Health Care Administration and Organization

Collection of articles on Health Care Administration and Organization is available here.

It Is Not Your Parents’ Long-Term Services System: Nursing Homes in a Changing World
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Applebaum R, Mehdizadeh S, Berish D.
J Appl Gerontol 2020 Aug;39(8):898-901.
The long-term services system has changed substantially since the mid-1970s, when the landmark book Last Home for the Aged argued that the move to the nursing home was the last move an older person would make until death. Using detailed nursing home utilization data from the Minimum Data Set, this study tracks three cohorts of first-time nursing home admissions in Ohio from 1994 through 2014. Each cohort was followed for a 3-year period. Study results report dramatic reductions in nursing home length of stay between the 1994 and 2011 cohorts. Reduction in length of stay has important implications for nursing home practice and quality monitoring. The article argues that administrative and regulatory practices have not kept pace with the dramatic changes in how nursing homes are now being used in the long-term services system.

Measuring Caregiver Retention in Nursing Homes
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Castle NG.
Gerontologist 2021 Jun 2;61(4):e118-e128.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Retention of nursing home caregivers is examined. This represents the concept of continuously employing the same caregivers in the same facility for a defined period of time. In this research, several measures of caregiver retention are examined and the utility of these measures for practitioners and policy makers is discussed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A survey of nursing home administrators conducted in 2016 was used to collect staffing data from 2,898 facilities. This was matched with Nursing Home Compare and the Certification and Survey Provider Enhanced Reporting data. The association of four measures of retention for each of three types of caregivers with six quality indicators was examined. RESULTS: The descriptive statistics show rates of retention at 5 years for nurse aides (NAs), registered nurses (RNs), and licensed practical nurses to be low. The regression estimates show some support for the relationship that high caregiver retention is associated with better overall quality. The relationship was strongest for NAs and RNs. Support was also found for the notion that different measures of retention were more/less associated with quality. The 3- and 5-year retention measures had the strongest associations with the quality indicators. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: The findings presented provide some evidence that caregiver retention may be an important metric that can be used as a means of improving quality of care in nursing homes. However, the findings also show practitioners and policy makers should be more nuanced in the use of caregiver retention metrics.

Job Competency and Intention to Stay among Nursing Assistants: The Mediating Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Job Satisfaction
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Chang YC, Yeh TF, Lai IJ, Yang CC.
Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jun 14;18(12):6436. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18126436.
This study investigated the influences of nursing assistants’ job competency on their intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction and intention to stay in the profession of long-term care institutions. Understanding the relationship between job competency and job satisfaction, both intrinsic and extrinsic, would enable institutions to strengthen service workers’ intention to stay and to retain essential personnel. This study was a cross-sectional study in which nursing assistants from 26 nursing homes and 15 elderly welfare institutions in Taiwan. The relationship between job competency and intention to stay was discovered to be significantly mediated by intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction. Given the staff shortages and difficulty retaining staff in long-term care environments, organizations must be able to strengthen employees’ intention to stay; one suggestion is to improve the employees’ competency, because higher competency results in higher quality of care and greater extrinsic job satisfaction. Furthermore, greater job competency is more likely to result in affirmation and accomplishment, both of which increase intrinsic job satisfaction and thus positively influence intention to stay.

What defines quality of care for older people in aged care? A comprehensive literature review
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Cleland J, Hutchinson C, Khadka J, Milte R, Ratcliffe J.
Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021 Jul 13.
The quality of the care provided to frail older people in aged care is a concern for all Australians and for the citizens of many other countries internationally. This paper summarizes the methods and findings from an Australian study commissioned by the Royal Commission into Aged Care Quality and Safety to identify and synthesize international literature relating to the quality of care in aged care. A comprehensive literature review was undertaken to search and identify the literature (grey and peer reviewed) relating to quality of care and/or person-centered care in aged care. The review identified nine key themes as salient to the quality of care experience, which include treating the older person with respect and dignity; acknowledging and supporting their spiritual, cultural, religious and sexual identity; the skills and training of the aged care staff providing care; relationships between the older person and the aged care staff; social relationships and the community; supporting the older person to make informed choices; supporting the older person’s health and well-being; ensuring the delivery of safe care in a comfortable service environment; and the ability to make complaints and provide feedback to the aged care organization. In practice, particularly in the context of residential care, quality of care has traditionally been measured using clinical indicators of care quality. These findings highlight the central importance of person-centered care and care experience as fundamental tenets of the quality of aged care service delivery in Australia and internationally. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021

Growth of Physicians and Nurse Practitioners Practicing Full Time in Nursing Homes
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Goodwin JS, Agrawal P, Li S, Raji M, Kuo Y.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2021/07.
ObjectivesThe objective was to describe the growth of physicians, nurse practitioners (NPs), and physician assistants (PAs) who practice full time in nursing homes, to assess resident and nursing home characteristics associated with receiving care from full-time providers, and describe variation among nursing homes in use of full-time providers.; ObjectivesThe objective was to describe the growth of physicians, nurse practitioners (NPs), and physician assistants (PAs) who practice full time in nursing homes, to assess resident and nursing home characteristics associated with receiving care from full-time providers, and describe variation among nursing homes in use of full-time providers.

A Scoping Review of Care Trajectories across Multiple Settings for Persons with Dementia
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Kosteniuk JG, Morgan DG, Elliot V, Froehlich Chow A, Bayly M, Watson E, et al.
Can J Aging 2021 Jul 12:1-25.
Multiple transitions across care settings can be disruptive for older adults with dementia and their care partners, and can lead to fragmented care with adverse outcomes. This scoping review was conducted to identify and classify care trajectories across multiple settings for people with dementia, and to understand the prevalence of multiple transitions and associated factors at the individual and organizational levels. Searches of three databases, limited to peer-reviewed studies published between 2007 and 2017, provided 33 articles for inclusion. We identified 26 distinct care trajectories. Common trajectories involved hospital readmission or discharge from hospital to long-term care. Factors associated with transitions were identified mainly at the level of demographic and medical characteristics. Findings suggest a need for investing in stronger community-based systems of care that may reduce transitions. Further research is recommended to address knowledge gaps about complex and longitudinal care trajectories and trajectories experienced by sub-populations of people living with dementia.

Identification and Critical Appraisal of Food Service Satisfaction Questionnaires for Use in Nursing Homes: A Systematic Review
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Pankhurst M, Yaxley A, Miller M.
J Acad Nutr Diet 2021 Jul 1.
BACKGROUND: Food service provision in nursing homes is a complex, adaptive system through which multiple stakeholders interface. Organizational stakeholders include staff involved in preparing and delivering meals. Consumer stakeholders are the end users including residents and family. Questionnaires can be an economical and efficient method of measuring food service satisfaction in nursing homes and a powerful quality improvement tool. OBJECTIVE: (1) To identify questionnaires that measure food service satisfaction of various stakeholders in a nursing homes and (2) to critically appraise the psychometric properties of identified questionnaires. METHODS: Five electronic databases were searched (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Medline, ProQuest, Scopus, and Cochrane) in April 2020. Data from the eligible studies were extracted, and the psychometric properties were critically appraised using the Consensus-Based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments. RESULTS: This review identified 129 studies that used a questionnaire to measure food service satisfaction in nursing homes. Of those, 107 studies representing 75 unique general nursing home satisfaction questionnaires were excluded for failing to adequately explore aspects related to food service. From the remaining 22 studies, 7 food service satisfaction questionnaires were identified; 5 intended for consumers (residents) and 2 intended for organizational stakeholders (staff). Using the Consensus-Based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments quality criteria, most questionnaires had flaws in content validity and construct validity, primarily due to small sample sizes. No questionnaires explored food service satisfaction from the family perspective. CONCLUSIONS: Nursing homes collect satisfaction information for accreditation, marketing, benchmarking, and quality improvement. Although questionnaires are easy to administer, the quality of the data they collect is impacted by the validity and reliability of the questionnaires used. Using unreliable satisfaction data may mean that nursing homes are not accurately able to understand the impact of changes in the system on stakeholder satisfaction.

The development and psychometric validation of the interpersonal geriatric care relationship (InteGer) tool
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Riviere M, Duprez V, Dufoort H, Beeckman D, Van Hecke A, Verhaeghe S.
J Adv Nurs 2021 Aug;77(8):3571-3583.
AIM: To develop and psychometrically test the Interpersonal Geriatric care relationship tool. BACKGROUND: The quality of nursing care is highly influenced by the quality of the interpersonal care relationship, yet there are no tools available that capture the conceptual breadth of the interpersonal care relationship. DESIGN: Instrument development and psychometric testing of the content and construct validity, factor structure and reliability. METHODS: A four-phased validation procedure was conducted (January 2016-April 2019): defining the construct measured by the tool, tool development, content validation and psychometric evaluation. RESULTS: The 30-item Interpersonal Geriatric care relationship tool was subjected to exploratory factor analysis. Four components (humanization, attentiveness, interest and accessibility) were extracted. The tool demonstrated discriminating power and good internal consistency. Cronbach’s alphas for the components ranged between 0.69 and 0.84. CONCLUSION: The Interpersonal Geriatric care relationship tool is a valuable measure that can be used by scientists, educators and healthcare professionals to benchmark the interpersonal care relationship culture in hospitals and optimize the quality of care.