September 7, 2021


New TREC articles
Sustained effects of the INFORM cluster randomized trial: an observational post-intervention study.
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Hoben M, Ginsburg LR, Norton PG, Doupe MB, Berta WB, Dearing JW, et al.
Implementation science : IS 2021 aug;16(1):83.
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have examined the efficacy and effectiveness of health services interventions. However, much less research is available on the sustainability of study outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the lasting benefits of INFORM (Improving Nursing Home Care Through Feedback On perfoRMance data) and associated factors 2.5 years after removal of study supports. INFORM was a complex, theory-based, three-arm, parallel cluster-randomized trial. In 2015-2016, we successfully implemented two theory-based feedback strategies (compared to a simple feedback approach) to increase nursing home (NH) care aides’ involvement in formal communications about resident care. METHODS: Sustainability analyses included 51 Western Canadian NHs that had been randomly allocated to a simple and two assisted feedback interventions in INFORM. We measured care aide involvement in formal interactions (e.g., resident rounds, family conferences) and other study outcomes at baseline (T1, 09/2014-05/2015), post-intervention (T2, 01/2017-12/2017), and long-term follow-up (T3, 06/2019-03/2020). Using repeated measures, hierarchical mixed models, adjusted for care aide, care unit, and facility variables, we assess sustainability and associated factors: organizational context (leadership, culture, evaluation) and fidelity of the original INFORM intervention. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 18 NHs (46 units, 529 care aides) in simple feedback, 19 NHs (60 units, 731 care aides) in basic assisted feedback, and 14 homes (41 units, 537 care aides) in enhanced assisted feedback. T2 (post-intervention) scores remained stable at T3 in the two enhanced feedback arms, indicating sustainability. In the simple feedback group, where scores were had remained lower than in the enhanced groups during the intervention, T3 scores rose to the level of the two enhanced feedback groups. Better culture (β = 0.099, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.005; 0.192), evaluation (β = 0.273, 95% CI 0.196; 0.351), and fidelity enactment (β = 0.290, 95% CI 0.196; 0.384) increased care aide involvement in formal interactions at T3. CONCLUSIONS: Theory-informed feedback provides long-lasting improvement in care aides’ involvement in formal communications about resident care. Greater intervention intensity neither implies greater effectiveness nor sustainability. Modifiable context elements and fidelity enactment during the intervention period may facilitate sustained improvement, warranting further study-as does possible post-intervention spread of our intervention to simple feedback homes.

Nonpharmacologic Interventions for Care Home Residents With Dementia: Utility of Current Practices
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Knopp-Sihota JA, Rachor GS, Goodarzi Z, Holroyd-Leduc J, Estabrooks CA, Wagg AS.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2021 aug.
Neuropsychiatric symptoms among people living with a dementia are common and often distressing. Inappropriately treated or untreated symptoms result in unnecessary suffering, impaired quality of life, and immense distress to care home residents and families, and their health care providers. Because neuropsychiatric symptoms are common, care home residents living with dementia may be inappropriately treated with antipsychotic drugs. Although nonpharmacologic interventions are widely recommended, they are less studied and weakly supported by current evidence. This leaves gaps in understanding and questions about utility. Strategies to manage these burdensome symptoms thus remain suboptimal. Understanding current practices for nonpharmacologic interventions is an important first step to guide testing, implementation, and wider use of such interventions. We (1) identified sensory interventions for reducing neuropsychiatric symptoms and supporting protocols or guidelines currently used in Western Canada and (2) solicited views and opinions on the extent of benefit or harm to care home residents with these interventions.

New article by Carole Estabrooks
Early warning and rapid public health response to prevent COVID-19 outbreaks in long-term care facilities (LTCF) by monitoring SARS-CoV-2 RNA in LTCF site-specific sewage samples and assessment of antibodies response in this population: prospective study
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Lee BE, Sikora C, Faulder D, Risling E, Little LA, Qiu Y, et al.
BMJ open 2021 aug;11(8):e052282.
INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has an excessive impact on residents in long-term care facilities (LTCF), causing high morbidity and mortality. Early detection of presymptomatic and asymptomatic COVID-19 cases supports the timely implementation of effective outbreak control measures but repetitive screening of residents and staff incurs costs and discomfort. Administration of vaccines is key to controlling the pandemic but the robustness and longevity of the antibody response, correlation of neutralising antibodies with commercial antibody assays, and the efficacy of current vaccines for emerging COVID-19 variants require further study. We propose to monitor SARS-CoV-2 in site-specific sewage as an early warning system for COVID-19 in LTCF and to study the immune response of the staff and residents in LTCF to COVID-19 vaccines. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study includes two parts: (1) detection and quantification of SARS-CoV-2 in LTCF site-specific sewage samples using a molecular assay followed by notification of Public Health within 24 hours as an early warning system for appropriate outbreak investigation and control measures and cost-benefit analyses of the system and (2) testing for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among staff and residents in LTCF at various time points before and after COVID-19 vaccination using commercial assays and neutralising antibody testing performed at a reference laboratory. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained from the University of Alberta Health Research Ethics Board with considerations to minimise risk and discomforts for the participants. Early recognition of a COVID-19 case in an LTCF might prevent further transmission in residents and staff. There was no direct benefit identified to the participants of the immunity study. Anticipated dissemination of information includes a summary report to the immunity study participants, sharing of study data with the scientific community through the Canadian COVID-19 Immunity Task Force, and prompt dissemination of study results in meeting abstracts and manuscripts in peer-reviewed journals.

New article by Janet Squires
Individual and organizational factors of nurses’ job satisfaction in long-term care: A Systematic Review
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Aloisio LD, Coughlin M, Squires JE.
Int J Nurs Stud 2021:104073.
Background In long-term care facilities, nurses’ job satisfaction predicts staff turnover, which adversely affects resident outcomes. Thus, it is important to develop a comprehensive understanding of factors affecting nurses’ job satisfaction in long-term care facilities. Objectives To analyze factors associated with job satisfaction among nurses in nursing homes from individual and organizational perspectives utilizing a deductive approach. Design Systematic literature review Setting Nursing homes. Participants Registered nurses and licensed practical nurses in nursing homes. Methods A systematic literature review of seven online databases (EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) to July 23, 2020 was conducted. Studies were included if they examined factors associated job satisfaction in the target population and setting. Decision rules on how to determine factors important to nurse job satisfaction were developed a priori. Two team members independently screened the publications for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed included publications for methodological quality; conflicts were resolved through a consensus process and consultation of the third senior team member when needed. Results Twenty-eight studies were included. Of these, 20 studies were quantitative, 6 were qualitative, and 2 were mixed methods. Factors associated with job satisfaction were grouped into two categories: individual and organizational. Individual factors significantly associated with job satisfaction were age, health status, self-determination/autonomy, psychological empowerment, job involvement, work exhaustion, and work stress. Individual factors identified as not important or equivocal were gender and experience as a nurse/in aged care. No organizational factors were identified as important for nurses’ job satisfaction. Facility ownership, supervisor/manager support, resources, staffing level, and social relationships were identified as equivocal or not important. Findings from qualitative studies identified relationship with residents as an important factor for job satisfaction. Conclusions/Implications Factors identified as important to nurses’ job satisfaction differ from those reported among care aides in nursing homes and nurses employed in acute care settings, suggesting that there is a need for unique approaches to enhance nurses’ job satisfaction in nursing homes.

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