Health Care Administration and Organization

Collection of articles on Health Care Administration and Organization is available here.

Providers’ Perspectives on High-Quality Dementia Care in Long-Term Care
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Travers JL, Wittenberg GF, Gifford DR, Reddy A, McLaughlin MM, Baier RR.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. 2022 Sep.
ObjectivesTo understand dementia care providers’ perspectives on high-quality care for persons living with dementia (PLWD) in long-term care (LTC).

The Role of Telemedicine in the Management of the Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: A Systematic Review.
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Nkodo JA, Gana W, Debacq C, Aidoud A, Poupin P, Camus V, et al.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2022 Oct;30(10):1135–50.
The first-line management of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) is based on nonpharmacologic interventions such as the provision of guidance and medical support to caregivers. However, accessibility to specialized care and medical resources is often scarce. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has compromised the delivery of outpatient care (notably in order to minimize the risk of disease transmission), thus making it essential to provide other means of accessing care for these patient populations. The use of telemedicine (TM) may be a means of increasing access to specialist care for patients with disabilities and poor access to health services, such as those with BPSD. The aim of this study is to provide a review of the literature on the use of TM for treatment and follow-up of patients with BPSD and their caregivers. We searched the PUBMED, EMBASE and CINAHL for articles published between January 1st, 2000, and December 31st, 2020, on the applicability of TM support for people with BPSD and their caregivers. We included open-label studies, qualitative studies, and randomized controlled trials . We did not include studies on the use of TM during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 22 publications were included and reviewed. TM was found to 1) be acceptable and feasible for both patients and caregivers, 2) decrease the frequency and intensity of BPSD, and 3) improve the caregiver’s perceived wellbeing and mental health. Videoconferencing was effective for patient-centered interventions in nursing homes. Telephone-based interventions were more relevant when they were targeted at caregivers. The published studies are lacking in scope and high-quality studies are now needed to confirm these findings and assess TM’s cost-effectiveness and ability to improve the management of patients with BPSD. In view of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, remote solutions for assessing and monitoring individuals with BPSD are urgently needed – particularly those living in rural areas and so-called “medical deserts.”

Decision Support Tools in Adult Long-term Care Facilities: Scoping Review.
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Lapp L, Egan K, McCann L, Mackenzie M, Wales A, Maguire R.
J Med Internet Res. 2022 Sep 6;24(9):e39681.
BACKGROUND: Digital innovations are yet to make real impacts in the care home sector despite the considerable potential of digital health approaches to help with continued staff shortages and to improve quality of care. To understand the current landscape of digital innovation in long-term care facilities such as nursing and care homes, it is important to find out which clinical decision support tools are currently used in long-term care facilities, what their purpose is, how they were developed, and what types of data they use. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to analyze studies that evaluated clinical decision support tools in long-term care facilities based on the purpose and intended users of the tools, the evidence base used to develop the tools, how the tools are used and their effectiveness, and the types of data the tools use to contribute to the existing scientific evidence to inform a roadmap for digital innovation, specifically for clinical decision support tools, in long-term care facilities. METHODS: A review of the literature published between January 1, 2010, and July 21, 2021, was conducted, using key search terms in 3 scientific journal databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, and the British Nursing Index. Only studies evaluating clinical decision support tools in long-term care facilities were included in the review. RESULTS: In total, 17 papers were included in the final review. The clinical decision support tools described in these papers were evaluated for medication management, pressure ulcer prevention, dementia management, falls prevention, hospitalization, malnutrition prevention, urinary tract infection, and COVID-19 infection. In general, the included studies show that decision support tools can show improvements in delivery of care and in health outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Although the studies demonstrate the potential of positive impact of clinical decision support tools, there is variability in results, in part because of the diversity of types of decision support tools, users, and contexts as well as limited validation of the tools in use and in part because of the lack of clarity in defining the whole intervention.

The Effect of Nurse Aide Retention on Ohio’s Nursing Home Resident Care Experience Scores: A Facility-Level Analysis.
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Kennedy KA.
J Appl Gerontol. 2022 Sep 6;7334648221124918.
This study examined whether certified nurse aide (CNA) retention was positively related to nursing home (NH) resident care experiences at the organizational-level. The 2017 Ohio Biennial Survey of Long-Term Care Facilities and the 2017 Ohio Nursing Home Resident Satisfaction Survey provided the key variables. Quartiles of CNA retention (0-48%, 49-60%, 61-72%, 73-100%) were created from the analysis sample (N = 667). Regression analyses clustered NHs within counties and controlled for structural characteristics, financial resources, empowered managers, resilience, quality of work-life, resident, and community characteristics. NHs in Quartile 3 of CNA retention had higher environment scores by 1.36 percentage points compared to Quartile 1 (p < .05). NHs in Quartile 4 had lower facility culture scores by 1.31 percentage points than NHs in Quartiles 1-3 (p < .05); this pattern repeated when Quartiles 3 and 4 were compared on other outcomes. Future research should explore NHs with very high CNA retention to improve understanding of the measure.

Adapting the Australian Environmental Assessment Tool-High Care (EAT-HC): Experiences and Practical Implications From Germany, Japan, and Singapore.
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Fahsold A, Brennan S, Doan T, Sun J, Palm R, Verbeek H, et al.
HERD. 2022 Sep 1;19375867221122936.
BACKGROUND: Assessing the built environment in nursing homes is part of several established instruments. Measurements are primarily published in English, so there is a need for cross-cultural adaptation to be able to use them in other countries. This procedure should be carried out alongside translation guidelines to ensure successful adaptation not only for assessments that capture complex constructs, such as the built environment, but also for assessments to be applied in healthcare in general. OBJECTIVE: This article presents different approaches to adopt the Australian Environmental Assessment Tool-High Care (EAT-HC) based on the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for instrument translation. The comparison of these processes should provide implications for further adaptations of the instrument. METHODS: The adaptation processes carried out in Germany, Japan, and Singapore were compared using thematic analysis. Steps taken to achieve linguistic validation and to adopt the tool were analyzed qualitatively in the context of overarching needs for adjustment. RESULTS: Every perspective adapted the WHO guidelines for their respective purposes of applying the EAT-HC. The order of steps varied, but elements to validate the results with the instruments’ creators and to ensure validity were included in all three countries. For items that might be challenging, we detected possible reasons that might help future adaptors manage this process more efficiently. CONCLUSION: The EAT-HC benefits from adaptation alongside the WHO guidelines in terms of enhancing the quality of translation and feasibility of application. Individual supplementary adaptation steps allow the identification of culture-specific needs for application in other countries.

Value assessment of new interventions for Alzheimer’s disease dementia in Japan based on literature review and group interview.
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Igarashi A, Ikeda S.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2022 Sep 1;1–8.
INTRODUCTION: With an increase in the number of patients with Alzheimer’s disease dementia (ADD), new health technologies have been developed to address the problem. We propose an optimal way to assess the disease burden and treatment value of ADD in Japan by considering the characteristics of the disease. AREAS COVERED: We performed literature searches and a group interview with professional care workers to obtain information on the items that would facilitate the assessment of the value of ADD intervention. We determined the items as patient quality of life (QOL), medical costs, caregiver QOL, public long-term care costs, and informal care costs. EXPERT OPINION: There are several limitations to how QOL is measured, particularly for patients with ADD. Public long-term care costs represent a substantial proportion of total costs and should be included in the assessment and decision-making of ADD, even from the payer’s perspective. Following that, a process is required to take informal care costs into account in decision-making, regardless of whether they are included or not in a base-case analysis. The importance of other elements of care burden that cannot be quantitatively measured should also be recognized and reflected in decision-making.

Meanings of troubled conscience in nursing homes: nurses’ lived experience.
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Munkeby H, Bratberg G, Devik SA.
Nurs Ethics. 2022 Aug 29;9697330221117260.
BACKGROUND: Troubled conscience among nurses and other healthcare workers represents a significant contributor to healthcare worker moral distress, burnout and attrition. While research in this area has examined critical care in hospitals, less knowledge has been obtained from long-term care contexts such as nursing homes, despite widely recognised challenges with regard to vulnerable patients, increasing workload and maintaining workforce sustainability among nurses. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to illuminate and interpret the meaning of the lived experience of troubled conscience among registered nurses (RNs) working in nursing homes. RESEARCH DESIGN: This qualitative research employed narrative interviews with eight nurses to obtain essential meanings of their lived experiences of troubled conscience. The interview texts were analysed using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: Participation was voluntary, informed and was conducted with written consent. The Norwegian Centre for Research Data approved the data processing of personal data. FINDINGS: The analysis uncovered two themes: (1) troubled conscience means abandoning ideals, with the subthemes: failing dependent patients; being disloyal to colleagues; being inadequate in the performance of work tasks and (2) troubled conscience means facing realities, with the subthemes: accepting being part of the system; responding to barriers. DISCUSSION: Troubled conscience meant experiencing continuous and simmering tension between one’s ideals and realities and feeling a drive to preserve accountability and one’s moral integrity. Endangered ideals were often under cross-pressure and included humanistic values, professional values, working life values and the values of the organisation. CONCLUSION: Nurses’ troubled conscience refers to a struggle, but also a force that plays out at various levels and arenas in long-term care. Openness and dialogue about how professional values and the welfare state’s intentions can be realised within the given framework are important for individual nurses’ occupational health as well as the quality of care provided to patients.

Therapy-based allied health delivery in residential aged care, trends, factors, and outcomes: a systematic review.
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Meulenbroeks I, Raban MZ, Seaman K, Westbrook J.
BMC Geriatr. 2022 Aug 28;22(1):712.
BACKGROUND: Allied health professionals in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) make important contributions to the physical and mental wellbeing of residents. Yet to date, health services research in RACFs has focused almost exclusively on nursing disciplines. This review aims to synthesise the current evidence on allied health services in RACF; specifically, how therapy-based allied health is delivered, what factors impact the quantity delivered, and the impact of services on resident outcomes and care quality. METHODS: Empirical peer-reviewed and grey literature focusing on allied health service delivery in RACFs from the past decade was identified through systematic searches of four databases and over 200 targeted website searches. Information on how allied health delivered, factors impacting service delivery, and impact on resident outcomes were extracted. The quality of included studies was appraised using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) and the AACODS (Authority, Accuracy, Coverage, Objectivity, Date, Significance) checklist. RESULTS: Twenty-eight unique studies were included in this review; 26 peer-reviewed and two grey literature studies. Sixteen studies discussed occupational therapy and 15 discussed physiotherapy, less commonly studied professional groups included dieticians (n = 9), allied health assistants (n = 9), and social workers (n = 6). Thirteen studies were assigned a 100% quality rating. Levels of allied health service provision were generally low and varied. Five studies examined the association between system level factors and allied health service provision, and seven studies examined facility level factors and service provision. Higher levels of allied health provision or access to allied health services, specifically physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and nutrition, were associated with reduced falls with injury, improved care quality, activities of daily living scores, nutritional status, and meal satisfaction in five studies. CONCLUSION: Evidence on how allied health is delivered in RACFs, and its impact on resident health outcomes, is lacking globally. While there are some indications of positive associations between allied health staffing and resident outcomes and experiences, health systems and researchers will need commitment to consistent allied health data collection and health services research funding in the future to accurately determine how allied health is delivered in RACFs and its impact on resident wellbeing.

Assessing Technical Feasibility and Acceptability of Telehealth Palliative Care in Nursing Homes.
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Stephens CE, Allison TA, Flint LA, David D, Wertz V, Halifax E, et al.
Palliat Med Rep. 2022;3(1):181–5.
BACKGROUND: Over two-thirds of nursing home (NH) residents are eligible for palliative care (PC), yet few receive it, particularly outside of hospice. Little is known about the technical feasibility and acceptability of using telehealth for PC consultations in NHs. OBJECTIVE: To determine the technical feasibility and acceptability of PC telehealth for NH residents seen by a PC team in the hospital in the previous 30 days. DESIGN: Mixed methods study including data collection from field observations, focus groups about the telehealth experience with content analysis, and a web-based survey about technical feasibility and acceptability. SAMPLE AND APPROACH: Eighteen participants (six PC-eligible NH residents, one PC physician, five family members, six NH nurses) were recruited in 2016 to participate in one of six PC video visits followed by a video-based focus group and web-based survey. RESULTS: All participants were comfortable with the PC video visit format, believed it could improve communication and care coordination, and reported they could see themselves using telehealth in the near future. For technical feasibility, audio quality was rated mostly good/very good (71%) and visual quality was rated fair (50%). CONCLUSIONS: PC video visits are technically feasible and acceptable to NH residents, families, and staff, representing an innovative and relatively low-cost opportunity to improve access to needed NH-based PC services. Assessing stakeholder perspectives on the use of this technology can help inform the selection of the proper telehealth platform to meet the clinical and infrastructure needs, as well as protocol modifications required before testing in a larger trial.

Nursing Homes: Affiliation to Large Chains, Quality and Public-Private Collaboration.
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Aguiar-Díaz I, Ruiz-Mallorquí MV, González-López Valcarcel B.
Healthcare (Basel). 2022 Jul 30;10(8).
The objective of this paper was to estimate the influence of being affiliated with an NH chain on perceived consumer quality, and whether this relationship is affected by maintaining a collaboration agreement with public administrations. We used a combination of theoretical foundations: (1) From the consumer perspective, we focussed on online reviews of the quality of nursing homes (NHs); (2) from the industrial organisation literature, we proposed arguments regarding the advantages and disadvantages of belonging to a chain; (3) the theory of transaction costs was used to explain public-private collaboration. The study was carried out on a sample of 642 chain-affiliated Spanish NHs, with data from quality scores downloaded from the website We distinguished between the six largest chains and the rest. We applied linear regression models. The results show that NHs affiliated with one of the largest NH chains obtained worse quality scores in the assessment made by users, although quality scores improved for the largest chains of NHs involved in an agreement with the public administration.