August 7, 2018


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New article by Dr. Carole Estabrooks, Dr. Greta Cummings, & Dr. Sarah Hewko
Learning to lead: a review and synthesis of literature examining healthcare managers’ use of knowledge.
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K. Tate, S. Hewko, P. McLane, et al.
J Health Serv Res Policy 2018 Jul 25:1355819618786764
Scholarship cites health care managers (HCMs) as not using research evidence in their management practice. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to enhance HCMs use of research evidence in practice. Methods We carried out a systematic review and focus groups to validate the review findings. We searched 10 electronic databases for studies reporting on interventions for HCMs to enhance research utilization in their practice. Qualitative studies were analysed using Hoon’s approach to meta-synthesis. Results Seven, primarily qualitative, studies of varying quality (reported in 11 articles) met our inclusion criteria. Interventions to enhance research use by HCMs included: informal and formal training, computer-based application, executive-level knowledge translation activities and residency programmes. Studies did not report efficacy of interventions or impacts of increasing managers’ use of research on staff or patient outcomes. Meta-synthesis yielded four contextual factors influencing the perceived effectiveness of interventions to enhance research use by HCMs: organizational culture, competing priorities, time as a resource and capacity building. Included studies differed in how they defined research and demonstrated varying understandings of research among HCMs, limiting the generalizability of work in this field. Conclusions Healthcare managers are increasingly called upon to make evidence-based decisions in practice, but the small number of studies and diverse strategies employed hinder our ability to identify any intervention to increase use of evidence as superior. Future studies in this area should clearly articulate the definition of research evidence they base their decisions on. Registration: PROSPERO (CRD42014006256).

TREC in the news!!!
Who is caring for the caregivers? Our loved ones’ well-being depends on them.

CBC
Care aides’ welfare is almost entirely overlooked in the health system

Canada Research Coordinating Committee Consultation
The Canada Research Coordinating Committee (CRCC) is launching a national consultation to reinvigorate Canada’s support for science and to position Canada as a global leader in research excellence.

DEADLINE 27 August
The vision for the future of Canada’s research landscape is a bold, world-leading and highly coordinated system of federal support for science—a system that contributes to the social and economic well-being of Canadians. This is an opportunity for Canadians, the research community and the next generation of scientists, scholars and students to help shape research in Canada. Feedback is wanted on three key priorities: A new Tri-Agency Research Fund; Strengthening equity, diversity and inclusion in research; Support for early career researchers.

New article by Dr. Anastasia Mallidou
Patient-Oriented Research Competencies in Health (PORCH) for patients, healthcare providers, decision-makers and researchers: protocol of a scoping review.
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A. A. Mallidou, N. Frisch, M. M. Doyle-Waters, M. L. P. MacLeod, J. Ward and P. Atherton.
Syst Rev 2018 Jul 19;7(1):101-018-0762-1
Patient-Oriented Research (POR) is a Canadian initiative for health research that refers to research processes informed by full and active patient involvement in all aspects of the research. Ideally, POR results in a wide dissemination of the research findings and the uptake of such findings in both clinical practice and health policy. The Canadian Institute for Health Research (CIHR) identifies four stakeholder groups that are involved in POR who are envisioned to take on a collaborative role in enacting this approach to research. Those stakeholder groups are patients, researchers, health care providers and healthcare decision-makers. To achieve collaboration among stakeholders in POR, tools, resources, education/training and capacity building are required for each stakeholder group engaged in this work. Therefore, this review focuses on understanding and articulating competencies needed by participants to engage in POR. The aim is to summarize existing knowledge on discrete POR competencies for the four stakeholder groups; to support collaboration among them for uptake and strengthening of POR; and to inform policy, education and future research. Accordingly, our research question is ‘What are the POR core competencies needed by patients, researchers, healthcare providers, and decision-makers?’ The main objectives are to (1) systematically explore the academic and grey literature on competencies needed for these stakeholder groups to engage in POR; (2) map the eligible publications and research gaps in this area; (3) gain knowledge to support collaboration among stakeholders; and (4) provide recommendations for further research to use competencies that emerge in developing stakeholder groups’ readiness to conduct POR. METHODS/DESIGN: We will use a methodologically rigorous scoping review approach including formulation of the research question and development of the protocol; screening and identification of the literature; selection of relevant studies; data extraction; and collation, summary and report of the results. Our eligibility criteria include elements of population (patients, researchers, healthcare providers and decision-makers); concept (competencies: knowledge, skills, attitudes; and POR); context (level of involvement in research, settings, funding sources); study design (sample, stakeholder group, methodology, grey literature, theoretical framework); outcomes (primary: relevant to decision-making/policy and practice; and secondary: relevant to education and research); language (English, French); and timing (1990-2017). Registration with PROSPERO is not eligible for scoping reviews; so, it has not been registered. DISCUSSION: Research on core competencies required to enact POR is in its infancy. In this review, we can articulate what is known and thought about competencies (knowledge, skills and attitudes) needed by individuals on POR research teams and ultimately provide knowledge that could impact research, practice, education and policy. Identification of competencies can contribute to design of healthcare professionals’ basic and ongoing educational programmes, patient training in research, and professional development activities for health care providers and decision-makers. In addition, knowledge of core competencies can permit individuals to evaluate their own readiness to enter POR research teams.

 

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Publications

KT
Health Care Administration and Organization
Health Care Innovation and Quality Assurance
Organizational Culture and Change
Research Practice and Methodology
Aging

KT

How is the use of research evidence in health policy perceived? A comparison between the reporting of researchers and policy-makers.
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M. E. Ellen, J. N. Lavis, E. Horowitz and R. Berglas.
Health Res Policy Syst 2018 Jul 20;16(1):64-018-0345-6
The use of health policy and systems research (HPSR) to inform health policy-making is an international challenge. Incorporating HPSR into decision-making primarily involves two groups, namely researchers (knowledge producers) and policy-makers (knowledge users). The purpose of this study was to compare the perceptions of Israeli health systems and policy researchers and health services policy-makers regarding the role of HPSR, factors influencing its uses and potential facilitators and barriers to HPSR, and implementation of knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) activities. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was administered to researchers and policy-makers in Israel. The survey consisted of seven closed questions. Descriptive analyses were carried out for closed-ended questions and comparative analysis were conducted between groups using the chi(2) test. RESULTS: A total of 37 researchers and 32 policy-makers responded to the survey. While some views were in alignment, others showed differences. More policy-makers than researchers perceived that the use of HPSR in policy was hindered by practical implementation constraints, whereas more researchers felt that its use was hindered by a lack of coordination between knowledge producers and users. A larger percentage of policy-makers, as compared to researchers, reported that facilitators to the KTE process are in place and a larger percentage of researchers perceived barriers within the KTE environment. A larger percentage of policy-makers perceived KTE activities were in place as compared to researchers. Results also showed large differences in the perceptions of the two groups regarding policy formulation and which organisations they perceived as exerting strong influence on policy-making. CONCLUSIONS: This research demonstrated that there are differences in the perceptions of knowledge producers and users about the process of KTE. Future work should focus on minimising the challenges highlighted here and implementing new KTE activities. These activities could include making the researchers aware of the most effective manner in which to package their results, providing training to policy-makers and assuring that policy-makers have technical access to appropriate databases to search for HPSR. These results underscore the need for the groups to communicate and clarify to each other what they can offer and what they require.

Testing Whether Adaptation to Use Increases Degrees of Instrumental Knowledge Utilization from Evaluation Reports
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SA¸ Knudsen.
Journal of Applied Social Science 2018 07/20; 2018/08:1936724418786341
Instrumental knowledge utilization is the process whereby knowledge influences political decision making. Such processes are complex and, consequently, hard to measure. Nevertheless, knowing what determines degrees of knowledge utilization is a prerequisite for fostering more evidence-based policy making. Numerous factors that contribute to, and co-determine, knowledge utilization are beyond the reach of researchers, but among the factors that researchers can influence, one variable has been presented as being crucial: the degree to which researchers adapt their research to meet the demands of intended knowledge users. In other words, making their research comprehensible, operational, realistic in terms of interventions and implications, and appealing to users. Drawing on the conceptual work of Landry, Amara, and Lamari, this paper develops a new, and more direct, measurement of adaptation. This measurement is subsequently applied in an analysis employing the Degrees of Knowledge Utilization (DoKU) scale and, thus, extending Knudsen?s five-year meta-evaluation related to the Danish pesticide area. Surprisingly, the statistical tests show that degrees of adaptation have no significant influence on degrees of knowledge utilization.

Implementation of Individualized Music in Long-Term Care: Application of the PARiHS Framework.
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C. A. Hebert, K. Hancock and E. S. McConnell.
J Gerontol Nurs 2018 Aug 1;44(8):29-38
The need to provide evidence-based, person-centered care for long-term care (LTC) residents, which often include individuals with dementia, has led to a surge of interest in the implementation of individualized music (IM) programs. An exploratory study was conducted over a 6-month period using the Promoting Action on Research in Health Systems (PARiHS) framework to examine the implementation of an IM program with 19 residents in a LTC facility. All residents using IM had the device available at the end of the program, and 53% received IM at least two times per week. Qualitative analysis of stakeholder interviews with six staff members and three residents after using the PARiHS framework as an implementation guide revealed two themes: Overcoming Resistance to Innovation and Person-Centered Care Through IM. Identification of barriers and facilitators through the PARiHS elements of evidence, context, and facilitation supported the IM implementation process and should enable its replication in other facilities.

Translating evidence in complex systems: a comparative review of implementation and improvement frameworks.
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J. E. Reed, S. Green and C. Howe.
Int J Qual Health Care 2018 Jul 27
An increasing number of implementation and improvement frameworks seek to describe and explain how change is made in healthcare. This paper aims to explore how existing frameworks conceptualize the influence of complexity in translating evidence into practice in healthcare. Data sources: A database was interrogated using a search strategy to identify publications that present frameworks and models for implementation and improvement. Study selection: Ten popular implementation and improvement frameworks were purposively selected. Data extraction: Comparative analysis was conducted using an analytical framework derived from SHIFT-Evidence, a framework that conceptualizes complexity in implementation and improvement initiatives. Results: Collectively the frameworks accounted for key concepts of translating evidence in complex systems: understanding the uniqueness of each setting; the interdependency of practices/processes and the need to respond to unpredictable events and emergent learning. The analysis highlighted heterogeneity of the frameworks in their focus on different aspects of complexity. Differences include the extent to which problems and solutions are investigated or assumed; whether endpoints are defined as the uptake of interventions or achievement of goals; and emphasis placed on fixed-term interventions versus continual improvement. None of the individual frameworks reviewed incorporated all the implications of complexity, as described by SHIFT-Evidence. Conclusion: This research identifies the differences in how implementation and improvement frameworks consider complexity, suggesting that SHIFT-Evidence offers a more comprehensive overview compared with the other frameworks. The similarity of concepts across the frameworks suggests growing consensus in the literature, with SHIFT-Evidence providing a conceptual bridge between the implementation and improvement fields.

Modeling the diffusion of complex innovations as a process of opinion formation through social networks.
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V. A. Assenova.
PLoS One 2018 May 2;13(5):e0196699
Complex innovations- ideas, practices, and technologies that hold uncertain benefits for potential adopters-often vary in their ability to diffuse in different communities over time. To explain why, I develop a model of innovation adoption in which agents engage in naive (DeGroot) learning about the value of an innovation within their social networks. Using simulations on Bernoulli random graphs, I examine how adoption varies with network properties and with the distribution of initial opinions and adoption thresholds. The results show that: (i) low-density and high-asymmetry networks produce polarization in influence to adopt an innovation over time, (ii) increasing network density and asymmetry promote adoption under a variety of opinion and threshold distributions, and (iii) the optimal levels of density and asymmetry in networks depend on the distribution of thresholds: networks with high density (>0.25) and high asymmetry (>0.50) are optimal for maximizing diffusion when adoption thresholds are right-skewed (i.e., barriers to adoption are low), but networks with low density (<0.01) and low asymmetry (<0.25) are optimal when thresholds are left-skewed. I draw on data from a diffusion field experiment to predict adoption over time and compare the results to observed outcomes.

Translating Knowledge From a Family Systems Approach to Clinical Practice: Insights From Knowledge Translation Research Experiences.
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F. Duhamel.
J Fam Nurs 2017 Nov;23(4):461-487
While there has been continued growth in family nursing knowledge, the complex process of implementing and sustaining family nursing in health care settings continues to be a challenge for family nursing researchers and clinicians alike. Developing knowledge and skills about how to translate family nursing theory to practice settings is a global priority to make family nursing more visible. There is a critical need for more research methods and research evidence about how to best move family nursing knowledge into action. Enhancing health care practice is a multifactorial process that calls for a systemic perspective to ensure its efficacy and sustainability. This article presents insights derived from lessons learned through recent research experiences of using a knowledge translation model to promote practice changes in health care settings.

‘Collective making’ as knowledge mobilisation: the contribution of participatory design in the co-creation of knowledge in healthcare.
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J. Langley, D. Wolstenholme and J. Cooke.
BMC Health Serv Res 2018 Jul 25;18(1):585-018-3397-y
The discourse in healthcare Knowledge Mobilisation (KMb) literature has shifted from simple, linear models of research knowledge production and action to more iterative and complex models. These aim to blend multiple stakeholders’ knowledge with research knowledge to address the research-practice gap. It has been suggested there is no ‘magic bullet’, but that a promising approach to take is knowledge co-creation in healthcare, particularly if a number of principles are applied. These include systems thinking, positioning research as a creative enterprise with human experience at its core, and paying attention to process within the partnership. This discussion paper builds on this proposition and extends it beyond knowledge co-creation to co-designing evidenced based interventions and implementing them. Within a co-design model, we offer a specific approach to share, mobilise and activate knowledge, that we have termed ‘collective making’. We draw on KMb, design, wider literature, and our experiences to describe how this framework supports and extends the principles of co-creation offered by Geenhalgh et al. [1] in the context of the state of the art of knowledge mobilisation. We describe how collective making creates the right ‘conditions’ for knowledge to be mobilised particularly addressing issues relating to stakeholder relationships, helps to discover, share and blend different forms of knowledge from different stakeholders, and puts this blended knowledge to practical use allowing stakeholders to learn about the practical implications of knowledge use and to collectively create actionable products. We suggest this collective making has three domains of influence: on the participants; on the knowledge discovered and shared; and on the mobilisation or activation of this knowledge.

 

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Health Care Administration and Organization

Why Do We Require Registered Nurses in Nursing Homes? Using Longitudinal Hierarchical Linear Modeling.
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J. H. Shin.
J Nurs Scholarsh 2018 Jul 24
To examine the relationship between nurse staffing and quality of care of nursing home residents, longitudinally. BACKGROUND: Mixed results abound on the relationship between nurse staffing and quality of care of residents in nursing homes. Cross-sectional designs may underpin bias because the relationship between staffing and quality emerges over time, with latent unobserved variables. To offset this limitation, I used a longitudinal design in this study. DESIGN: I used repeated quarterly survey methods. METHODS: I measured staffing information with a formula developed by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Outcome variables were 15 quality indicators and the Korean National Health Insurance Service 2015 nursing home evaluation manual. RESULTS AND FINDINGS: As registered nurse hours per resident day increased by 1, the percentage of residents with depression decreased by 3.88%, and the prevalence of residents with nasogastric tubes increased by 1.17% in 3 months. Prevalence of residents with bed rest decreased by 5.72%, and residents with restraints decreased by 1.092%. More registered nurses and fewer certified nursing assistants or qualified care workers yielded a statistically significant negative influence on aggressive behavior, depression, weight loss, and bed rest. The higher turnover of total nursing staff related to more use of antidepressants. CONCLUSIONS: Results supported registered nurses’ exclusive impact on resident outcomes. More longitudinal research is required to confirm the influence of nurses on nursing home residents’ outcomes. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study supported about the contributions of increased input of Registered Nurses, additional to previous longitudinal studies. The nursing homes in Korea should have mandatory Registered Nurse placement for optimal quality of care. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study supported about the contributions of increased input of Registered Nurses, additional to previous longitudinal studies. The nursing homes in Korea should have mandatory Registered Nurse placement for optimal quality of care.

Perceptions of Family Decision-makers of Nursing Home Residents With Advanced Dementia Regarding the Quality of Communication Around End-of-Life Care.
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M. Toles, M. K. Song, F. C. Lin and L. C. Hanson.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2018 Jul 19
(1) Compare family decision-makers’ perceptions of quality of communication with nursing home (NH) staff (nurses and social workers) and clinicians (physicians and other advanced practitioners) for persons with advanced dementia; (2) determine the extent to which characteristics of NH residents and family decision-makers are associated with those perceptions. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of baseline data from a cluster randomized trial of the Goals of Care intervention. SETTING: Twenty-two NHs in North Carolina. PARTICIPANTS: Family decision-makers of NH residents with advanced dementia (n = 302). MEASUREMENTS: During the baseline interviews, family decision-makers rated the quality of general communication and communication specific to end-of-life care using the Quality of Communication Questionnaire (QoC). QoC item scores ranged from 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating better quality of communication. Linear models were used to compare QoC by NH provider type, and to test for associations of QoC with resident and family characteristics. RESULTS: Family decision-makers rated the QoC with NH staff higher than NH clinicians, including average overall QoC scores (5.5 [1.7] vs 3.7 [3.0], P < .001), general communication subscale scores (8.4 [1.7] vs 5.6 [4.3], P < .001), and end-of-life communication subscale scores (3.0 [2.3] vs 2.0 [2.5], P < .001). Low scores reflected failure to communicate about many aspects of care, particularly end-of-life care. QoC scores were higher with later-stage dementia, but were not associated with the age, gender, race, relationship to the resident, or educational attainment of family decision-makers. CONCLUSION: Although family decision-makers for persons with advanced dementia rated quality communication with NH staff higher than that with clinicians, they reported poor quality end-of-life communication for both staff and clinicians. Clinicians simply did not perform many communication behaviors that contribute to high-quality end-of-life communication. These omissions suggest opportunities to clarify and improve interdisciplinary roles in end-of-life communication for residents with advanced dementia.

Failure to Meet Nurse Staffing Standards: A Litigation Case Study of a Large US Nursing Home Chain.
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C. Harrington and T. S. Edelman.
Inquiry 2018 Jan-Dec;55:46958018788686
Large for-profit nursing home chains in the United States have generally reported low nurse staffing levels. This historical case study examined a class action litigation case regarding staffing levels, resident rights, and quality outcomes in 12 Arkansas nursing homes owned by a large for-profit chain. The questions were as follows: (1) How did the residents’ care needs compare with actual nurse staffing levels? (2) How did the staffing levels compare with federal and state nurse staffing requirements and professional staffing standards? (3) Did the facilities comply with state and federal residents’ rights and quality of care requirements? The findings showed staffing levels marginally above state minimum standards, staffing shortages that violated state standards, staffing levels not adjusted for resident acuity, and shortages that resulted in omitted care. Staffing levels were lower than needed according to nursing directors, lower than average facilities in the state, and lower than professional standards. The findings showed many resident grievances regarding basic care and residents’ rights, clinical measures of poor quality, and state deficiencies. A large settlement was agreed on to compensate the residents. The case shows that chain’s management, as well as the regulatory system, failed to ensure adequate staffing levels that took into account regulatory requirements and professional standards and resulted in violations of residents’ rights, health, safety, and well-being.

Improving advance care planning for care home residents with dementia: Evaluation of simulation training for care home workers
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A. P. Katwa, C. Jenner, K. MacDonald and N. Barnett.
Dementia (London) 2018 Jan 1:1471301218788137
The importance of effective advance care planning is often underestimated by professionals caring for care home residents. Using a simulated scenario, this model aimed to highlight the importance of timely advance care planning for care home residents. An adapted simulation effectiveness tool was used to evaluate a simulated scenario of a resident with advanced dementia. Feedback from this tool, N = 28 (response rate 82%), suggests this model was well received and that simulation training delivered by a multi-professional faculty, effectively demonstrates the benefits of early advance care planning for residents with dementia.

Developing a Training for Certified Nursing Assistants to Recognize, Communicate, and Document Discomfort in Residents With Dementia.
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V. Rodriguez, J. P. Reinhardt, R. Spinner and S. Blake.
J Hosp Palliat Nurs 2018 Apr;20(2):120-126
Nursing home residents with advanced dementia experience significant symptom burden and may be unable to articulate their needs. Observational tools, such as the Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia (PAINAD) scale, are available to evaluate changes in behavior that may signify discomfort or pain. Studies proposing a short and effective curriculum, primarily for certified nursing assistants (CNAs) on how to use and incorporate the PAINAD in daily patient care, are scarce. This performance improvement project involves the design and implementation of a training curriculum for CNAs for using the PAINAD and discusses barriers to be considered for further projects. Certified nursing assistant perceptions of their experience with the training and the use of the tool were also assessed with a brief evaluation. Seventy-three initial PAINAD forms were completed along with 52 follow-up PAINAD forms. A paired t test (N = 52) showed a significant decrease in the PAINAD scores from initial (mean, 6.06) to follow-up (mean, 1.85) (P < .001), suggesting a reduction of patient discomfort. The process of collecting and examining these data was meant to reinforce the identification and reduction of behavioral distress through the application of this tool. The training was perceived as effective and the tool as easy to use, indicating it can be incorporated into daily care responsibilities of CNAs.

Knowledge, Practice, and Attitude of Nursing Home Staff Toward the Use of Physical Restraint: Have They Changed Over Time?
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P. P. Kor, R. Y. C. Kwan, J. Y. Liu and C. Lai.
J Nurs Scholarsh 2018 Jul 29
Use of physical restraints is common in nursing homes, although empirical evidence has shown it to be a hazardous measure. This article aims to understand whether there were any changes in nursing home staff’s knowledge, attitudes, and practices of using physical restraints in Hong Kong, after years of deliberation on this topic. METHODS: A questionnaire about the knowledge, attitude, and practice of using physical restraint was sent to all 298 staff members in four nursing homes in Hong Kong run by a nongovernmental organization. The results were compared with previous findings from 1999 using the same questionnaire. RESULTS: Overall, the staff had satisfactory knowledge of the daily application of physical restraints, such as the operational procedure and daily assessment. Concerning the conceptual knowledge of minimizing physical restraint use, their performance in the survey was less satisfactory. For example, only 6.6% of respondents were aware that residents had a right to reject the use of physical restraints, and 70% believed that there were no good alternatives to restraints. They showed appropriate attitudes in their practice of daily use of physical restraints. Compared with the previous study in 1999, a significant improvement was found in the attitudes (p = .0014) and practice (p = .0002) of using restraints, but there was no difference in their knowledge test results (p = .29). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show a significant improvement among the nursing home staff in terms of their attitudes and practice of using restraints. In-service training for nursing staff should focus more on their knowledge of ethical considerations and the hands-on practice of using alternative devices (e.g., motion detectors or anti-slip pads). CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The findings of this study suggest that in-service training for nursing staff should focus more on their knowledge of ethical considerations, the principles of using physical restraint, and the alternatives to restraint in order to fill the knowledge gaps of staff and improve the quality of care in nursing homes.

Care home manager attitudes to balancing risk and autonomy for residents with dementia.
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E. A. Evans, E. Perkins, P. Clarke, A. Haines, A. Baldwin and R. Whittington.
Aging Ment Health 2018 Feb;22(2):261-269
To determine how care home managers negotiate the conflict between maintaining a safe environment while enabling the autonomy of residents with dementia. This is important because there is limited research with care home managers; yet, they are key agents in the implementation of national policies. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 managers from care homes offering dementia care in the Northwest of England. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. RESULTS: There were three areas in which care home staff reported balancing safety and risk against the individual needs of residents. First, the physical environment created a tension between safety and accessibility to the outside world, which meant that care homes provided highly structured or limited access to outdoor space. Second, care home managers reflected a balancing act between an individual’s autonomy and the need to protect their residents’ dignity. Finally, care home managers highlighted the ways in which an individual’s needs were framed by the needs of other residents to the extent that on some occasions an individual’s needs were subjugated to the needs of the general population of a home. CONCLUSION: There was a strong, even dominant, ethos of risk management and keeping people safe. Managing individual needs while maintaining a safe care home environment clearly is a constant dynamic interpersonal process of negotiating and balancing competing interests for care home managers.

Undergraduate nursing assistant employment in aged care has benefits for new graduates
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M. Algoso, L. Ramjan, L. East and K. Peters.
J Adv Nurs 2018 Apr 20
To determine how undergraduate assistant in nursing employment in aged care helps to prepare new graduates for clinical work as a Registered Nurse. BACKGROUND: The amount and quality of clinical experience afforded by university programs has been the subject of constant debate in the nursing profession. New graduate nurses are often deemed inadequately prepared for clinical practice and so many nursing students seek employment as assistants in nursing whilst studying to increase their clinical experience. DESIGN: This paper presents the first phase of a larger mixed-methods study to explore whether undergraduate assistant in nursing employment in aged care prepares new graduate nurses for the clinical work environment. The first phase involved the collection of quantitative data from a modified Preparation for Clinical Practice survey, which contained 50-scaled items relating to nursing practice. METHODS: Ethics approval was obtained prior to commencing data collection. New graduate nurses who were previously employed as assistants in nursing in aged care and had at least 3 months’ experience as a Registered Nurse, were invited to complete the survey. Social media and professional networks were used to distribute the survey between March 2015 – May 2016 and again in January 2017-February 2017. Purposeful and snowballing sampling methods using social media and nursing networks were used to collect survey responses. Data were analysed using principal components analysis. RESULTS: 110 completed surveys were returned. Principal components analysis revealed four underlying constructs (components) of undergraduate assistant in nursing employment in aged care. These were emotional literacy (component 1), clinical skills (component 2), managing complex patient care (component 3) and health promotion (component 4). CONCLUSION: The four extracted components reflect the development of core nursing skills that transcend that of technical skills and includes the ability to situate oneself as a nurse in the care of an individual and in a healthcare team.

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Health Care Innovation and Quality Assurance

A Study Examining the Influence of Proximity to Nurse Education Resources on Quality of Care Outcomes in Nursing Homes.
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C. N. Haun, Z. B. Mahafza, C. L. Cook and G. A. Silvera.
Inquiry 2018 Jan-Dec;55:46958018787694
This examination seeks to determine the influence of proximal density to nurse education resources (nursing schools) on nursing home care quality outcomes in Alabama. Motivated by the social network theory, which highlights the influence of relational closeness on shared resources and values, we hypothesize that nursing homes that have higher levels of nursing education resources within a close proximity will exhibit significantly higher nursing home quality outcomes. As proximal density to nurse education resources increases, the opportunity for nursing homes to build closer, stronger ties increase, leading to higher quality outcomes. We examine this hypothesis via ordered logistic regressions of proximal density measures developed through geographic information systems (GIS) software, nurse education resource data from Johnson & Johnson’s Campaign for Nursing’s Future (n = 37), and nursing home quality outcome data from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services’s (CMS) Nursing Home Compare from 2016 (n = 226). The results find that increases in proximal density to nurse education resources have a negative and significant association with nursing home quality outcomes in Alabama. Additional sensitivity analysis, which examines the degree to which the nature of this relationship is sensitive to health care facilities’ location in high-density areas, is offered and confirms principal findings. Because nursing programs generally have stronger ties with hospitals, the findings suggest that the nursing homes in areas with higher nurse education resources may actually face greater competition for nurses.

Association Between 5-Star Nursing Home Report Card Ratings and Potentially Preventable Hospitalizations.
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K. L. Ryskina, R. T. Konetzka and R. M. Werner.
Inquiry 2018 Jan-Dec;55:46958018787323
Nursing homes’ publicly reported star ratings increased substantially since Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services’s Nursing Home Compare adopted a 5-star rating system. Our objective was to test whether the improvements in nursing home 5-star ratings were correlated with reductions in rates of hospitalization. We hypothesized that increased attention to 5-star star ratings motivated nursing homes to make changes that improved their star ratings but did not affect their hospitalization rate, resulting in a weakened association between ratings and hospitalizations. We used 2007-2010 Medicare hospital claims and nursing home clinical assessment data to compare the correlation between nursing home 5-star ratings and hospitalization rates before versus after 5-star ratings were publicly released. The correlation between the rate of hospitalization and a nursing home’s 5-star rating weakened slightly after the ratings became publicly available. This decrease in correlation was concentrated among patients receiving post-acute care, who experienced relatively more hospitalizations from best-rated nursing homes. The improvements in nursing home star ratings after the release of Medicare’s 5-star rating system were not accompanied by improvements in a broader measure of outcomes for post-acute care patients. Although this dissociation may be due to better matching of sicker patients to higher-quality nursing homes or superficial improvements by nursing homes to increase their ratings without substantial investments in quality improvement, the 5-star ratings nonetheless became less meaningful as an indicator of nursing home quality for post-acute care patients.

Process Evaluation of a Participatory, Multimodal Intervention to Improve Evidence-Based Care in Long-Term Care Settings.
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N. C. Edwards and K. Smith Higuchi.
Worldviews Evid Based Nurs 2018 Jul 18
Evidence-based improvements in long-term care (LTC) are challenging due to human resource constraints. AIMS: To evaluate implementation of a multimodal, participatory intervention aimed at improving evidence-based care. METHODS: Using a qualitative descriptive design, we conducted and inductively analyzed individual interviews with staff at midpoint and end-point to identify action plan implementation processes and challenges. The 9-month intervention engaged professional and unregulated staff in an on-site workshop and provided support for their development and implementation of site-specific action plans. RESULTS: Ten of 12 enrolled sites participated for the full study period. Interviews were conducted with 44 and 69 participants at midpoint and end-point, respectively. Seven of 10 sites focused their action plan on team functioning and communication. Main achievements described at end-point were improved team communication, better staff engagement, and improved teamwork. Internal and external supports for action plan implementation were described as critical for success. DISCUSSION: Three factors influenced change: vertically and horizontally linked teams, external facilitator support for action plan implementation, and coaching by Best Practice Coordinators that emphasized organizational change and normalization of evidence-based practice. IMPLICATIONS: Team functioning and communication are forerunners of clinical practice changes in LTC. An off-site model of facilitation is promising and may provide a more efficient means to reach a wider array of LTC settings. LINKING EVIDENCE TO ACTION: Practice changes need engagement of all staff.

Is There a Business Case for Nursing Home Quality Improvement?
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K. Abrahamson, H. Davila, N. Rehkamp and G. Arling.
Nurs Econ 2016 Sep-Oct;34(5):224-9, 235
Evidence supporting a relationship between costs and quality in nursing homes has been inconsistent. The Minnesota Performance-based Incentive Payment Program (PIPP) is an innovative public policy that promotes quality improvement (QI) in the state’s nursing facilities. The objective of this study was to investigate the economic or business perspective surrounding QI participation by exploring nursing home leader perceptions regarding market-based motivations for improvements, or a business case for engaging in a quality improvement project. There appeared to be a perception that without the increased rates provided by PIPP, needed changes to improve quality would not have occurred.

Engaging patients to improve quality of care: a systematic review
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Y. Bombard, G. R. Baker, E. Orlando, et al.
Implement Sci 2018 Jul 26;13(1):98-018-0784-z
To identify the strategies and contextual factors that enable optimal engagement of patients in the design, delivery, and evaluation of health services. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane, Scopus, PsychINFO, Social Science Abstracts, EBSCO, and ISI Web of Science from 1990 to 2016 for empirical studies addressing the active participation of patients, caregivers, or families in the design, delivery and evaluation of health services to improve quality of care. Thematic analysis was used to identify (1) strategies and contextual factors that enable optimal engagement of patients, (2) outcomes of patient engagement, and (3) patients’ experiences of being engaged. RESULTS: Forty-eight studies were included. Strategies and contextual factors that enable patient engagement were thematically grouped and related to techniques to enhance design, recruitment, involvement and leadership action, and those aimed to creating a receptive context. Reported outcomes ranged from educational or tool development and informed policy or planning documents (discrete products) to enhanced care processes or service delivery and governance (care process or structural outcomes). The level of engagement appears to influence the outcomes of service redesign-discrete products largely derived from low-level engagement (consultative unidirectional feedback)-whereas care process or structural outcomes mainly derived from high-level engagement (co-design or partnership strategies). A minority of studies formally evaluated patients’ experiences of the engagement process (n = 12; 25%). While most experiences were positive-increased self-esteem, feeling empowered, or independent-some patients sought greater involvement and felt that their involvement was important but tokenistic, especially when their requests were denied or decisions had already been made. CONCLUSIONS: Patient engagement can inform patient and provider education and policies, as well as enhance service delivery and governance. Additional evidence is needed to understand patients’ experiences of the engagement process and whether these outcomes translate into improved quality of care. REGISTRATION: N/A (data extraction completed prior to registration on PROSPERO).

Leading top-down implementation processes: a qualitative study on the role of managers.
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H. Uvhagen, H. Hasson, J. Hansson and M. von Knorring.
BMC Health Serv Res 2018 Jul 18;18(1):562-018-3360-y
Leadership has been identified as an influential factor in implementation processes in healthcare organizations. However, the processes through which leaders affect implementation outcomes are largely unknown. The purpose of this study is to analyse how managers interpret and make sense of a large scale top-down implementation initiative and what implications this has for the implementation process. This was studied at the implementation of an academic primary healthcare initiative covering 210 primary healthcare centres in central Sweden. The aim of the initiative was to integrate research and education into regular primary healthcare services. METHODS: The study builds on 16 in-depth individual semi-structured interviews with all managers (n = 8) who had operative responsibility for the implementation. Each manager was interviewed twice during the initial phase of the implementation. Data were analysed using a thematic approach guided by theory on managerial role taking based on the Transforming Experience Framework. RESULTS: How the managers interpreted and made sense of the implementation task built on three factors: how they perceived the different parts of the initiative, how they perceived themselves in relation to these parts, and the resources available for the initiative. Based on how they combined these three factors the managers chose to integrate or separate the different parts of the initiative in their management of the implementation process. CONCLUSIONS: This research emphasizes that managers in healthcare seem to have a substantial impact on how and to what extent different tasks are addressed and prioritized in top-down implementation processes. This has policy implications. To achieve intended implementation outcomes, the authors recognize the necessity of an early and on-going dialogue about how the implementation is perceived by the managers responsible for the implementation.

Nursing Home Compare Star Rankings and the Variation in Potentially Preventable Emergency Department Visits and Hospital Admissions.
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R. L. Fuller, N. I. Goldfield, J. S. Hughes and E. C. McCullough.
Popul Health Manag 2018 Jul 30
Measurement of the quality of US health care increasingly emphasizes clinical outcomes over clinical processes. Nursing Home Compare Star Ratings are provided by Medicare to help select better nursing home care. The authors determined the rates and types of 2 important clinical outcomes-potentially preventable hospital admissions and potentially preventable emergency department (ED) visits-for a subset of 439,011 long-term nursing homes residents residing in 12,883 nursing homes throughout the United States over a 2-year period (2010-2011) and compared them with the Star Rating system. This study found that (1) the likelihood of potentially preventable events increases with increasing burden of chronic illness, (2) the principle reasons for hospital admissions and ED visits (eg, septicemia, pneumonia, confusion, gastroenteritis) are not part of existing nursing home quality measures, (3) the rate of potentially preventable admissions and ED visits for nursing homes residents varies greatly both across and within states, with 5 states having in excess of 20% more than the national average for both, and (4) the Nursing Home Compare Stars measure has limited correlation with rates of these potentially preventable events. Nursing Home Compare Star rankings could benefit by incorporating outcomes measures such as preventable hospitalizations and ED visits, and by comparing nursing home performance on results drawn from across states rather than within them. Such reform could better help users find nursing homes of higher quality and stimulate homes to improve quality in ways that benefit residents.

A multilevel latent Markov model for the evaluation of nursing homes’ performance.
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G. E. Montanari, M. Doretti and F. Bartolucci.
Biom J 2018 Jul 30
The periodic evaluation of health care services is a primary concern for many institutions. We consider services provided by nursing homes with the aim of ranking a set of these structures with respect to their effect on resident health status. Since the overall health status is not directly observable, and given the longitudinal and multilevel structure of the available data, we rely on latent variable models and, in particular, on a multilevel latent Markov model where residents and nursing homes are the first and the second level units, respectively. The model includes individual covariates to account for resident characteristics. The impact of nursing home membership is modelled through a pair of random effects affecting the initial distribution and the transition probabilities between different levels of health status. Through the prediction of these random effects we obtain a ranking of the nursing homes. Furthermore, the proposed model accounts for nonignorable dropout due to resident death, which typically occurs in these contexts. The motivating dataset is gathered from the Long Term Care Facilities programme, a health care protocol implemented in Umbria (Italy). Our results show that differences in performance between nursing homes are statistically significant.

How do iLead? Validation of a scale measuring active and passive implementation leadership in Swedish healthcare.
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R. Mosson, U. von Thiele Schwarz, H. Hasson, R. Lundmark and A. Richter.
BMJ Open 2018 Jun 30;8(6):e021992-2018-021992
This study aims to describe the creation of a scale-the iLead scale-through adaptations of existing domain-specific scales that measure active and passive implementation leadership, and to describe the psychometric properties of this scale. METHODS: Data collected from a leadership intervention were used in this validation study. Respondents were 336 healthcare professionals (90% female and 10% male; mean age 47 years) whose first-line and second-line managers participated in the intervention. The data were collected in the Stockholm regional healthcare organisation that offer primary, psychiatric, rehabilitation and acute hospital care, among other areas. The items for measuring implementation leadership were based on existent research and the full-range leadership model. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to evaluate the dimensionality of the scale, followed by tests for reliability and convergent, discriminant and criterion-related validity using correlations and multilevel regression analyses. RESULTS: The final scale consists of 16 items clustered into four subscales representing active implementation leadership, and one scale signifying passive implementation leadership. Findings showed that the hypothesised model had an acceptable model fit (chi(2)(99)=382.864**, Comparative Fit Index=0.935, Tucker-Lewis Index=0.911, root mean square error of approximation=0.059). The internal consistency and convergent, discriminant and criterion-related validity were all satisfactory. CONCLUSIONS: The iLead scale is a valid measure of implementation leadership and is a tool for understanding how active and passive leader behaviours influence an implementation process. This brief scale may be particularly valuable to apply in training focusing on facilitating implementation, and in evaluating leader training. Moreover, the scale can be useful in evaluating various leader behaviours associated with implementation success or failure.

 

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Organizational Culture and Change

A new typology for understanding context: qualitative exploration of the model for understanding success in quality (MUSIQ).
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J. E. Reed, H. C. Kaplan and S. A. Ismail.
BMC Health Serv Res 2018 Jul 25;18(1):584-018-3348-7
The importance of contextual factors in influencing quality improvement and implementation (QI&I) initiatives is broadly acknowledged. Existing treatments of context have primarily viewed it as static and distinct from interventions themselves. The objective of this study was to advance understanding of the complex and dynamic interaction between context, intervention, and implementation strategies. Using the Model for Understanding Success in Quality (MUSIQ), we aimed to better understand the roles of, and inter-relationships between, contextual factors within QI&I initiatives. METHODS: Secondary analysis was performed on qualitative data collected as part of two studies: (1) an evaluation of a state-wide obstetrical quality improvement (QI) initiative, and (2) a study of the use of Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle method in QI projects. Electronic coding databases from each study were reviewed jointly. Data analysis was initiated deductively using MUSIQ as a template. Codes were added in an inductive manner. RESULTS: All original factors in MUSIQ were observed to be important in the QI initiatives studied and new factors were identified. Three distinct types of context were identified; the setting(s) of care in which QI&I takes place (Type 1); the context of the team conducting a specific project (Type 2); and the wider context supporting general QI&I (Type 3). The picture of context emerging from this study is a dynamic one with multiple, closely-linked factors operating at different levels in a system that is constantly changing in response to QI&I initiatives. To capture this complexity, a revised model (MUSIQ v2.0) was created positioning use of structured QI&I approaches as the focal point and demonstrating how context influenced effective use of these approaches, and in turn, how these approaches supported teams in navigating context by adapting interventions to fit local settings. CONCLUSIONS: MUSIQ is a useful tool to explore the roles of, and inter-relationships between, contextual factors within QI&I initiatives. The revised model may help address some existing controversies about how context influences QI&I success and help ensure that future research efforts consider context not as static background, but as a complex system that is constantly changing, tightly-linked, and governed by feedback loops.

Characteristics of healthcare organisations struggling to improve quality: results from a systematic review of qualitative studies.
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V. M. Vaughn, S. Saint, S. L. Krein, et al.
BMJ Qual Saf 2018 Jul 25
Identifying characteristics associated with struggling healthcare organisations may help inform improvement. Thus, we systematically reviewed the literature to: (1) Identify organisational factors associated with struggling healthcare organisations and (2) Summarise these factors into actionable domains. METHODS: Systematic review of qualitative studies that evaluated organisational characteristics of healthcare organisations that were struggling as defined by below-average patient outcomes (eg, mortality) or quality of care metrics (eg, Patient Safety Indicators). Searches were conducted in MEDLINE (via Ovid), EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and Web of Science from database inception through February 8 2018. Qualitative data were analysed using framework-based synthesis and summarised into key domains. Study quality was evaluated using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program tool. RESULTS: Thirty studies (33 articles) from multiple countries and settings (eg, acute care, outpatient) with a diverse range of interviewees (eg, nurses, leadership, staff) were included in the final analysis. Five domains characterised struggling healthcare organisations: poor organisational culture (limited ownership, not collaborative, hierarchical, with disconnected leadership), inadequate infrastructure (limited quality improvement, staffing, information technology or resources), lack of a cohesive mission (mission conflicts with other missions, is externally motivated, poorly defined or promotes mediocrity), system shocks (ie, events such as leadership turnover, new electronic health record system or organisational scandals that detract from daily operations), and dysfunctional external relations with other hospitals, stakeholders, or governing bodies. CONCLUSIONS: Struggling healthcare organisations share characteristics that may affect their ability to provide optimal care. Understanding and identifying these characteristics may provide a first step to helping low performers address organisational challenges to improvement. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO: CRD42017067367.

Organizational culture and climate as moderators of enhanced outreach for persons with serious mental illness: results from a cluster-randomized trial of adaptive implementation strategies.
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S. N. Smith, D. Almirall, K. Prenovost, et al.
Implement Sci 2018 Jul 9;13(1):93-018-0787-9
Organizational culture and climate are considered key factors in implementation efforts but have not been examined as moderators of implementation strategy comparative effectiveness. We investigated organizational culture and climate as moderators of comparative effectiveness of two sequences of implementation strategies (Immediate vs. Delayed Enhanced Replicating Effective Programs [REP]) combining Standard REP and REP enhanced with facilitation on implementation of an outreach program for Veterans with serious mental illness lost to care at Veterans Health Administration (VA) facilities nationwide. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of the cluster-randomized Re-Engage implementation trial that assigned 3075 patients at 89 VA facilities to either the Immediate or Delayed Enhanced REP sequences. We hypothesized that sites with stronger entrepreneurial culture, task, or relational climate would benefit more from Enhanced REP than Standard REP. Veteran- and site-level data from the Re-Engage trial were combined with site-aggregated measures of entrepreneurial culture and task and relational climate from the 2012 VA All Employee Survey. Longitudinal mixed-effects logistic models examined whether the comparative effectiveness of the Immediate vs. Delayed Enhanced REP sequences were moderated by culture or climate measures at 6 and 12 months post-randomization. Three Veteran-level outcomes related to the engagement with the VA system were assessed: updated documentation, attempted contact by coordinator, and completed contact. RESULTS: For updated documentation and attempted contact, Veterans at sites with higher entrepreneurial culture and task climate scores benefitted more from Enhanced REP compared to Standard REP than Veterans at sites with lower scores. Few culture or climate moderation effects were detected for the comparative effectiveness of the full sequences of implementation strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation strategy effectiveness is highly intertwined with contextual factors, and implementation practitioners may use knowledge of contextual moderation to tailor strategy deployment. We found that facilitation strategies provided with Enhanced REP were more effective at improving uptake of a mental health outreach program at sites with stronger entrepreneurial culture and task climate; Veterans at sites with lower levels of these measures saw more similar improvement under Standard and Enhanced REP. Within resource-constrained systems, practitioners may choose to target more intensive implementation strategies to sites that will most benefit from them. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN: ISRCTN21059161 . Date registered: April 11, 2013.

Champions of Change and Organizational Development: A Return to Schön and Typology for Future Research and Practice
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Future Research and Practice. Thakhathi A. Research in Organizational Change and Development: Emerald Publishing Limited; 2018. p. 265-306
Contemporary organizations are facing an operating environment characterized by volatile, uncertain, complex, ambiguous, and “permanent whitewater.” To sustain high performance in this context, organizations must be able to change and develop as efficiently and effectively as possible. Within organizations, there are actors who catalyze and advance change in this manner; these actors are known as “champions.” Yet the scholar who wishes to conduct research concerning champions of change and organizational development is likely to be met by a highly fragmented literature. Varying notions of champions are scattered throughout extant research, where authors of articles cite different sources when conceptualizing champions; often superficially. Furthermore, many types of highly specific and nuanced non-generalizable champions have proliferated, making it difficult for practitioners and researchers to discover useful findings on how to go about making meaningful changes in their context. The purpose of this study was to address these problems for practitioners and researchers by engendering thoroughness, clarity, and coherence within champion scholarship. This was done by conducting the first comprehensive, critical yet insightful review of the champion literature within the organizational sciences using content analysis to re-conceptualize champions and develop a meaningful typology from which the field can be advanced. The chapter first suggests a return to Schön (1963) as the basis from which to conceptualize champions and, second, offers a typology consisting of 10 meta-champions of organizational change and development – Collaboration, Human Rights, Innovation, Product, Project, Service, Strategic, Sustainability, Technology, and Venture Champions – from which change practice and future research can benefit.

Agents of Change: Insights from Three Case Studies of Hospital Transformations
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Tucker DA, Cirella S. Research in Organizational Change and Development: Emerald Publishing Limited; 2018. p. 307-340
In the context of organizational change, identifying, and organizing the various roles of change agents remains a challenge for practitioners and scholars alike. This chapter examines how different agents can enable an effective change process. Empirical evidence from three hospitals illustrates the process of transformation and its underlying arrangements to identify agents and their roles. The findings underline the importance of designing a coherent system of agents, determining where they come from, their role during the process, and how this may change throughout the change process. Managerial choices in the cases are discussed, leading to implications for theory and practice.; Abstract In the context of organizational change, identifying, and organizing the various roles of change agents remains a challenge for practitioners and scholars alike. This chapter examines how different agents can enable an effective change process. Empirical evidence from three hospitals illustrates the process of transformation and its underlying arrangements to identify agents and their roles. The findings underline the importance of designing a coherent system of agents, determining where they come from, their role during the process, and how this may change throughout the change process. Managerial choices in the cases are discussed, leading to implications for theory and practice.

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Research Practice and Methodology

Appraising Qualitative Research for Evidence Syntheses: A Compendium of Quality Appraisal Tools.
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U. Majid and M. Vanstone.
Qual Health Res 2018 Jul 26:1049732318785358
As the movement toward evidence-based health policy continues to emphasize the importance of including patient and public perspectives, syntheses of qualitative health research are becoming more common. In response to the focus on independent assessments of rigor in these knowledge products, over 100 appraisal tools for assessing the quality of qualitative research have been developed. The variety of appraisal tools exhibit diverse methods and purposes, reflecting the lack of consensus as to what constitutes appropriate quality criteria for qualitative research. It is a daunting task for those without deep familiarity of the field to choose the best appraisal tool for their purpose. This article provides a description of the structure, content, and objectives of existing appraisal tools for those wanting to evaluate primary qualitative research for a qualitative evidence synthesis. We then discuss common features of appraisal tools and examine their implications for evidence synthesis.

A Guide to Multisite Qualitative Analysis.
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E. K. Jenkins, A. Slemon, R. J. Haines-Saah and J. Oliffe.
Qual Health Res 2018 Jul 1:1049732318786703
The aims of multisite qualitative research, originally developed within the case study tradition, are to produce findings that are reflective of context, while also holding broader applicability across settings. Such knowledge is ideal for informing health and social interventions by overcoming the limitations of research developed through methodological approaches that either “strip” context, or that hold relevance for a site-specific group or population. Yet, despite the potential benefits of multisite qualitative research, there is a paucity of analytical guidance to support researchers in achieving these yields. In this article, we present an analytical approach for conducting multisite qualitative analysis (MSQA) across various methodologies to maximize the potential of qualitative research, enhance rigor, and support the development of interventions that are tailored to the populations that they are intended to serve.

Patient and public engagement in research and health system decision making: A systematic review of evaluation tools
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A. Boivin, A. L’Esperance, F. P. Gauvin, et al.
Health Expect 2018 Jul 30
Patient and public engagement is growing, but evaluative efforts remain limited. Reviews looking at evaluation tools for patient engagement in individual decision making do exist, but no similar articles in research and health systems have been published. OBJECTIVE: Systematically review and appraise evaluation tools for patient and public engagement in research and health system decision making. METHODS: We searched literature published between January 1980 and February 2016. Electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL and PsycINFO) were consulted, as well as grey literature obtained through Google, subject-matter experts, social media and engagement organization websites. Two independent reviewers appraised the evaluation tools based on 4 assessment criteria: scientific rigour, patient and public perspective, comprehensiveness and usability. RESULTS: In total, 10 663 unique references were identified, 27 were included. Most of these tools were developed in the last decade and were designed to support improvement of engagement activities. Only 11% of tools were explicitly based on a literature review, and just 7% were tested for reliability. Patients and members of the public were involved in designing 56% of the tools, mainly in the piloting stage, and 18.5% of tools were designed to report evaluation results to patients and the public. CONCLUSION: A growing number of evaluation tools are available to support patient and public engagement in research and health system decision making. However, the scientific rigour with which such evaluation tools are developed could be improved, as well as the level of patient and public engagement in their design and reporting.

The sociology of scientific validity: How professional networks shape judgement in peer review
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Misha Teplitskiy, Daniel Acuna, A. Elamrani-Raoult, Konrad Karding and James Evans.
Research Policy 2018 07/26
Professional connections between the creators and evaluators of scientific work are ubiquitous, and the possibility of bias ever-present. Although connections have been shown to bias predictions of uncertain future performance, it is unknown whether such biases occur in the more concrete task of assessing scientific validity for completed works, and if so, how. This study presents evidence that connections between authors and reviewers of neuroscience manuscripts are associated with biased judgments and explores the mechanisms driving that effect. Using reviews from 7981 neuroscience manuscripts submitted to the journal PLOS ONE, which instructs reviewers to evaluate manuscripts on scientific validity alone, we find that reviewers favored authors close in the co-authorship network by ∼0.11 points on a 1.0–4.0 scale for each step of proximity. PLOS ONE’s validity-focused review and the substantial favoritism shown by distant vs. very distant reviewers, both of whom should have little to gain from nepotism, point to the central role of substantive disagreements between scientists in different professional networks (“schools of thought”). These results suggest that removing bias from peer review cannot be accomplished simply by recusing closely connected reviewers, and highlight the value of recruiting reviewers embedded in diverse professional networks.

Special Issue of Social Science & Medicine on Randomized Controlled Trials and Evidence-based Policy: A Multidisciplinary Dialogue
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August 2018, Pgs 1-90

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Aging

Exploring resident thriving in relation to the nursing home environment: a cross-sectional study.
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S. Bjork, M. Lindkvist, H. Lovheim, A. Bergland, A. Wimo and D. Edvardsson.
J Adv Nurs 2018 Jul 25
To explore the extent to which environmental factors are associated with resident thriving. BACKGROUND: Thriving is a concept that denotes experiences of well-being in relation to the living environment. Although there is a substantial body of research into quality of life in nursing homes, less is known about what contributes to thriving among residents. Recent research on resident thriving has focused mainly on resident characteristics and activities associated with thriving. Less attention has been given to explore associations with the physical and psychosocial environment of the nursing home. This study explores facility- and unit-level factors associated with resident thriving. DESIGN: A cross-sectional national survey. METHODS: Data on 4205 residents, 3509 staff and environment of 147 nursing home facilities collected in 2013 – 2014 were analysed using descriptive statistics, multilevel simple and multiple linear regression to explore resident thriving in relation to environmental factors. RESULTS: Multilevel analysis revealed that residents’ thriving varied significantly across nursing home units. Several environmental factors were associated with thriving in univariate analyses. However, a positive psychosocial climate of units, having access to newspapers, living in a special care unit and living in an unlocked facility showed significant positive associations with resident thriving when controlling for resident characteristics. The psychosocial climate showed the strongest association of the environment variables with resident thriving. CONCLUSIONS: Nursing home environments may have an impact on residents’ thriving. A positive psychosocial climate of units seems to have an important role in facilitating thriving in nursing home residents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

The Improving Outcomes of UTI Management in Long-Term Care Project (IOU) Consensus Guidelines for the Diagnosis of Uncomplicated Cystitis in Nursing Home Residents.
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D. A. Nace, S. K. Perera, J. T. Hanlon, et al.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2018 Jul 20
To identify a set of signs and symptoms most likely to indicate uncomplicated cystitis in noncatheterized nursing home residents >/=65 years of age using consensus-based methods informed by a literature review. DESIGN: Literature review and modified Delphi survey with strict inclusion criteria. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Expert panel of 20 physicians certified in geriatric medicine and/or medical direction, actively practicing in post-acute and long-term care settings. METHODS: The authors performed a literature review to produce a comprehensive list of potential signs and symptoms of presumptive uncomplicated cystitis, including nonspecific “quality control” items deemed unlikely to indicate uncomplicated cystitis. The expert panel rated their agreement for each sign/symptom using a 5-point Likert-type scale (1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree). Agreed upon signs and symptoms were summarized using a diagnostic algorithm for easy clinical use. RESULTS: The literature review identified 16 signs and symptoms that were evaluated in 3 Delphi survey rounds. The response rate was 100% for round 1 and 95% for the second 2 rounds. Consensus agreement for inclusion was achieved for dysuria on round 1 with exclusion of the 3 quality controls, and “offensive smelling urine.” Consensus in the second round was reached for including 4 additional items (gross hematuria, suprapubic pain, urinary frequency, and urinary urgency). Round 3 evaluated dysuria alone and combinations of symptoms. Consensus that dysuria alone is sufficient for diagnosis of cystitis was not reached. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: The panel identified 5 signs and symptoms likely indicative of uncomplicated cystitis in nursing home residents and developed a diagnostic algorithm that can be used to promote antibiotic stewardship in nursing homes. Given similarities in populations, the algorithm may also be applicable to the older adult and the broader post-acute/long-term care populations.

Music-based therapeutic interventions for people with dementia.
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T. van der Steen, H. J. Smaling, J. C. van der Wouden, M. S. Bruinsma, R. J. Scholten and A. C. Vink.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Jul 23;7:CD003477
Dementia is a clinical syndrome with a number of different causes which is characterised by deterioration in cognitive, behavioural, social and emotional functions. Pharmacological interventions are available but have limited effect to treat many of the syndrome’s features. Less research has been directed towards non-pharmacological treatments. In this review, we examined the evidence for effects of music-based interventions. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of music-based therapeutic interventions for people with dementia on emotional well-being including quality of life, mood disturbance or negative affect, behavioural problems, social behaviour and cognition at the end of therapy and four or more weeks after the end of treatment. SEARCH METHODS: We searched ALOIS, the Specialized Register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group (CDCIG) on 19 June 2017 using the terms: music therapy, music, singing, sing, auditory stimulation. Additional searches were carried out on 19 June 2017 in the major healthcare databases MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and LILACS; and in trial registers and grey literature sources. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials of music-based therapeutic interventions (at least five sessions) for people with dementia that measured any of our outcomes of interest. Control groups either received usual care or other activities with or without music. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors worked independently to screen the retrieved studies against the inclusion criteria and then to extract data and assess methodological quality of the included studies. If necessary, we contacted trial authors to ask for additional data, including relevant subscales, or for other missing information. We pooled data using random-effects models. MAIN RESULTS: We included 22 studies with 1097 randomised participants. Twenty-one studies with 890 participants contributed data to meta-analyses. Participants in the studies had dementia of varying degrees of severity, and all were resident in institutions. Seven studies delivered an individual music intervention; the other studies delivered the intervention to groups of participants. Most interventions involved both active and receptive musical elements. The methodological quality of the studies varied. All were at high risk of performance bias and some were at high risk of detection or other bias.At the end of treatment, we found low-quality evidence that the interventions may improve emotional well-being and quality of life (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02 to 0.62; 9 studies, 348 participants) and reduce anxiety (SMD -0.43, 95% CI -0.72 to -0.14; 13 studies, 478 participants). We found low-quality evidence that music-based therapeutic interventions may have little or no effect on cognition (SMD 0.15, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.36; 7 studies, 350 participants). There was moderate-quality evidence that the interventions reduce depressive symptoms (SMD -0.27, 95% CI -0.45 to -0.09; 11 studies, 503 participants) and overall behaviour problems (SMD -0.23, 95% CI -0.46 to -0.01; 10 studies, 442 participants), but do not decrease agitation or aggression (SMD -0.07, 95% CI -0.24 to 0.10; 14 studies, 626 participants). The quality of the evidence on social behaviour was very low, so effects were very uncertain.The evidence for long-term outcomes measured four or more weeks after the end of treatment was of very low quality for anxiety and social behaviour, and for the other outcomes, it was of low quality for little or no effect (with small SMDs, between 0.03 and 0.34). AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS: Providing people with dementia who are in institutional care with at least five sessions of a music-based therapeutic intervention probably reduces depressive symptoms and improves overall behavioural problems at the end of treatment. It may also improve emotional well-being and quality of life and reduce anxiety, but may have little or no effect on agitation or aggression or on cognition. We are uncertain about effects on social behaviour and about long-term effects. Future studies should examine the duration of effects in relation to the overall duration of treatment and the number of sessions.

Variation in pressure ulcer prevalence and prevention in nursing homes: A multicenter study.
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D. S. Courvoisier, L. Righi, N. Bene, A. C. Rae and P. Chopard.
Appl Nurs Res 2018 Aug;42:45-50
To estimate the prevalence of pressure ulcers in nursing homes and its variability, the frequency of use of preventive measures and treatment. BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcer is a frequent pathology across healthcare settings. Most pressure ulcers are preventable and are considered an important quality of care indicator. METHODS: Assessments were done on a single day of November 2015 in nursing homes in Geneva, Switzerland. Of the 51 institutions (3824 patients) eligible, 33 homes agreed to participate, representing 2671 patients (69.8%). One referent nurse per nursing home received training on pressure ulcer detection. To estimate the residual variability in prevalence and in number of prevention measures, adjusted multilevel logistic regressions were used. RESULTS: Patients were on average 85.6years old, with a median length of stay of 2.1years. The overall prevalence was 5.7% but varied considerably, from 0% to 19.6%. The variability across nursing homes decreased slightly when taking into account patient-level and institution-level characteristics. In the adjusted models, pressure ulcers prevalence was significantly associated with Braden risk; number of preventive measures was significantly associated with nursing home size, and Braden risk, and marginally associated with length of stay. CONCLUSIONS: Overall prevalence of pressure ulcers was relatively low. While several prevention measures for patients at risk were taken, the correct use of all of them was rare. The variability in prevalence and in number of preventive measures across nursing homes was very high. Programmes focusing on the correct use of all recommended prevention measures could help reducing pressure ulcers prevalence.

Physical activity and physical fitness of nursing home residents with cognitive impairment: A pilot study.
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J. Marmeleira, S. Ferreira and A. Raimundo.
Exp Gerontol 2017 Dec 15;100:63-69
Physical activity and physical fitness are important for health, functional mobility and performance of everyday activities. To date, little attention has been given to physical activity and physical fitness among nursing home residents with cognitive impairment. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to examine physical activity behavior and physical fitness of institutionalized older adults with cognitive impairment and to investigate their interrelations. Forty-eight older adults with cognitive impairment (83.9+/-7.7years; 72.9% women) and 22 without cognitive impairment (82.2+/-8.8years; 54.5% women) participated. Physical activity was objectively assessed with accelerometers and physical fitness components (muscular strength, flexibility, balance, body composition and reaction time) were evaluated with physical fitness field tests. Nursing home residents with cognitive impairment spent only ~1min per day in moderate physical activity and ~89min in light physical activity. In average they accumulated 863 (+/-599) steps per day and spent 87.2% of the accelerometer wear time in sedentary behavior. Participants’ physical fitness components were markedly low and according to the cut-offs used for interpreting the results a great number of nursing home residents had an increased risk of associated health problems, functional impairment and of falling. The performance in some physical fitness tests was positively associated with physical activity. Participants without cognitive impairment had higher levels of physical activity and physical fitness than their counterparts with cognitive impairment. These results indicate that nursing home residents, especially those with cognitive impairment, have low levels of physical activity, spent a high proportion of daytime in sedentary behavior and have low physical fitness. Nursing homes should implement health promotion strategies targeting physical activity and physical fitness of their residents.

Pain, Neuropsychiatric Symptoms, and Quality of Life of Nursing Home Residents With Advanced Dementia in The Netherlands: A Cross-sectional Study.
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J. van Kooten, J. C. van der Wouden, S. A. M. Sikkes, M. Smalbrugge, C. M. P. M. Hertogh and M. L. Stek.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2017 Oct-Dec;31(4):315-321
Many studies have investigated factors associated with quality of life (QoL) in nursing home residents with dementia. Both pain and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are clinically relevant and individually associated with a lower QoL; however, there are no studies that investigated pain and NPS together in relation to QoL. PURPOSE: In this study, we explored the relationship of pain and NPS with QoL in nursing home residents with dementia by investigating the association between pain concurrently with NPS, and QoL. METHODS AND PATIENTS: Secondary data analyses of cross-sectional data from 199 residents were collected by observations at dementia special care units of 10 nursing homes. QoL was measured with Qualidem, pain with the Mobilization Observation Behavior Intensity Dementia (MOBID-2) Pain Scale and NPS with the Neuropsychiatric Symptoms Inventory. The relation of pain and NPS to QoL was studied using multiple linear regression analyses. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, activities of daily living, comorbidity, medication use, and dementia severity. RESULTS: Regression models with pain and NPS, showed no independent relationship between pain and QoL subdomains, but NPS, in particular agitation and depressive symptoms, were significantly associated with lower QoL subdomain scores. Agitation was related to lower scores on the subdomains “relationship” [95% confidence interval (CI), -0.083 to -0.059], “positive affect” (95% CI, -0.037 to -0.013), “restless tense behavior” (95% CI, -0.003 to -0.004), and “social relations” (95% CI, -0.033 to -0.009), whereas depression was related to lower scores on the subdomains “positive affect” (95% CI, -0.054 to -0.014), “negative affect” (95% CI, -0.114 to -0.074), “restless tense behavior” (95% CI, -0.075 to -0.025), and “social relations” (95% CI, -0.046 to -0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Only NPS were significantly associated with QoL in nursing home residents with dementia. Further longitudinal research is needed to estimate the nature of the relationship between pain, NPS, and QoL.

Pain management intervention targeting nursing staff and general practitioners: Pain intensity, consequences and clinical relevance for nursing home residents.
Non UofA Access

D. Drager, A. Budnick, R. Kuhnert, S. Kalinowski, F. Konner and R. Kreutz.
Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017 Oct;17(10):1534-1543
Although chronic pain is common in older adults, its treatment is frequently inappropriate. This problem is particularly prevalent in nursing home residents. We therefore developed an intervention to optimize pain management and evaluated its effects on pain intensity and pain interference with function in nursing home residents in Germany. METHODS: In a cluster-randomized controlled intervention, 195 residents of 12 Berlin nursing homes who were affected by pain were surveyed at three points of measurement. A modified German version of the Brief Pain Inventory was used to assess pain sites, pain intensity and pain interference with function in various domains of life. The intervention consisted of separate training measures for nursing staff and treating physicians. RESULTS: The primary objective of reducing the mean pain intensity by 2 points was not achieved, partly because the mean pain intensity at baseline was relatively low. However, marginal reductions in pain were observed in the longitudinal assessment at 6-month follow up. The intervention and control groups differed significantly in the intensity sum score and in the domain of walking. Furthermore, the proportion of respondents with pain scores >0 on three pain intensity items decreased significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Given the multifocal nature of the pain experienced by nursing home residents, improving the pain situation of this vulnerable group is a major challenge. To achieve meaningful effects not only in pain intensity, but especially in pain interference with function, training measures for nursing staff and physicians need to be intensified, and long-term implementation appears necessary.

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Dehydration Among Nursing Home Residents: A Systematic Review
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Simone J. C. Paulis, Irma H. J. Everink, Ruud J. G. Halfens, Christa Lohrmann and Jos M. G. A. Schols.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2018 08/01;19(8):646-657
To provide an overview of the prevalence rates and risk factors of dehydration among nursing home residents. Design Systematic literature review. Setting Nursing homes. Participants Nursing home residents or institutionalized long-term care residents. Measurements A systematic literature review was executed on March 15, 2018, using the databases PubMed, CINAHL, and EMBASE to retrieve all articles focused on the prevalence rates and risk factors for acute and chronic dehydration. Studies were included if the target population involved nursing home residents or institutionalized long-term care residents. Results Nineteen studies were included in this systematic review. Prevalence rates of dehydration varied between 0.8% and 38.5% and were measured using different methods. Furthermore, 49 potential risk factors for dehydration were identified. Of the 12 potential risk factors that were investigated in more than 1 study, cognitive impairment and fever were significantly associated with dehydration among nursing home residents. Conclusions/implications Dehydration is a relevant and frequently occurring problem among nursing home residents. This systematic review shows that a wide variety of methods are used to assess dehydration and that it is often unclear which type of dehydration (chronic or acute) is measured. This makes it difficult to compare prevalence rates among studies. Moreover, only 2 of 49 potential risk factors (fever and cognitive impairment) were more than once significantly associated with dehydration in the respective studies. Most of the other risk factors were assessed by only 1 study or showed inconsistent results. Therefore, more research into dehydration among nursing home residents is needed.

Social and organizational practices that influence hospice utilization in nursing homes
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Jason Rodriquez and Kathrin Boerner.
Journal of Aging Studies 2018 09/01;46:76-81
Hospice has grown considerably but the likelihood that someone gets hospice depends on social and organizational practices. This article shows how staff beliefs and work routines influenced hospice utilization in two nursing homes. In one, 76% of residents died on hospice and in the other 24% did. Staff identified barriers to hospice including families who saw hospice as giving up and gaps in the reimbursement system. At the high-hospice nursing home, staff said hospice care extended beyond what they provided on their own. At the low-hospice nursing home, an influential group said hospice was essentially the same as their own end-of-life care and therefore needlessly duplicative. Staff at the high-hospice nursing home proactively approached families about hospice, whereas staff at the low-hospice nursing home took a reactive approach, getting hospice when families asked for it. Findings demonstrate how staff beliefs and practices regarding hospice shape end-of-life care in nursing homes.

Attendance in Recreational Groups for Persons With Dementia: The Impact of Stimulus and Environmental Factors.
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J. Cohen-Mansfield and B. Jensen.
Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 2018 Jan 1:1533317518788158
Participation in group activities can benefit persons with dementia, alleviating boredom, improving affect, maintaining function, and decreasing problematic behaviors. METHODS: We describe patterns of attendance of residents with dementia at nursing home activity groups and investigate stimulus and environmental factors that may affect attendance. RESULTS: Residents participated in 60.8% of the activities, with reasons for nonattendance including refusal (9.7%), not being on the unit (7.8%), being asleep (6.8%), and being involved in activities of daily living and other activities (8.3%). On average, 3.5 other residents not recruited for the study chose to participate in each group session. Group attendance was significantly related to group topic. IMPLICATION: The need for activities was evident by the attendance of both invited and other residents. Understanding the factors that affect attendance is the first step toward developing procedures to maximize participation in activities in order to decrease loneliness and boredom in this population.

Supporting shared decision making for older people with multiple health and social care needs: a realist synthesis.
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F. Bunn, C. Goodman, B. Russell, et al.
BMC Geriatr 2018 Jul 18;18(1):165-018-0853-9
Health care systems are increasingly moving towards more integrated approaches. Shared decision making (SDM) is central to these models but may be complicated by the need to negotiate and communicate decisions between multiple providers, as well as patients and their family carers; particularly for older people with complex needs. The aim of this review was to provide a context relevant understanding of how interventions to facilitate SDM might work for older people with multiple health and care needs, and how they might be applied in integrated care models. METHODS: Iterative, stakeholder driven, realist synthesis following RAMESES publication standards. It involved: 1) scoping literature and stakeholder interviews (n = 13) to develop initial programme theory/ies, 2) systematic searches for evidence to test and develop the theories, and 3) validation of programme theory/ies with stakeholders (n = 11). We searched PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Scopus, Google, Google Scholar, and undertook lateral searches. All types of evidence were included. RESULTS: We included 88 papers; 29 focused on older people or people with complex needs. We identified four context-mechanism-outcome configurations that together provide an account of what needs to be in place for SDM to work for older people with complex needs. This includes: understanding and assessing patient and carer values and capacity to access and use care, organising systems to support and prioritise SDM, supporting and preparing patients and family carers to engage in SDM and a person-centred culture of which SDM is a part. Programmes likely to be successful in promoting SDM are those that allow older people to feel that they are respected and understood, and that engender confidence to engage in SDM. CONCLUSIONS: To embed SDM in practice requires a radical shift from a biomedical focus to a more person-centred ethos. Service providers will need support to change their professional behaviour and to better organise and deliver services. Face to face interactions, permission and space to discuss options, and continuity of patient-professional relationships are key in supporting older people with complex needs to engage in SDM. Future research needs to focus on inter-professional approaches to SDM and how families and carers are involved.

Factors associated with quality of life in patients with Alzheimer’s disease
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C. Barbe, D. Jolly, I. Morrone, et al.
BMC Geriatr 2018 Jul 9;18(1):159-018-0855-7
Evaluation of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is necessary to ensure optimal management. Several scales for assessing HRQoL of patients with AD exist, in particular the Quality of Life in Alzheimer’s Disease (QoL-AD), which includes an evaluation by the caregiver of the patient’s HRQoL. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with patient, caregiver and overall HRQoL as assessed by the QoL-AD. METHODS: Cross-sectional multicenter study in subjects aged 65 years and older, with mild to moderate AD. HRQoL scores from the QoL-AD were recorded (3 scores, corresponding to patient, caregiver and overall), as well as sociodemographic variables for the patient and the caregiver, and data from the geriatric cognitive assessment (cognitive, psycho-behavioral, functional evaluations). Caregiver burden was evaluated using the Zarit caregiver burden scale. Factors associated with each QoL-AD score were identified by multivariate linear regression using t-tests and beta estimations. Study was registered in Clinical Trial.gov (NCT02814773). RESULTS: In total, 123 patients with AD were included. For the patient QoL-AD evaluation, depression was significantly associated with lower HRQoL (beta = – 2.56 +/- 1.28, p = 0.04), while polypharmacy (beta = – 1.80 +/- 0.99, p = 0.07) and anxiety (beta = – 1.70 +/- 1.01, p = 0.09) tended to be associated with lower HRQoL scores. In terms of caregiver evaluations, depression (beta = – 3.46 +/- 1.09, p = 0.002), polypharmacy (beta = – 1.91 +/- 0.92, p = 0.04) and the presence of caregiver burden (beta = – 3.50 +/- 0.91, p = 0.0002) were associated with lower HRQoL. For the overall evaluation, depression (beta = – 3.26 +/- 1.02, p = 0.002) and polypharmacy (beta = – 1.85 +/- 0.81, p = 0.03) were significantly related to lower HRQoL. CONCLUSIONS: Depression and polypharmacy were two factors influencing HRQoL in patients with AD, both by patient self-report and on the caregiver report. Thus, despite the discrepancies between HRQoL as assessed by patients with AD and HRQoL as assessed by their caregiver, the caregiver’s assessment may be used to guide patient management when the patient can no longer complete QoL evaluations. Moreover, the association between caregiver burden and the caregiver’s QoL-AD score underlines the need to take caregivers into consideration in the overall management of the AD patient.

An evaluation of group reminiscence arts sessions for people with dementia living in care homes
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F. Keating, L. Cole and R. Grant.
Dementia (London) 2018 Jan 1:1471301218787655
Dementia has been identified as one of the major challenges in the 21st Century. The detrimental effects of dementia can jeopardise personhood, thus person-centred interventions including reminiscence and arts practice have been recommended as tools to promote social inclusion and improve the quality of life. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of group reminiscence arts sessions for people living with dementia in care homes (residential and nursing homes) using a comparative and time series design to collect data on quality of life. The intervention was conducted in six care homes in London over a period of 24 weeks and compared with six care homes not receiving the intervention (control). Dementia Care Mapping was used as the primary data collection instrument to measure positive behaviours and rate quality of life before, during and after group reminiscence arts sessions. The evaluation team observed the sessions at three-weekly intervals. Statistical modelling found that positive behaviours and quality of life of care home residents participating in group reminiscence arts sessions increased over the 24-week period. Well-being increased sharply during each session and plateaued at 50 minutes with a sustained positive effect after the sessions. On a longer timescale, well-being and quality of life increased slowly and steadily from one session to the next. The findings were statistically significant ( p < 0.001). The study concludes that group reminiscence arts sessions can have a positive and sustained impact on the quality of life of people with dementia. However, the evidence on the sustainability of the effect over time remains unknown. More research is needed to assess in much greater depth the association between quality of life and group reminiscence arts sessions.

A registry study of nursing assessments, interventions and evaluations according to nutrition for persons living in municipal residential care homes.
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A. Backlund, O. Holmbeck, C. Kumlien and M. Axelsson.
Nurs Open 2018 Apr 16;5(3):341-350
The aim was to explore planned nursing interventions and evaluations of such interventions, in older people at risk for malnutrition living in municipal residential care homes. Designs: A registry study. Methods: The study was conducted using data from the Swedish national quality registry Senior Alert. Data on all persons assessed and registered in Senior Alert living in municipal residential care homes in a mid-sized town between January and December 2014 were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: In total, 677 nutritional risk assessments were performed among the participants (N = 587), who were between 65-109 years. A larger proportion of women were estimated as being at risk for malnutrition compared with men. The three most common prescribed nursing interventions were nutritional treatment, dietary support and weight control; however, interventions were not prescribed for all participants at risk for malnutrition. Lesser than 50% of the interventions were evaluated, with dietary support, pharmaceutical review and weight control the three most likely to be evaluated. Further, planned interventions for participants at risk of malnutrition were implemented more often for men than for women.

Fulfilled preferences, perceived control, life satisfaction, and loneliness in elderly long-term care residents.
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N. Andrew and S. Meeks.
Aging Ment Health 2018 Feb;22(2):183-189
Person-centered care constructs such as fulfilled preferences, sense of control, and life satisfaction might contribute to loneliness among nursing home residents, but these relationships have not been thoroughly explored. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between fulfilled preferences and loneliness in nursing home residents with perceived control and life satisfaction as potential mediators. METHODS: The study utilized a cross-sectional design, examining the targeted variables with a questionnaire administered by trained research staff. A convenience sample of 65 residents (median age = 71) of eight nursing homes were interviewed. Linear regression analysis was utilized to examine the mediation hypotheses. RESULTS: The relationships between fulfilled preferences and loneliness (beta = -.377, p = .002), fulfilled preferences and perceived control (beta = -.577, p < .001), and perceived control and loneliness (beta = .606, p < .001) were significant, and the relationship between fulfilled preferences and loneliness (beta = -.040, p = .744) became non-significant when perceived control was included in the model. The relationships between fulfilled preferences and life satisfaction (beta = .420, p < .001) and life satisfaction and loneliness (beta = -.598, p < .001) were significant, and the relationship between fulfilled preferences and loneliness (beta = -.152, p = .174) became non-significant when life satisfaction was included in the model. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest an important association between person-centered care, particularly fulfilling personal care and recreation preferences, and social-affective needs of long-term care residents. Fulfilling preferences may be an appropriate intervention target for loneliness.

Urinary incontinence and mortality among older adults residing in care homes.
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J. Damian, R. Pastor-Barriuso, F. J. Garcia Lopez and J. de Pedro-Cuesta.
J Adv Nurs 2017 Mar;73(3):688-699
To assess the association between baseline urinary incontinence and long-term, all-cause mortality. BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence is a common disorder among older institutionalised adults, with important consequences for morbidity and quality of life. Moreover, while it is a consistent mortality marker, the extent to which this association might be causal remains controversial. DESIGN: A cohort study. METHODS: We conducted a mortality follow-up study on a cohort of 675 nursing-home residents in the city of Madrid (Spain), from their 1998-1999 baseline interviews to September 2013. Study subjects or their caregivers were asked whether the resident had experienced any involuntary leakage of urine in the preceding 14 days, with subjects being subsequently defined as continent, mildly incontinent, or severely incontinent. Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: After a 4061 person-year follow-up (median/maximum of 4.6/15.2 years), 576 participants had died. In fully-adjusted models, urinary incontinence was associated with a 24 per cent increased risk of all-cause mortality. There was a graded relationship across severity levels, with hazard ratios 7% higher for mild and 44% higher for severe incontinence as compared with the continent group. The adjusted mortality fraction attributable to urinary incontinence was 11 per cent. CONCLUSION: It would appear that urinary incontinence is not only a marker but also a real determinant of survival in the institutionalized population. This finding, which seems plausible in a population of frail older adults, warrants further research into mechanisms that could help to elucidate this hypothesis.

Systematic review of the impact of arts for health activities on health, wellbeing and quality of life of older people living in care homes.
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A. Curtis, L. Gibson, M. O’Brien and B. Roe.
Dementia (London) 2018 Aug;17(6):645-669
Care home populations frequently feature older people who often experience poor physical health and cognitive difficulties, along with vulnerability to psychological and social stressors. To date there has been no systematic review which focuses on the impact of arts for health activities to the care home population. Evidence was sourced from several databases and 71 studies were deemed eligible for inclusion in this review. These studies underwent data extraction and quality appraisal and the findings associated with health, wellbeing and quality of life are presented within this paper.

Public reporting of antipsychotic prescribing in nursing homes: population-based interrupted time series analyses.
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N. M. Ivers, M. Taljaard, V. Giannakeas, C. Reis, E. Williams and S. Bronskill.
BMJ Qual Saf 2018 Jul 30
Although sometimes appropriate, antipsychotic medications are associated with increased risk of significant adverse events. In 2014, a series of newspaper articles describing high prescribing rates in nursing homes in Ontario, Canada, garnered substantial interest. Subsequently, an online public reporting initiative with home-level data was launched. We examined the impact of these public reporting interventions on antipsychotic prescribing in nursing homes. METHODS: Time series analysis of all nursing home residents in Ontario, Canada, between 1 October 2013 and 31 March 2016. The primary outcome was the proportion of residents prescribed antipsychotics each month. Balance measures were prescriptions for common alternative sedating agents (benzodiazepines and/or trazodone). We used segmented regression to assess the effects on prescription trends of the newspaper articles and the online home-level public reporting initiative. RESULTS: We included 120 009 nursing home resident admissions across 636 nursing homes. Following the newspaper articles, the proportion of residents prescribed an antipsychotic decreased by 1.28% (95% CI 1.08% to 1.48%) and continued to decrease at a rate of 0.2% per month (95% CI 0.16% to 0.24%). The online public reporting initiative did not alter this trend. Over 3 years, there was a net absolute reduction in antipsychotic prescribing of 6.0% (95% CI 5.1% to 6.9%). Trends for benzodiazepine prescribing did not change as substantially during the period of observation. Trazodone use has been gradually increasing, but its use did not change abruptly at the time of the mass media report or the public reporting initiative. INTERPRETATION: The rapid impact of mass media on prescribing suggests both an opportunity to use this approach to invoke change and a warning to ensure that such reporting occurs responsibly.

Impact of antipsychotic review and non-pharmacological intervention on health-related quality of life in people with dementia living in care homes: WHELD-a factorial cluster randomised controlled trial.
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C. Ballard, M. Orrell, Y. Sun, et al.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2017 Oct;32(10):1094-1103
Very few interventional studies have directly examined the impact of treatment approaches on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in people with dementia. This is of particular importance in therapies to address behavioural symptoms, where HRQL is often severely affected. METHODS: Analysis within the WHELD cluster randomised factorial study in 16 UK care homes examining the impact of person-centred care in combination with antipsychotic review, social interaction and exercise interventions. This study analysed impact on HRQL through the DEMQOL-Proxy. RESULTS: Data on HRQL were available for 187 participants. People receiving antipsychotic review showed a significant worsening in two DEMQOL-Proxy domains (negative emotion: p = 0.02; appearance: p = 0.04). A best-case scenario analysis showed significant worsening for total DEMQOL-Proxy score. Social interaction intervention resulted in a significant benefit to HRQL (p = 0.04). There was no deterioration in HRQL in groups receiving both antipsychotic review and social interaction (p = 0.62). CONCLUSIONS: This demonstrates an important detrimental impact of discontinuation of antipsychotics in dementia on HRQL, highlighting the need for careful review of best practice guidelines regarding antipsychotic use and emphasising the importance of providing evidence-based non-pharmacological interventions in conjunction with antipsychotic review. Copyright (c) 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

 

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Events

Online

AHRQ Building Better Primary Care: New Tools for Getting Evidence into Practice

Wednesday 22 August 12:00-13:15 MT
During this webinar you will:
• Learn about the key drivers and change strategies to build practice capacity to implement the best evidence.
• Find out about curated resources related to these key drivers and how to find them.
• Hear from practice facilitators who have used these resources. They’ll speak about their experiences, and offer insights into the resources that were helpful to practices and organizations fielding quality improvement initiatives in primary care.
You should attend this webinar if you:
• Are a practice facilitator
• Work for a quality improvement organization
• Work on quality improvement in a primary care practice or health system

ROBIS: A Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Systematic Reviews

Monday 29 October 11:00-12:30 MT
Presenter: Dr. Penny Whiting, NCCMT
ROBIS is a tool designed to assess risk of bias in systematic reviews. ROBIS differs from other tools that assess systematic reviews as it was specifically designed to assess risk of bias, while other tools focus on broader goals such as critical appraisal and quality assessment. The use of ROBIS can lead to more robust recommendations and improvements in public health and patient care.

 

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Courses

REDCap Training Sessions

Tuesday 21 August 10:00-11:00
Do you need support capturing and managing your research data? REDCap training sessions are available free to Women and Children’s Health Reseach Institute (WCHRI) members, University of Alberta REDCap users, and external collaborators.

Online

Certificate in knowledge mobilization

Early bird rate until 31 August
1 October-25 November, University of Guelph
This fall, join other knowledge professionals in Inform: Processes of knowledge translation and dissemination (October 1 to November 25, 2018). “Inform” is the first of three online courses offered in the University of Guelph Certificate in Knowledge Mobilization. It provides an overview of the theories and practices involved in the creation, sharing and uptake of evidence. Participants will learn how to enhance awareness of and accessibility to relevant evidence, explore the processes of knowledge creation, synthesis, and translation, and learn to use different techniques and products to share evidence.

Foundations of KT

1 October-16 November $700
DEADLINE for registration: 24 August
Online course on the fundamentals of implementing change using best practices in KT. The course will be held online and will include weekly asynchronous webinars that can be viewed at participants’ convenience, online group discussions, and optional real-time group coaching sessions in our online meeting room.

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Resources

NHS: Dementia Training Standards Framework

The Dementia Training Standards Framework is an extraordinarily useful resource which details the essential skills and knowledge necessary across the health and social care spectrum. Three tiers are described:
Awareness, which everyone should have;
Basic skills which are relevant to all staff in settings where people with dementia are likely to appear and;
Leadership.
The recent update and review included a number of additions regarding food, drink and oral health. We are confident that this framework will help guide a more efficient and consistent approach to the delivery of dementia training and education. This framework will help ensure quality and consistency in dementia education and training if you are an organisation or an individual working in health, social care or housing. The framework will allow the differentiation of high quality services, ensure personalised care and support for people living with dementia, and support organisations and individuals to meet requirements of regulator.

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News

Spouses of those with dementia face radically altered marriages

For Scientists Racing to Cure Alzheimer’s, the Math Is Getting Ugly

Moving patient engagement to the centre of health care

In emergencies, the elderly die. Here’s how we can start to change that

Toronto votes on changes to nursing homes one month after
Star investigation

5 clues – choosing the right journal

Four personality traits Early Career Researchers can foster to help impact policy and practice

Establishing trust between researchers, government and the public: proposing an integrated process for evidence synthesis and policy development

Alberta government missing targets for accessing continuing care

Seniors at privately run B.C. care homes more likely to be
hospitalized: report

Let science and scientists speak for themselves

Plan to replicate 50 high-impact cancer papers shrinks to just 18

The Illness Is Bad Enough. The Hospital May Be Even Worse.

Fight against dementia is gathering pace

Just ten minutes of social interaction a day improves wellbeing in dementia care

Improving dementia care through care navigation and social prescribing

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Opportunities

Post-doctoral fellowship – University of British Columbia

Vancouver, BC
The Canada Research Chair in Shared Decision Making and Knowledge Translation is seeking candidates for a postdoctoral fellowship to work on the fourth component of PEGASUS-2 project (PErsonalized Genomics for prenatal Aneuploidy Screening USing maternal blood), financed by Genome Canada and Genome Quebec. The objective of the project is to develop a strategy to scale up the implementation of decision aids and training programs on prenatal screening for aneuploidy. The successful candidate will be co-supervised by Dr. France Légaré (Université Laval) and Dr. Sylvie Langlois (University of British Columbia). He/she will be based in Vancouver with Dr. Langlois’ research team and will be in charge of all elements of the project that take place in British Columbia. The position is for one year with possibility of renewal.

CFN Manager, Partnerships

Kingston ON
DEADLINE: 20 August
CFN is looking for a knowledgeable, connected, enthusiastic Manager of Partnerships, based in Kingston, Ontario. Reporting to the Assistant Scientific Director, this person will have primary responsibility for developing partnerships and collaborations and securing sponsorships with companies, not-for-profit organizations, governmental bodies and other like-minded organizations to advance CFN’s mission to improve care for older adults living with frailty.

Post-Doctoral Fellow in Patient Engagement and Knowledge Translation – Arthritis Research Canada – British Columbia

Vancouver BC
The Canada Research Chair in Patient-oriented Knowledge Translation is seeking a Post-Doctoral Fellow to assist in leading a research program on patient engagement in research,including the Citizen Science Initiative (funded by the BC SUPPORT Unit). Objectives of the research program are to understand patients’ experiences as research partners, and to develop an online infrastructure to engage the public, including patients, as partners throughout the research process. Under the supervision of Dr. Linda Li, the Post-Doctoral Fellow will work independently within a research team based at Arthritis Research Canada to oversee the patient engagement projects and assist in the development of a training program.

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