Aging

Collection of articles on Aging is available here.

Effects of Acupressure on Sleep Quality and Psychological Distress in Nursing Home Residents: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
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I. H. Chen, T. P. Yeh, Y. C. Yeh, et al.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2019 Jul;20(7):822-829
To compare the efficacy of acupressure with sham acupressure in older-adult nursing home residents presenting with poor sleep quality and psychological distress. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-two nursing home residents with poor sleep quality and psychological distress participated in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 31) receiving acupressure at true acupoints (Baihui, Juque, Neiguan, Tianzhu, and Yongchung) or control group (n = 31) receiving acupressure at sham points. All participants received 20 minutes of acupressure before sleeping 3 times a week for 8 weeks. All participants were blinded to group allocation. MEASURES: Sleep quality and psychological distress were measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Kessler Psychological Distress scale, respectively. Both groups’ outcomes were assessed by assessors blinded to group allocation at the baseline, the end of the intervention, and 1 month after the intervention. RESULTS: The experimental group demonstrated significantly more improvement in sleep quality than did the control group at the end of the intervention (10.5 vs 13.3) and 1 month after the intervention (8.3 vs 14.2; both P ≤ .001). Moreover, the experimental group had lower psychological distress levels than did the control group at 1 month after the intervention (14.6 vs 17.9, P = .05). Furthermore, significant differences in mean sleep quality (F = 60.8, P < .001) and psychological distress (F = 24.6, P < .001) were observed in the experimental group between the measurements at baseline and after the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Acupressure at true acupoints improves sleep quality, reduces psychological distress, and provides more clinically beneficial effects compared with that at sham points. Future studies should examine whether these effects are maintained in the long term.

Guardianship and End-of-Life Care for Veterans with Dementia in Nursing Homes.
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A. B. Cohen, L. Han, J. R. OʼLeary and T. R. Fried.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2020 Nov 10
Experts have suggested that patients represented by professional guardians receive higher intensity end-of-life treatment than other patients, but there is little corresponding empirical data. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Among veterans aged 65 and older who died from 2011 to 2013, we used Minimum Data Set assessments to identify those who were nursing home residents and had moderately severe or severe dementia. We applied methods developed in prior work to determine which of these veterans had professional guardians. Decedent veterans with professional guardians were matched to decedent veterans without guardians in a 1:4 ratio, according to age, sex, race, dementia severity, and nursing facility type (VA based vs non-VA). MEASUREMENTS: Our primary outcome was intensive care unit (ICU) admission in the last 30 days of life. Secondary outcomes included mechanical ventilation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the last 30 days of life, feeding tube placement in the last 90 days of life, three or more nursing home-to-hospital transfers in the last 90 days of life, and in-hospital death. RESULTS: ICU admission was more common among patients with professional guardians than matched controls (17.5% vs 13.7%), but the difference was not statistically significant (adjusted odds ratio = 1.33; 95% confidence interval = .89-1.99). There were no significant differences in receipt of any other treatment; nor was there a consistent pattern. Mechanical ventilation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation were more common among patients with professional guardians, and feeding tube placement, three or more end-of-life hospitalizations, and in-hospital death were more common among matched controls. CONCLUSION: Rates of high-intensity treatment were similar whether or not a nursing home resident with dementia was represented by a professional guardian. This is in part because high-intensity treatment occurred more frequently than expected among patients without guardians.

Residents’ use and perceptions of residential care facility gardens: A behaviour mapping and conversation study.
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E. Dahlkvist, M. Engström and A. Nilsson.
Int J Older People Nurs 2020 Mar;15(1):e12283
To describe the gardens and their use by individuals living at residential care facilities (RCFs) with high ratings on restorative values. BACKGROUND: Being outdoors has been described as important to older people’s well-being. Use of outdoor gardens may increase residents’ well-being through experiences of restorative qualities such as being away and fascination. Thus far, there has been little research on restorative experiences of gardens in the care of older people. DESIGN: A descriptive design using behaviour mapping observations integrated with qualitative field notes and recorded conversations. METHODS: A criterion sampling of two gardens (out of a total of 87) was made based on residents’ ratings of restorative values; the two with the highest values were chosen. Eleven residents at the two RCFs took part. Data were collected through behaviour mapping observations, field notes and conversations on five occasions in the respective facilities during residents’ visits to the garden. RESULTS: The observations revealed that the main uses of the gardens were to socialise and relax. The conversations also showed that the garden stimulated residents’ senses and evoked memories from the past. These restorative values were interpreted as a sense of being away and fascination. Not having opportunities for outdoor visits was reported to result in disappointment and reduced well-being. CONCLUSIONS: The findings showed that two basic gardens with different characteristics and views could stimulate residents’ senses and evoke memories from the past; this supports the call for residents to be able to spend time in gardens to promote their well-being. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: First-line managers, nurses and healthcare staff in the care of older people should consider that regular opportunities to spend time outdoors may promote older people’s well-being through feelings of being away and fascination.

Surrogates’ end-of-life decision-making process in nursing homes for residents with a neurocognitive disorder: An integrative review.
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S. Daneau, A. Bourbonnais and A. Legault.
Int J Older People Nurs 2020 Mar;15(1):e12274
The goal of this review is to analyse articles on the experience of surrogates who find themselves making end-of-life decisions for a relative with a major neurocognitive disorder in a nursing home. DESIGN: An integrative review of the literature based on Whittemore and Knafl’s method. DATA SOURCES: This review used the CINAHL, PubMed, PsycInfo, Embase and Web of Science databases. A complementary search was also conducted via citation pearl searching, and the reference lists from the selected articles were manually verified. REVIEW METHOD: The quality of the selected articles was assessed using the Crow Critical Appraisal Tool, and the data were extracted systematically and were then organised according to Mishel’s uncertainty in illness theory. The data that did not correspond to any concept of the theory were excluded at this stage. Analysis was conducted using the method put forward by Miles, Huberman and Saldaña. RESULTS: A total of 18 articles were selected: 11 qualitative, 5 quantitative and 1 using a mixed method, as well as 1 ethical argument. The subjects arising from the analysis of the articles were the types of decisions made, the support available for the surrogates, the role and involvement of the surrogates in the process and the factors that influence the decisions. CONCLUSION: The results of this integrative review stimulate reflection on the needs of family members involved in making decisions, as well as on the nursing practice and research. Published literature is mainly from North America, and thus, more research is needed to better understand the impact of cultural and ethnic differences in the process, which was poorly covered by the existing literature. Also, exploring nurses’ involvement in supporting surrogates may eventually better equip nurses for their interventions with surrogates. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Describing the illness progression and the signification of palliative care to the resident with a NCD and their surrogate decision makers, as well as discussing end-of-life care preferences as early as possible are all nursing interventions that could potentially enhance surrogates’ end-of-life decision-making process.

A Pilot Randomised Clinical Trial of a Novel Approach to Reduce Sedentary Behaviour in Care Home Residents: Feasibility and Preliminary Effects of the GET READY Study.
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M. Giné-Garriga, P. M. Dall, M. Sandlund, J. Jerez-Roig, S. F. M. Chastin and D. A. Skelton.
Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Apr 21;17(8):2866. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17082866
Care-home residents are among the most sedentary and least active of the population. We aimed to assess the feasibility, acceptability, safety, and preliminary effects of an intervention to reduce sedentary behaviour (SB) co-created with care home residents, staff, family members, and policymakers within a pilot two-armed pragmatic cluster randomized clinical trial (RCT). Four care homes from two European countries participated, and were randomly assigned to control (usual care, CG) or the Get Ready intervention (GR), delivered by a staff champion one-to-one with the care home resident and a family member. A total of thirty-one residents participated (51.6% female, 82.9 (13.6) years old). GR involves six face to face sessions over a 12-week period with goal-oriented prompts for movement throughout. The feasibility and acceptability of the intervention were assessed and adverse events (AEs) were collected. The preliminary effects of the GR on SB, quality of life, fear of falling, and physical function were assessed. Means and standard deviations are presented, with the mean change from baseline to post-intervention calculated along with 95% confidence intervals. The CG smoked more, sat more, and had more functional movement difficulties than the GR at baseline. The GR intervention was feasible and acceptable to residents and staff. No AEs occurred during the intervention. GR participants showed a decrease in daily hours spent sitting/lying (Cohen’s d = 0.36) and an increase in daily hours stepping, and improvements in health-related quality of life, fear of falling, and habitual gait speed compared to usual care, but these effects need confirmation in a definitive RCT. The co-created GR was shown to be feasible and acceptable, with no AEs.

Sit bath systems: A new source of Legionella infection.
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L. Girolamini, M. Mazzotta, J. Lizzadro, et al.
PLoS One 2020 Nov 4;15(11):e0241756
Sit Bath Systems (SBSs) are the most common hygiene method for patients who are not self-sufficient. Therefore, the water quality of SBSs in the nosocomial environment plays a fundamental role in controlling infections for both patients and health-care workers. A long-term study on Legionella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) contamination was performed in SBSs (n = 20) of six Health Care Facilities (HCFs). A total of 254 water samples were analyzed following ISO procedures. The samples were positive for P. aeruginosa (46.85%) and Legionella (53.54%), respectively, both over the directive limits. Legionella isolates were identified as: Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) serogroups 1, 3, and 6 and Legionella non-pneumophila species (L. anisa, L. londiniensis, L. rubrilucens, and L. nagelii). Moreover, the contamination found was studied with respect to median temperature measured (42 °C), from which two groups (A and B) could be distinguished. P. aeruginosa was found in both groups (100% of SBSs), while a higher percentage of Legionella positive samples was found in group A (75% of SBSs), compared to group B (50% of SBSs), showing how Legionella control could be carried out by using temperatures above 42 °C. An analysis of SBS water pipelines, maintenance, and disinfection treatments indicates SBSs as a new source of infection risk for both patients and health-care workers.

Racial/Ethnic Differences in Health-Related Quality of Life in Persons With and Without Dementia.
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E. Hayes-Larson, T. M. Mobley, A. Gilmore-Bykovskyi, et al.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2020 Nov 12
Given the lack of effective pharmacologic strategies to prevent, slow, or reverse dementia progression, maximizing quality of life (QOL) is a major priority for persons living with dementia. Despite well-documented racial/ethnic disparities in dementia incidence and prevalence, it is unknown whether there are racial/ethnic disparities in QOL among persons with dementia. The objective of this study was to determine if there are racial/ethnic differences in poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among persons with and without dementia in a nationally-representative cohort. DESIGN: Repeated measures cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort study. SETTING: United States nationally-representative National Health and Aging Trends Study (2011-2018). PARTICIPANTS: Non-nursing home-dwelling Black, Latino, and white adults age 65+ (n = 10,886). MEASUREMENTS: We estimated racial/ethnic differences in five dichotomous indicators of poor HRQOL (depressive and anxiety symptoms, self-rated health, pain, and physical functional limitations), stratified by dementia status (probable, possible, none). We used generalized estimating equations to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) and differences, and marginal standardization to estimate prevalence. RESULTS: Generally, Blacks and Latinos reported higher prevalence of poor HRQOL compared with whites. The largest differences were observed for self-rated health, and Latino-white differences were slightly larger compared to Black-white differences. PRs were larger among those with no dementia. For example, the Black versus white PRs for poor self-rated health were 1.93 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.82-2.04) among the no dementia group and 1.21 (95% CI = 1.12-1.31) among the probable dementia group; Latino versus white PRs for these comparisons were 2.39 (2.21-2.59) and 1.48 (1.35-1.62), respectively. Prevalence differences also showed racial/ethnic differences, but these were similar across dementia statuses. CONCLUSIONS: We observed racial/ethnic disparities in poor HRQOL, showing greater unmet clinical needs among Black and Latino versus white older adults. Relative disparities were smaller in those with dementia, but absolute magnitudes of disparities were similar by dementia status.

“A false sense of confidence” The perceived role of inflammatory point-of-care testing in managing urinary tract infections in Dutch nursing homes: a qualitative study.
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S. D. Kuil, C. Schneeberger, F. van Leth, M. D. de Jong and J. Harting.
BMC Geriatr 2020 Nov 4;20(1):450-020-01853-9
Diagnosing urinary tract infections (UTI) in nursing home residents is complex, due to frequent non-specific symptomatology and asymptomatic bacteriuria. The objective of this study was to explore health care professionals’ perceptions of the proposed use of inflammatory marker Point-Of-Care Testing (POCT) in this respect. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative inquiry (2018-2019) alongside the multicenter PROGRESS study (NL6293), which assessed the sensitivity of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin POCT in UTI. We used semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The participants were physicians (n = 12) and nurses (n = 6) from 13 nursing homes in the Netherlands. Most respondents were not familiar with inflammatory marker POCT, while some used POCT for respiratory tract infections. Both the interview guide and the analysis of the interview transcripts were based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. RESULTS: All respondents acknowledged that sufficiently sensitive POCT could decrease diagnostic uncertainty to some extent in residents presenting with non-specific symptoms. They primarily thought that negative test results would rule out UTI and justify withholding antibiotic treatment. Secondly, they described how positive test results could rule in UTI and justify antimicrobial treatment. However, most respondents also expected new diagnostic uncertainties to arise. Firstly, in case of negative test results, they were not sure how to deal with residents’ persisting non-specific symptoms. Secondly, in case of positive test results, they feared overlooking infections other than UTI. These new uncertainties could lead to inappropriate antibiotics use. Therefore, POCT was thought to create a false sense of confidence. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that inflammatory marker POCT will only improve UTI management in nursing homes to some extent. To realize the expected added value, any implementation of POCT requires thorough guidance to ensure appropriate use. Developing UTI markers with high negative and positive predictive values may offer greater potential to improve UTI management in nursing homes.

Groping around in the dark for adequate COPD management: a qualitative study on experiences in long-term care.
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S. Lundell, U. M. Pesola, A. Nyberg and K. Wadell.
BMC Health Serv Res 2020 Nov 10;20(1):1025-020-05875-2
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common and deadliest chronic diseases worldwide. Since COPD is a chronic and progressive disease, treatment is necessary throughout life. For people with COPD who cannot live independently, long-term care facilities are often required. However, knowledge is very limited about aspects of importance for effective COPD management in these settings in accordance with current treatment guidelines. The aim of this study was to explore aspects of importance in long-term care facilities for providing interventions according to treatment guidelines for people with COPD, from the perspective of healthcare professionals, in an effort to prove novel knowledge that could be used to facilitate implementation of treatment guidelines in these settings. METHODS: A qualitative study was performed in northern Sweden. In Sweden, municipalities are responsible for providing long-term care. Interviews with 36 healthcare professionals (nurses, physiotherapists, occupational therapists and dieticians) in municipal healthcare were conducted and analysed using qualitative content analysis with triangulation by the authors. RESULTS: The overarching theme that emerged from the analysis was Groping around in the dark for adequate COPD management. This represents healthcare professionals’ experiences of working with a complex diagnosis somewhat overlooked in the municipal healthcare, an underdog in the healthcare system. The groping around in the dark theme further represents the healthcare professionals’ lack of COPD-related competence, lack of interprofessional collaboration, and insufficient communication with the county council. The fragile group of people with COPD and their relatives were considered in need of support adapted to their context, but routines and resources for COPD management were limited. This lack of routines and resources also resulted in professionals being pragmatic and adopting short-term solutions without focusing on specific needs related to the diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The COPD management in long-term care settings showed several insufficiencies, indicating a large gap between clinical practice and treatment guidelines for COPD. It is crucial to improve COPD management in long-term care settings. Consequently, several actions are needed, such as increasing professional competence, establishing new routines, acknowledging and making COPD a higher priority, as well as adapting treatment guidelines to the context.

Reform influences location of death: Interrupted time-series analysis on older adults and persons with dementia.
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J. L. MacNeil Vroomen, C. Kjellstadli, H. G. Allore, J. T. van der Steen and B. Husebo.
PLoS One 2020 Nov 4;15(11):e0241132
Norway instituted a Coordination Reform in 2012 aimed at maximizing time at home by providing in-home care through community services. Dying in a hospital can be highly stressful for patients and families. Persons with dementia are particularly vulnerable to negative outcomes in hospital. This study aims to describe changes in the proportion of older adults with and without dementia dying in nursing homes, home, hospital and other locations over an 11-year period covering the reform. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is a repeated cross-sectional, population-level study using mortality data from the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry hosted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Participants were Norwegian older adults 65 years or older with and without dementia who died from 2006 to 2017. The policy intervention was the 2012 Coordination Reform that increased care infrastructure into communities. The primary outcome was location of death listed as a nursing home, home, hospital or other location. The trend in the proportion of location of death, before and after the reform was estimated using an interrupted time-series analysis. All analyses were adjusted for sex and seasonality. Of the 417,862 older adult decedents, 61,940 (14.8%) had dementia identified on their death certificate. Nursing home deaths increased over time while hospital deaths decreased for the total population (adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRRR) 0.87, 95% CI 0.82-0.92) and persons with dementia (aRRR: 0.93, 95%CI 0.91-0.96) after reform implementation. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that the 2012 Coordination Reform was associated with decreased older adults dying in hospital and increased nursing home death; however, the number of people dying at home did not change.

Meaning of well-being of older institutionalized persons in abandonment situation.
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W. S. N. F. Martínez, M. J. J. González, N. E. M. Pérez and R. F. Guerrero-Castañeda.
Rev Bras Enferm 2020 Nov 2;73Suppl 3(Suppl 3):e20200123
To understand the meaning of well-being of older persons in situation of abandonment. METHODS: a qualitative phenomenological study, carried out in a nursing home in Tepic, Nayarit, from 2017 to 2019. Intentional sampling with 12 older persons aged 60 and above. Data collection occurred by phenomenological interview. The ethical criteria of the General Health Law were respected. Participants signed the Informed Consent Form. Data analysis took place through phenomenological analysis. RESULTS: four themes have emerged: 1. Living Activities of Daily Living; 2. Attention to physical needs; 3. Coexistence; 4. Spirituality experience. CONCLUSION: for older persons, living institutionalized implies a process of adaptation and transformation to their context and state of life, restructuring their needs that provide well-being. It is important to approach these scenarios to establish ways of experiencing aging that favor a full quality of life.

Health Heterogeneity in Older Adults: Exploration in the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging.
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Q. D. Nguyen, E. M. Moodie, M. F. Forget, P. Desmarais, M. R. Keezer and C. Wolfson.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2020 Nov 5
A widely held dictum in aging research is that heterogeneity in health increases with age, but the basis for this claim has not been fully investigated. We examined heterogeneity at different ages across health characteristics to describe variation and trends; we investigated the comparative importance of between-age versus within-age heterogeneity. DESIGN: This was a cohort study. SETTING: Community-dwelling older adults. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 30,097 adults aged 45 to 86 years, from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging, were included. MEASUREMENTS: Thirty-four health characteristics in eight domains (physical measures, vital signs, physiological measures, physical performance, function/disability, chronic conditions, frailty, laboratory values) were assessed cross-sectionally. We used regression models to examine heterogeneity in health characteristics (using absolute deviation) and domains (using effective variance) in relation to age. Comparison between between-age and within-age heterogeneity was quantified by estimating the age threshold at which the former exceeds the latter. RESULTS: Of the 34 health characteristics, 17 showed increased heterogeneity, 8 decreased, and 9 no association with age. The associations between heterogeneity and age increased generally but were nonlinear for most domains and nonmonotonic for some. We observed peak heterogeneity at approximately 70 years. Between-age heterogeneity, compared with within-age heterogeneity, was most important for forced expiratory volume in 1 second and grip strength but varied across characteristics. CONCLUSION: Overall health heterogeneity increases with age but does not uniformly increase across all variables and domains. Heterogeneity in aging reinforces the need for geriatric assessment and personalized care, depending on which health characteristics are assessed, their measurement properties, and their referent group. Our findings suggest further research to develop improved single-dimension and multidimensional instruments, as well as specific vital and laboratory reference ranges for older adults.

Pain Management in Nursing Home Residents: Results from the INCUR Study.
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V. Nunziata, M. Proietti, E. Saporiti, et al.
J Nutr Health Aging 2020;24(9):1019-1022
Pain is very common among older persons living in nursing home, affecting 45% to 80% of residents, interfering with daily activities and quality of life. Aims of the study are: 1) to measure the analgesics non-prescription in nursing home residents who present pain symptoms; 2) to identify the main determinants of analgesics non-prescription. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: Data from an observational study (‘Incidence of pNeumonia and related ConseqUences in nursing home Residents’ [INCUR] study). PARTICIPANTS: 800 older persons living in 13 French nursing homes. Measurments: Pain symptoms were definied by one of the following criteria: i) Presence of pain affecting the individual’s function in the Activities of Daily Living; ii) Presence of daily pain, and/or; iii) Severe pain measured with a visual analogue scale. RESULTS: Among the patients originally included in the study, 288 (36%) reported pain symptomatology (mean age 86.9 [SD 7.2] years, 220 (76%) participants women). Amongst these, 138 (47.9%) were treated with non-opioid analgesic drugs, 52 (18.1%) with opioids, and 98 (34%) did not receive any analgesic prescription. An adjusted logistic regression analysis found that the strongest determinant of analgesics non-prescription was the number of concomitantly prescribed drugs (p<0.001). Age, education, and frailty were not associated with prescription of analgesic drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Pain undertreatment is very common among older persons living in nursing homes. The number of prescribed medications represents the most relevant risk factor for the analgesics non-prescription. Our findings document the importance of reviewing prescriptions in nursing home residents.

A Comparison of Frailty Assessment Instruments in Different Clinical and Social Care Settings: The Frailtools Project.
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M. Oviedo-Briones, ÁR Laso, J. A. Carnicero, et al.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2020 Nov 5
To determine which of 8 commonly employed frailty assessment tools demonstrate the most appropriate characteristics to be employed in different clinical and social settings. DESIGN: Cross-sectional multicenter European-based study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 1440 patients aged ≥75 years evaluated in geriatric inpatient wards, geriatric outpatient clinics, primary care clinics, and nursing homes. METHODS: The frailty instruments used were Frailty Phenotype, SHARE-FI, 3-item Frailty Trait Scale (FTS-3), 5-item Frailty Trait Scale (FTS-5), FRAIL, 35-item Frailty Index (FI-35), Gérontopôle Frailty Screening Tool (GFST), and Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). The settings were geriatrics wards, outpatient clinics, primary care, and nursing homes. Suitability was evaluated by considering the feasibility (patients with the test fully completed), administration time (time spent for administering the test), and interscale agreement (Cohen kappa index among instruments to detect frailty). RESULTS: The prevalence of frailty varied across settings and adopted tests. The scales with the mean highest feasibility were the FRAIL scale (99.4%), SHARE-FI (98.3%), and GFST (95.0%). The mean shortest administration times were obtained with CFS (24 seconds), GFST (72 seconds), and FRAIL scale (90 seconds). The interscale agreement between most of the tests was fair. CFS followed by FTS-5 agreed at least moderately with a greater number of scales overall and in almost all settings. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Based on feasibility, time to undertake the tool, and agreement with other scales, different scales would be recommended according to the setting considered. Our findings suggest that most of the tools evaluated are actually assessing different frailty constructs.

Alzheimer’s disease and dementia: what everyone needs to know
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Sabat, Steven R.
New York, New York: Oxford University Press, 2017
What Everyone Needs To Know® Explores all key topics related to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and dementia in an accessible question-and-answer format Identifies strengths of people with AD in the areas of thinking, emotion, memory, selfhood, creativity, spirituality, and social cognition/awareness Helps caregivers to identify how these strengths manifest themselves and work with people diagnosed with AD Explores how people diagnosed experience their diagnosis, sense of self, and their social world, providing true-to-life examples in their own words.

Nursing home residents’ ADL status, institution-dwelling and association with outdoor activity: a cross-sectional study.
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A. M. Sandvoll, E. K. Grov and M. Simonsen.
PeerJ 2020 Oct 19;8:e10202
The Norwegian regulations for nursing homes consider access to meaningful activities to be an indicator for the quality of nursing homes. Activities of daily living (ADL) provide important basic self-care skills for nursing home residents. Due to the physical changes caused by ageing and comorbidities, nursing home residents may experience functional decline over time, which may affect their ability to perform meaningful ADL, such as outdoor activity, which is considered a valuable and meaningful activity in Norwegian culture. This study aimed to investigate the association between ADL status, institution-dwelling and outdoor activity among nursing home residents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 784 residents aged >67 years living in 21 nursing homes in 15 Norwegian municipalities between November 2016 and May 2018. The Barthel Index was used to assess the nursing home residents’ ADL status. Other variables collected were age, gender, body weight and height, visits per month, institution, ward, and participation in weekly outdoor activities. Descriptive statistics were used to provide an overview of the residents’ characteristics. A Poisson regression model was used to test the association between the outdoor activity level as the dependent variable and ADL score, institution, and other control variables as independent variables. RESULTS: More than half (57%) of the nursing home residents in this sample did not go outdoors. More than 50% of the residents had an ADL score <10, which indicates low performance status. Further, we found that residents’ ADL status, institution, ward, and number of visits had an impact on how often the residents went outdoors. DISCUSSION: The nursing home residents in this study rarely went outdoors, which is interesting because Norwegians appreciate this activity. Differences in the number of visits might explain why some residents went outdoors more often than other residents did. Our findings also highlight that the institutions impact the outdoor activity. How the institutions are organized and how important this activity is considered to be in the institutions determine how often the activity is performed. CONCLUSION: The low frequency of the outdoor activities might be explained by a low ADL score. More than 50% of the residents had an ADL score <10, which indicates low performance status. Despite regulations for nursing home quality in Norway, this result suggests that organizational differences matter, which is an important implication for further research, health policy and practice.

Understanding the shared experiences of creating a digital life story with individuals with dementia and their spouse.
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L. Sweeney, E. Wolverson and C. Clarke.
Dementia (London) 2020 Oct 31:1471301220970403
Life story books in dementia are used as a part of person-centred care. Whilst the current literature demonstrates associations between completing life story books and increased well-being, little is known about the process and how it is experienced by individuals living with dementia. Life stories are often created with a loved one, such as a partner or spouse; however, further research is required to explore experiences of life story work as a shared endeavour. Furthermore, the use of technology to create life stories is growing, with little known about how digital elements are experienced. This study aimed to understand these gaps by exploring the shared experiences of individuals with dementia and their partner/spouse creating a digital life story book. DESIGN AND METHODS: Four couples participated in the six-week creation of their digital life story book. Following this, qualitative data relating to couples’ experiences were collected via semi-structured interviews. FINDINGS: Thematic analysis was used to interpret data and identified four superordinate themes relating to the shared experiences of creating their digital life story book: ‘Creating a life story book is a huge undertaking’, ‘Looking back and looking forward: The emotional journey’, ‘Whose story is it and who does it belong to?’ and ‘Challenges of using technology to build the life story book’. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study demonstrated that creating a digital life story was a positive experience that can support couples’ well-being, but we should not underestimate the time it will take and range of emotions experienced. The experience of using technology varied, emphasising that we must be mindful of individual preferences before considering a digital approach.

Rural-Urban Differences in Nursing Home Risk-adjusted Rates of Emergency Department Visits: A Decomposition Analysis.
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H. Xu, J. R. Bowblis, T. V. Caprio, Y. Li and O. Intrator.
Med Care 2020 Nov 5
Higher risk-adjusted rate of emergency department (ED) visits might reflect poor quality of nursing home (NH) care; however, existing evidence is limited regarding rural-urban differences in ED rates of NHs, especially for long-stay residents. OBJECTIVES: To determine and quantify sources of rural-urban differences in NH risk-adjusted rates of any ED visit, ED without hospitalization or observation stay (outpatient ED), and potentially avoidable ED visits (PAED) of long-stay residents. RESEARCH DESIGN: We calculated quarterly NH risk-adjusted rates using 2011-2013 national Medicare claims and Minimum Data Set 3.0, and then implemented Generalized Estimating Equation models to examine rural-urban differences in ED rates and Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition to quantify the contributions of NH and market factors. SUBJECTS: Privately owned, free-standing NHs in the United States (N=13,260). RESULTS: Over the study period, risk-adjusted rates averaged 9.8% for any ED, 3.3% for outpatient ED, and 3.2% for PAED. Compared with urban NHs, rural NHs were associated with significantly lower rates of any ED, outpatient ED, and PAED (β=-1.67%, -0.44%, and -0.28%; all P<0.01). Observable differences in market factors (nursing home bed concentration, hospital beds, and the existence of a critical access hospital) explained about half of the rural-urban differences in rates of any ED and PAED, but not outpatient ED. CONCLUSIONS: Decomposition analyses suggested that lower ED rates in rural NHs appear to be related to market availability of hospital resources. Policymakers may focus on not only reducing unnecessary ED visits but also ensuring equitable hospital access in rural areas.

Motivation theory-based physical activity programme for older adults in residential care facility: A modified Delphi and single-group pretest-posttest study.
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H. J. Yang, K. M. Chen and H. F. Hsu.
Int J Older People Nurs 2020 Nov 1:e12355
Physical inactivity exposes older adults living in long-term care institutions to a high risk of health deterioration. Developing effective behaviour change interventions based on a theoretical framework is a pressing concern. AIMS: This study developed an ‘Easy Walking’ intervention programme based on the Wheel of Motivation and aimed to: (1) develop the intervention programme for promoting self-efficacy of older adults living in long-term care facilities; and (2) examine the perceived helpfulness of the intervention programme for encouraging walking behaviours. METHODS: This study consisted of two stages. In the first stage, a three-round modified Delphi process was conducted with ten experts to rate the eight motivators in the Wheel of Motivation. The Easy Walking programme was designed accordingly. In the second stage, a single-group pretest-posttest study design was employed to evaluate the Easy Walking programme. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data on the changes in self-efficacy and on the perceived helpfulness regarding the programme. RESULTS: The Easy Walking intervention programme features eight factors that influence motivation. Thirty older adults participated in and evaluated the programme. The results showed a significant difference in self-efficacy (t = -7.02, p < .001) of the older adults. Regarding the perceived usefulness of the intervention, the mean scores for each item ranged from 3.73 to 4.93 points. ‘Safe environment’ was perceived to be the most helpful factor for encouraging walking behaviours. CONCLUSION: The Easy Walking programme enhanced the self-efficacy of institutionalised older adults and was perceived as helpful in physical activity engagement. Nursing professionals in long-term care institutions could implement the Easy Walking programme to be part of daily nursing activities.

Factors associated with nursing home adjustment in older adults: A systematic review.
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B. Yong, R. Lin and H. Xiao.
Int J Nurs Stud 2020 Oct 14;113:103790
An ageing population has resulted in increased numbers of older adults moving to a nursing home, and the challenges triggered by relocation are highlighted. Various factors are identified to be associated with relocation and psychological adjustment to living in a nursing home. However, no systematic review has synthesised the evidence, and its associated factors remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine and synthesise the best available evidence on the factors associated with adjustment to living in a care facility. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Nine electronic databases were searched from database inception to March 2020: Pubmed, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Wanfang Database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese Periodical Full-text Database. REVIEW METHODS: The references listed in the included studies were manually checked. The quality of the eligible studies was assessed using the 11-item checklist of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. RESULTS: A total of 20 studies were included in this review, with 17 cross-sectional studies, and three longitudinal study. 19 studies were rated as moderate quality and the other one was high quality. 17 measures were used to assess nursing home adjustment. Six distinct categories of the associated factors for nursing home adjustment were identified: demographic characteristics (n = 11), physiological factors (n = 3), psychological factors (n = 9), social factors (n = 9), relocation factors (n = 6), and facility factors (n = 5). CONCLUSIONS: Decision-making control, self-efficacy, social support, activities of daily living, and length of stay should all be taken into account when assisting resident scoping with a relocation to a nursing home. Infuture research, multiple areas can be considered when improving the level of nursing home adjustment, as well as interventions and health policies. REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD 42018115935. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: A systematic review of the factors associated with adjustment to living in a care facility.