of 9152 unique citations, 378 articles underwent full-text review. We identified 22 eligible studies that addressed pressure ulcers (k = 15), COVID-19 cases and/or mortality (k = 4), other infections (k = 8), and moderate-severe pain among residents (k = 7); some examined multiple outcomes. Most studies (k = 17) were rated moderate or high quality. All studies were observational. Overall, registered nurse (RN) staffing was probably associated with fewer pressure ulcers (moderate certainty) and possibly fewer COVID-19 infections/mortality (low certainty), other infections (low certainty) and lower rates of moderate-severe pain (low certainty). Higher skill mix was probably associated with fewer pressure ulcers, higher resident COVID-19 infections, fewer other infections, and lower rates of moderate-severe pain (low certainty for all outcomes). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Higher RN staffing and skill mix may be associated with better nursing home resident outcomes, while results were mixed for total staffing. Increasing RN staffing levels and skill mix are one of a variety of approaches to improve nursing home care.
Lee JY, Yang E, Lee KH.
Int J Nurs Stud. 2022 Dec 10;138:104426.
BACKGROUND: Person-centered care is considered standard care in long-term care for individuals living with dementia. However, qualitative reviews that synthesize the staff experiences of the implementation of person-centered care are lacking. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to synthesize the experiences of nursing staff members after the implementation of person-centered care for individuals living with dementia. DESIGN: A meta-synthesis was conducted. DATA SOURCES: Overall, five electronic databases (i.e., PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library) were searched for the following terms: “dementia,” “person-centered care,” and “qualitative.” The search was limited to articles published in English from January 1998 to December 2021, considering the period when person-centered care was applied in dementia care. REVIEW METHODS: Qualitative content analysis was conducted using a person-centered nursing framework. Meta-data analysis, meta-method, and meta-theory analysis were used to synthesize the results of the included studies. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tool. RESULTS: Altogether, 19 studies were included in this review. Through meta-synthesis, 12 themes, including professionally competent, perspective shift, shared decision-making among staff, appropriate supportive system, understanding and respecting individuals living with dementia, interaction with persons living with dementia and their family members, collaboration among staff members, concern about the well-being of an individual living with dementia, meaningful relationship between staff members and individuals living with dementia, quality care, reflections for maintenance, and barriers to overcome, emerged. CONCLUSIONS: A person-centered nursing framework could be implemented in person-centered care for individuals living with dementia. However, the framework should be modified based on the characteristics of individuals living with dementia. Additionally, reflection strategies for maintenance and barriers are added to facilitate successful person-centered care implementation. REGISTRATION: The study was registered with PROSPERO (International prospective register of systematic reviews) in May 2022 (registration number: CRD42022316097).
Lemaire C, Humbert C, Sueur C, Racin C.
JMIR Aging. 2022 Dec 25;
BACKGROUND: Digital technologies were implemented to address long-term care facility residents’ disrupted socialization needs during the COVID-19 pandemic. A literature review regarding this topic is needed to inform public policy, facility’s managers, family caregivers, and nurses/allies health professionals involved in mediating the use of digital devices for resident’s social ties. Our study outlines key concepts, methodologies, results, issues, and gaps in articles published during pandemic-related visitation restrictions. OBJECTIVE: Our study outlines key concepts, methodologies, results, issues, and gaps in articles published during pandemic-related visitation restrictions. METHODS: Following the PRISMA-ScR protocol, a Scoping review was conducted by searching 3 databases aggregator platforms (EBSCO, ProQuest, and PubMed) for studies published in peer-reviewed journals from early 2020 to the end of June 2021, when the most stringent restrictions were in place. We included qualitative and quantitative studies, reviews, commentaries, viewpoints and letters to the editors in French or English focusing on digital technologies aiming to supporting the social contacts of residents in long-term care facilities during the pandemic-related visitation restrictions. RESULTS: Among 763 screened articles, 29 met our selection criteria. For each of them, we characterized the (1) Authors / Title / Date of publication (2) Country of the first author (3) Research fields (4) Article type (5) Type of technology mentioned. The analysis distinguishes three main themes emerging from the literature: (a) impact and expectations of remote social contact on the physical and mental health and well-being of the residents (n = 12), (b) with whom or what the social contact takes place (n = 17), and (c) limitations and barriers to significant social contact related to digital technologies (n = 14). The results first underline the highly positive impact expected by the authors of the digital technologies on health and quality of life of long-term care facilities’ residents. Second, they highlight the plurality of ties to consider, since the social contacts take place not only with family caregivers to maintain a contact but also for other purposes (end-of-life videoconferences) and with other types of contact (e.g., with staff and with robots). Thirdly, they expose the limitations and barriers to significant contact using digital technologies, and outline the required conditions to enable them. CONCLUSIONS: The review demonstrated the opportunities and risks outlined by the literature about the implementation of digital technologies to support remote social contacts. It shows the plurality of ties to consider and reveals the need to evaluate the positive impact of the remote contacts from the resident’s perspective. Therefore, to go beyond the digital solutionism risk, there is a need for studies considering the holistic impact on health regarding the implementation of digital technologies, including the meaning residents give to interpersonal exchanges and the organizational constraints.
Martínez-Payá M, Carrillo I, Guilabert M.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Dec 16;19(24).
Nursing homes are one of the hardest-hit environments in terms of mortality from COVID-19. Given the reactive management of the pandemic, it is necessary to reflect on, and answer, the question as to which good practices (interventions) were implemented in care homes (population) to improve management and care quality (outcomes). This systematic review aimed to identify and describe good practices adopted in care homes during the COVID-19 pandemic or other recent epidemics. We conducted searches in Embase, PubMed, ScienceDirect, ProQuest Central, and Scopus over the period 1-30 November, 2021, using the descriptors “nursing homes”, “long-term care”, “long-term care facilities” and “COVID-19”; and the keywords “learnings”, “lessons”, “positive learnings”, “positive lessons”, “SARS”, “MERS”, “COVID-19” and “pandemic”. We identified 15 papers describing 14 best practices and 26 specific actions taken for COVID-19 management in long-term care facilities. Following the IDEF methodology, the practices were classified into strategic processes (staff training, communication with the national health system, person-centered care, and protocols), operational processes (cohorts, diagnostic testing, case monitoring, personal protective equipment, staff reinforcement, restriction of visits, social distancing, and alternative means for communication with families) and support processes (provision of equipment and hygiene reinforcement). Fifty percent of practices were likely to be maintained beyond the outbreak to improve the operation and quality of the long-term care facilities. This review summarizes the most common measures adopted to manage the COVID-19 pandemic in the context of increased vulnerability and highlights the deficiencies that must be addressed.
Mielke J, Brunkert T, Zúñiga F, Simon M, Zullig LL, De Geest S.
BMC Med Res Methodol. 2022 Dec 14;22(1):320.
BACKGROUND: Within implementation science studies, contextual analysis is increasingly recognized as foundational to interventions’ successful and sustainable implementation. However, inconsistencies between methodological approaches currently limit progress in studying context and guidance to standardize the use of those approaches is scant. Therefore, this study’s objective was to systematically review and map current methodological approaches to contextual analysis in intervention implementation studies. The results would help us both to systematize the process of contextual analysis and identify gaps in the current evidence. METHODS: We conducted an evidence gap map (EGM) based on literature data via a stepwise approach. First, using an empirically developed search string, we randomly sampled 20% of all intervention implementation studies available from PubMed per year (2015-2020). Second, we assessed included studies that conducted a contextual analysis. Data extraction and evaluation followed the Basel Approach for CoNtextual ANAlysis (BANANA), using a color-coded rating scheme. Also based on BANANA and on the Context and Implementation of Complex Interventions (CICI) framework-an implementation framework that pays ample attention to context- we created visual maps of various approaches to contextual analysis. RESULTS: Of 15, 286 identified intervention implementation studies and study protocols, 3017 were screened for inclusion. Of those, 110 warranted close examination, revealing 22% that reported on contextual analysis. Only one study explicitly applied a framework for contextual analysis. Data were most commonly collected via surveys (n = 15) and individual interviews (n = 13). Ten studies reported mixed-methods analyses. Twenty-two assessed meso-level contextual and setting factors, with socio-cultural aspects most commonly studied. Eighteen described the use of contextual information for subsequent project phases (e.g., intervention development/adaption, selecting implementation strategies). Nine reported contextual factors’ influences on implementation and/or effectiveness outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes current approaches to contextual analysis in implementation science and provides a novel framework for evaluating and mapping it. By synthesizing our findings graphically in figures, we provide an initial evidence base framework that can incorporate new findings as necessary. We strongly recommend further development of methodological approaches both to conduct contextual analysis and to systematize the reporting of it. These actions will increase the quality and consistency of implementation science research.
Mundadan RG, Savundranayagam MY, Orange JB, Murray L.
J Appl Gerontol. 2022 Dec 4;7334648221142852.
Language-based strategies are recommended to improve coherence, clarity, reciprocity, and continuity of interactions with persons living with dementia. Person-centered care is the gold standard for caring for persons with dementia. Person-centered communication (PCC) strategies include facilitation, recognition, validation, and negotiation. Little is known about which language-based strategies support PCC in home care. Accordingly, this study investigated the overlap between language-based strategies and PCC in home care interactions. Analysis of conversation of 30 audio-recorded interactions between personal support workers (PSWs) and persons living with dementia was conducted. The overlap between PCC and language-based strategies was analyzed. Of 11,347 communication units, 2578 overlapped with PCC. For facilitation, 21% were yes/no questions. For recognition, 25% were yes/no questions and 22% were affirmations. For validation, 81% were affirmations and positive feedback. Finally, 60% were yes/no questions for negotiation. The findings highlight the person-centeredness of language-based strategies. PSWs should use diverse language-based strategies that are person-centered.
Poldrugovac M, Amuah JE, Wei-Randall H, Sidhom P, Morris K, Allin S, et al.
Can J Aging. 2022 Dec;41(4):565–76.
Evidence of the impact of public reporting of health care performance on quality improvement is not yet sufficient for definitive conclusions to be drawn, despite the important policy implications. This study explored the association of public reporting of performance indicators of long-term care facilities in Canada with performance trends. We considered 16 performance indicators in long-term care in Canada, 8 of which are publicly reported at a facility level, whereas the other 8 are not publicly reported, between the fiscal years 2011-2012 and 2018-2019. Data from 1,087 long-term care facilities were included. Improving trends were observed among publicly reported indicators more often than among indicators that were not publicly reported. Our analysis also suggests that the association between publication of data and improvement is stronger among indicators for which there was no improvement prior to publication and among the worst performing facilities.
Sharp CA, Boaden RJ, Dixon WG, Sanders C.
Implement Sci Commun. 2022 Dec 14;3(1):132.
BACKGROUND: Getting knowledge from healthcare research into practice (knowledge mobilisation) remains a global challenge. One way in which researchers may attempt to do this is to develop products (such as toolkits, actionable tools, dashboards, guidance, audit tools, protocols and clinical decision aids) in addition to journal papers. Despite their increasing ubiquity, the development of such products remains under-explored in the academic literature. This study aimed to further this understanding by exploring the development of products from healthcare research and how the process of their development might influence their potential application. METHODS: This study compared the data generated from a prospective, longitudinal, comparative case study of four research projects which aimed to develop products from healthcare research. Qualitative methods included thematic analysis of data generated from semi-structured interviews (38), meeting observations (83 h) and project documents (300+). Cases were studied for an average of 11.5 months (range 8-19 months). RESULTS: Case comparison resulted in the identification of three main themes with the potential to affect the use of products in practice. First, aspects of the product, including the perceived need for the specific product being identified, the clarity of product aim and clarity and range of end-users. Second, aspects of development, whereby different types of stakeholder engagement appear to influence potential product application, which either needs to be ‘meaningful’, or delivered through the implicit understanding of users’ needs by the developing team. The third, overarching theme, relates to the academic context in which products are developed, highlighting how the academic context perpetuates the development of products, which may not always be useful in practice. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that aspects of products from healthcare research (need/aim/end-user) and aspects of their development (stakeholder engagement/implicit understanding of end-users) influence their potential application. It explored the motivation for product development and identifies the influence of the current academic context on product development. It shows that there is a tension between ideal ‘systems approaches’ to knowledge mobilisation and ‘linear approaches’, which appear to be more pervasive in practice currently. The development of fewer, high-quality products which fulfil the needs of specified end-users might act to counter the current cynicism felt by many stakeholders in regard to products from healthcare research.
Sinha S, Konetzka RT.
JAMA Netw Open. 2022 Dec 1;5(12):e2249002.
IMPORTANCE: It is important to understand the association between staff vaccination rates and adverse COVID-19 outcomes in nursing homes. OBJECTIVE: To assess the extent to which staff vaccination was associated with preventing COVID-19 cases and deaths among residents and staff in nursing homes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This longitudinal cohort study used data on COVID-19 outcomes in Medicare- and Medicaid-certified nursing homes in the US between May 30, 2021, and January 30, 2022. Participants included the residents of 15 042 US nursing homes that reported COVID-19 data to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and passed Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services data quality checks in the National Healthcare Safety Network. EXPOSURES: Weekly staff vaccination rates. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Main outcomes are weekly COVID-19 cases and deaths among residents and weekly COVID-19 cases among staff. The treatment variable is the primary 2-dose staff vaccination rate in each facility each week. RESULTS: In the primary analysis of 15 042 nursing homes before the Omicron variant wave (May 30 to December 5, 2021) using fixed effects of facility and week, increasing weekly staff vaccination rates by 10 percentage points was associated with 0.13 (95% CI, -0.20 to -0.10) fewer weekly COVID-19 cases per 1000 residents, 0.02 (95% CI, -0.03 to -0.01) fewer weekly COVID-19 deaths per 1000 residents, and 0.03 (95% CI, -0.04 to -0.02) fewer weekly COVID-19 staff cases. In the secondary analysis of the Omicron wave (December 5, 2021, to January 30, 2022), increasing staff vaccination rates were not associated with lower rates of adverse COVID-19 outcomes in nursing homes. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The findings of this cohort study suggest that before the Omicron variant wave, increasing staff vaccination rates was associated with lower incidence of COVID-19 cases and deaths among residents and staff in US nursing homes. However, as newer, more infectious and transmissible variants of the virus emerged, the original 2-dose regimen of the COVID-19 vaccine as recommended in December 2020 was no longer associated with lower rates of adverse COVID-19 outcomes in nursing homes. Policy makers may want to consider longer-term policy options to increase the uptake of booster doses among staff in nursing homes.
Strengthening Pandemic Preparedness in Long-Term Care Program Delivery Team.
Healthc Q. 2022 Dec;25(SP):7–12.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, Healthcare Excellence Canada, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and several provincial partners launched the Implementation Science Teams – Strengthening Pandemic Preparedness in Long-Term Care rapid research program. The program provided funding and a range of supports to the Implementation Science Teams (ISTs) that implemented and evaluated at least one of six promising practice interventions/policy options within Canadian long-term care and retirement homes. This article provides context in terms of introducing the purpose of this special issue and outlining the research initiative, the ISTs’ research areas of focus and the program’s overall reach.
Tsang CC, Holroyd-Leduc JM, Ewa V, Conly JM, Leslie MM, Leal JR.
J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2023 Jan;24(1):82-89.e2.
OBJECTIVE: To review existing literature evaluating barriers and facilitators to the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) by health care workers in long-term care (LTC). DESIGN: Scoping review. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Health care workers in LTC settings. METHODS: Several online databases were searched and a gray literature search was conducted. Study inclusion criteria were (1) conducted in nursing homes or LTC settings, (2) focused on LTC health care workers as the study population, and (3) identified barriers and/or facilitators to PPE use. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), which assesses barriers to implementation across 14 behavioral change domains, was used to extract and organize data about barriers and facilitators to appropriate use of PPE from the included studies. RESULTS: A total of 5216 references were screened for eligibility and 10 studies were included in this review. Eight of the 10 studies were conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. Several barriers and facilitators to PPE use were identified. The most common TDF domain identified was environmental context and resources, which was observed in 9 of the 10 studies. Common barriers to PPE use included supply issues (n = 7 studies), the cost of acquisition (n = 3 studies), unclear guidelines on appropriate use of PPE (n = 2 studies), difficulty providing care (n = 2 studies), and anxiety about frightening patients (n = 2 studies). Having PPE readily available facilitated the use of PPE (n = 2 studies). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Further research is necessary to identify barriers and facilitators more extensively across behavior change domains to develop effective strategies to improve PPE use and prevent infection transmission within LTC.
OBJECTIVES: Canada has two official languages (English and French) that vary in usage by province/territory and other smaller geographic units. The objective of this study was to compare the characteristics of persons receiving care in long-term care homes serving different language groups and to examine the extent to which data quality and distributional properties of indicators vary between homes. METHODS: We used routinely collected interRAI Minimum Data Set (MDS) 2.0 assessment data from nine Canadian provinces and territories to classify 1,333 long-term care homes into predominately English, French, and mixed language groups. We compared resident characteristics, risk-adjusted quality indicator performance, and assessment data quality by facility language group. RESULTS: In these data, eighteen (1.35%) long-term care homes served predominately French-speaking residents. An additional 274 (20.54%) homes were classified as mixed language homes, where 20% or more residents spoke a language other than English or French. The remaining homes (1,042; 78.11%) were classified as English homes. We did not observe substantial differences between facility language groups in terms of resident characteristics, quality indicator performance, and data quality. CONCLUSIONS: Despite linguistic differences, long-term care homes in Canada serving residents that speak predominately French and other languages can be compared directly with homes serving predominantly English-speaking residents. These findings support language-agnostic benchmarking of quality of care among long-term care homes situated across Canada, particularly in officially bilingual provinces.
Chamberlain SA, Warner G, Andrew MK, Hande MJ, Hubley E, Weeks LE, et al.
Gerontologist. 2022 Dec 3;gnac175.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 pandemic visitor restrictions to long-term care facilities have demonstrated that eliminating opportunities for family-resident contact has devastating consequences for residents’ quality of life. Our study aimed to understand how public health directives to support family visitations during the pandemic were navigated, managed, and implemented by staff. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, we conducted video/telephone interviews with 54 direct care and implementation staff in six long term care homes in two Canadian provinces to assess implementation barriers and facilitators of visitation programs. Equity and inclusion issues were examined in the program’s implementation. RESULTS: Despite similar public health directives, implementation varied by facility, largely influenced by the existing culture and processes of the facility and the staff understanding of the program; differences resulted in how designated family members were chosen and restrictions around visitations (e.g., scheduling, location). Facilitators to implementation were good communication networks, leadership, and intentional planning to develop the visitor designation processes. However, lack of consultation with direct care staff led to logistical challenges around visitation and ignited conflict around visitation rules and procedures. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Insights into the complexities of implementing family visitation programs during a pandemic are discussed and opportunities for improvement are identified. Our results reveal the importance of proactively including direct care staff and family in planning for future outbreaks.
van Wijk M, Lalleman PCB, Cummings GG, Engel J.
Policy Polit Nurs Pract. 2022 Feb;23(1):67–79.
In the Dutch nursing context, work remains in strengthening the voice of nurses serving as frontline health care providers and board members alike. Conceptual clarity of Public Opinion Leadership (POL) in nursing practice is needed to provide attributes, antecedents and consequences for nurses and nurse leaders so they can contribute in the public debate and policy making processes. Using Rodgers’ method of evolutionary concept analysis and the key words “POL,” “lobbying” and “public affairs,” we searched PubMed (including MEDLINE), CINAHL, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library for articles written in English, published between January 1999 and May 2020, which resulted in a final selection of seven studies. In addition, transcripts of an expert panel discussion regarding POL were analyzed. Attributes of POL are credibility, accessibility, altruism, dynamic networking and sense of systemness. Antecedents are a clinical background, authentic authority, policy and political awareness and strategic skills. The main consequences of POL entail influencing those who are involved in policy making processes, a new generation of public opinion leaders, and the raising of bottom-up political leaders. POL is a relatively new concept for nursing, with increasing interest given the need to ensure quality of care by increasing the use of evidence in clinical practice. POL in nursing practice is defined as the action of influencing public debate regarding policy making processes by maintaining dynamic (social) networks, having a high sense of systemness, and being (clinically) credible, altruistic and accessible to peers and a wide variety of stakeholders.
Blackstock S, Cummings GG, Glanfield F, Yonge O.
Policy Polit Nurs Pract. 2022 Dec 19;15271544221140476.
AIMS: To determine what extent are workplace empowerment, New Graduate Nurses’ (NGN) perceptions of nurse leaders, trust in management, and areas of worklife predict coworker incivility experiences? BACKGROUND: NGNs’ perceptions of nursing leaderships’ control over workload contribute to coworker incivility experiences were tested. The relationship between workplace empowerment, authentic leadership, and areas of work life (workload control and fair resource allocation) to coworker incivility experiences were examined. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of Starting Out, national survey, Time 1 dataset. Select factors of workplace empowerment, authentic leadership, areas of worklife, trust in management and NGNs’ co- worker incivility experiences were situated within an ecological approach. Multiple linear regression was used to test whether a negative relationship of workplace empowerment, areas of worklife and authentic leadership to NGNs co-worker incivility experiences and important new findings were discovered. RESULTS: First, NGNs’ perceptions of workplace empowerment predict coworker incivility experiences when controlling for authentic leadership and trust in management. Second, NGNs’ perceptions of areas of worklife predict coworker incivility experiences when controlling for authentic leadership, trust in management, and workplace empowerment. Third, NGNs’ perceptions of authentic leadership do not predict coworker incivility experiences when controlling for workplace empowerment and trust in management. Finally, NGNs’ perceptions of authentic leadership do predict coworker incivility experiences when trust in management and workplace empowerment are not controlled. CONCLUSIONS: NGNs’ perceptions of authentic leadership would benefit from workplace empowerment of the nurse leader in workplace environments to mitigate coworker incivility experiences.
Kitson AL, Conroy T, Jeffs L, Carr D, Huisman-Dewaal GJ, Muntlin A, et al.
J Adv Nurs. 2022 Dec 15.
AIM: To outline the International Learning Collaborative (ILC) Oxford Statement, explicating our commitment to ensuring health and care systems are equipped to meet patients’ fundamental care needs during times of unprecedented crisis. DESIGN/METHOD: Discussion paper. The content was developed via a co-design process with participants during the ILC’s international conference. KEY ARGUMENTS: We, the ILC, outline what we do and do not want to see within our health and care systems when faced with the challenges of caring for patients during global pandemics and other crises. Specifically, we want fundamental care delivery to be seen as the minimum standard rather than the exception across our health and care systems. We want nursing leaders to call out and stand up for the importance of building fundamental care into systems, processes and funding priorities. We do not want to see the voices of nursing leaders quashed or minimized in favour of other agendas. In turn, what we want to see is greater recognition of fundamental care work and greater respect for the people who do it. We expect nurses to have a ‘seat at the table’ where the key health and care decisions that impact patients and staff are made. CONCLUSION: To achieve our goals we must (1) ensure that fundamental care is embedded in all health and care systems, at all levels; (2) build on and strengthen the leadership skills of the nursing workforce by clearly advocating for person-centred fundamental care; (3) co-design systems that care for and support our staff’s well-being and which foster collective resilience rather than overly rely on individual resilience; (4) improve the science and methodologies around reporting and measuring fundamental care to show the positive impact of this care delivery and (5) leverage the COVID pandemic crisis as an opportunity for transformational change in fundamental care delivery.
Javanparast S, Robinson S, Kitson A, Arciuli J. E
Res Involv Engagem. 2022 Dec 7;8(1):71.
BACKGROUND: Research codesign is generally defined as end-users’ involvement in planning, implementation, and evaluation of projects. Recently, there has been a growing interest in codesign to maximise research acceptability, applicability, and impact and to address longstanding issues around power and depth of involvement. Frameworks have been developed to assist in understanding research codesign processes at a project level. However, little is known about how university based researchers construct or adopt a coherent approach to sustain research codesign in governance, methodological approaches, and practice. This study investigated the perspectives of researchers within a newly formed research institute about principles and practices of research codesign in the context of their previous and current projects. We also investigated their perceptions of institution-level enablers and barriers to codesign. University based researchers are our primary focus here and we intend to consult other stakeholders in future work. METHODS: Using an interview guide informed by exploratory work and a scoping review of the literature, we conducted 15 individual interviews with Caring Futures Institute (CFI) leaders and researchers at different career stages working across multiple areas of health, care, and social research. Qualitative thematic analysis was conducted. RESULTS: The researchers we interviewed were involved in projects ranging from large nationally funded projects to small studies funded by the university or PhD projects. Research codesign activities were generally part of larger researcher-led projects but there were a few examples of community-led projects. There was agreement amongst participants on the principles and perceived benefits of research codesign such as partnership, co-learning, and power sharing. Less agreement was found regarding the definition of research codesign and best terminology to be used. Themes reflecting the success of research codesign included pre-existing community relationships, communication skills, knowledge, and training on codesign, balancing power relationships, use of external facilitators, and adequacy of funding, time, and resources. CONCLUSIONS: The study reaffirmed the complexity of research codesign from researchers’ perspectives and identified areas of potential action that may be beneficial for university based research institutions in building codesign skills, capacity and culture for example training, peer learning and funding support. Implications for practice improvement centre on a dual strategy of building practical capacity in researchers and integrating institutional dimensions (such as governance and leadership) into codesign frameworks. This can help to ensure research codesign is integrated into organisational culture and through the work of individual researchers.
Mak JKL, Eriksdotter M, Annetorp M, Kuja-Halkola R, Kananen L, Boström AM, et al.
Gerontology. 2022 Nov 30;1–10.
INTRODUCTION: Frailty, a measure of biological aging, has been linked to worse COVID-19 outcomes. However, as the mortality differs across the COVID-19 waves, it is less clear whether a medical record-based electronic frailty index (eFI) that we have previously developed for older adults could be used for risk stratification in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the association of frailty with mortality, readmission, and length of stay in older COVID-19 patients and to compare the predictive accuracy of the eFI to other frailty and comorbidity measures. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study using electronic health records (EHRs) from nine geriatric clinics in Stockholm, Sweden, comprising 3,980 COVID-19 patients (mean age 81.6 years) admitted between March 2020 and March 2022. Frailty was assessed using a 48-item eFI developed for Swedish geriatric patients, the Clinical Frailty Scale, and the Hospital Frailty Risk Score. Comorbidity was measured using the Charlson Comorbidity Index. We analyzed in-hospital mortality and 30-day readmission using logistic regression, 30-day and 6-month mortality using Cox regression, and the length of stay using linear regression. Predictive accuracy of the logistic regression and Cox models was evaluated by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and Harrell’s C-statistic, respectively. RESULTS: Across the study period, the in-hospital mortality rate decreased from 13.9% in the first wave to 3.6% in the latest (Omicron) wave. Controlling for age and sex, a 10% increment in the eFI was significantly associated with higher risks of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio = 2.95; 95% confidence interval = 2.42-3.62), 30-day mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.39; 2.08-2.74), 6-month mortality (HR = 2.29; 2.04-2.56), and a longer length of stay (β-coefficient = 2.00; 1.65-2.34) but not with 30-day readmission. The association between the eFI and in-hospital mortality remained robust across the waves, even after the vaccination rollout. Among all measures, the eFI had the best discrimination for in-hospital (AUC = 0.780), 30-day (Harrell’s C = 0.733), and 6-month mortality (Harrell’s C = 0.719). CONCLUSION: An eFI based on routinely collected EHRs can be applied in identifying high-risk older COVID-19 patients during the continuing pandemic.
Johansson-Pajala RM, Alam M, Gusdal A, Heideken Wågert P von, Löwenmark A, Boström AM, et al.
BMC Geriatr. 2022 Dec 1;22(1):927.
BACKGROUND: Older people were subjected to significant restrictions on physical contacts with others during the COVID-19 pandemic. Social distancing impacts older people’s experiences of anxiety and loneliness. Despite a large body of research on the pandemic, there is little research on its effects on older people in residential care facilities (RCF) and in home care services (HCS), who are the frailest of the older population. We aimed to investigate the effect of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in March-May 2020 on experiences of anxiety and loneliness among older people living in RCF or receiving HCS and the impact of the progression of the pandemic on these experiences. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional design using data from the national user satisfaction survey (March - May 2020) by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. Survey responses were retrieved from 27,872 older people in RCF (mean age 87 years) and 82,834 older people receiving HCS (mean age 84 years). Proportional-odds (cumulative logit) model was used to estimate the degree of association between dependent and independent variables. RESULTS: Loneliness and anxiety were more prevalent among the older persons living in RCF (loneliness: 69%, anxiety: 63%) than those receiving HCS (53% and 47%, respectively). Proportional odds models revealed that among the RCF and HCS respondents, the cumulative odds ratio of experiencing higher degree of anxiety increased by 1.06% and 1.04%, respectively, and loneliness by 1.13% and 1.16%, respectively, for 1% increase in the COVID-19 infection rate. Poor self-rated health was the most influential factor for anxiety in both RCF and HCS. Living alone (with HCS) was the most influential factor affecting loneliness. Experiences of disrespect from staff were more strongly associated with anxiety and loneliness in RCF than in HCS. CONCLUSION: Older people in RCF or receiving HCS experienced increasing levels of anxiety and loneliness as the first wave of the pandemic progressed. Older people’ mental and social wellbeing should be recognized to a greater extent, such as by providing opportunities for social activities. Better preparedness for future similar events is needed, where restrictions on social interaction are balanced against the public health directives.
Maxwell CJ, Dayes L, Amuah JE, Hogan DB, Lane NE, McGrail KM, et al.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association.
ObjectivesTo examine the prevalence of coping behaviours during the first two waves of the COVID-19 pandemic among caregivers of Assisted Living (AL) residents and variation in these behaviours by caregivers? gender and mental health.
Mayhew KJ, Lawrence SL, Squires JE, Harrison D.
Adv Neonatal Care. 2022 Dec 1;22(6):E207–16.
BACKGROUND: Premature and sick neonates may require weeks of hospitalization in a noisy neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment with sound levels that may reach 120 decibels. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a maximum sound level of 45 decibels. PURPOSE: To measure sound levels in a level III NICU and to describe contributing environmental factors. METHODS: Descriptive quantitative study. Sound levels were measured using a portable sound meter in an open-bay level III NICU. Contributing environmental factors were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: Mean sound levels for day, evening, and night shifts were 83.5, 83, and 80.9 decibels, respectively. Each period of time exceeded the recommended guidelines 90% of the time and was almost double the American Academy of Pediatrics’ recommendation. Multiple linear regression findings demonstrated significant factors associated with elevated sound levels including number of neonates, number of people, number of alarms, acuity level, and shift type. Observational data explain 14.5% of elevated sound levels. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: An understanding of baseline sound levels and contributing environmental factors is the first step in developing strategies to mitigate excessive noise in the NICU. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH: Research should focus on effective and sustainable ways to reduce sound levels in the NICU, including inside the isolette, in order to provide an environment that is conducive to optimal growth and neurodevelopment for preterm and sick infants.