Organizational Culture and Change

Collection of articles on Organizational Culture and Change is available here.

It’s all about the money”: an interpretive description of embedding physical therapy-led falls prevention group exercise in long-term care.
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Binns E, Bright F, Parsons J, Peri K, Taylor L, Kerse N, et al.
BMC Geriatr. 2023 Jan 11;23(1):14.
BACKGROUND: Falls prevention interventions are effective for community dwelling older adults however, the same cannot be said for older adults living in long-term care (LTC). The Staying UpRight (SUp) randomized controlled trial was designed to test the effectiveness of a progressive strength and balance group exercise program delivered to LTC residents. This paper explores the factors impacting LTC providers’ decisions to continue the program on completion of the funded trial period. METHODS: A qualitative study using an Interpretive Description approach. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with 15 LTC staff involved in the randomized controlled trial. Data were analysed using conventional content analysis. RESULTS: Practice change occurred following participation in the trial with some facilities starting exercise groups, some increasing the number of exercise groups offered and physical therapists selecting elements of the program to adopt into their practice. Decisions about continuing with SUp as designed were constrained by organizational decisions regarding funding and resources. Three factors were identified which informed decision-making: business models and philosophies, requirements for evidence, and valuing physical therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Managers and facilitators adapted SUp by selecting and delivering components of the program in response to the changes they had observed in participating residents. However, our findings highlight that while SUp was valued, the tight financial environment created by the current funding model in New Zealand did not support funding physical therapist delivered falls prevention exercise programs in LTC. This study may provide policy makers with important information on changes needed to support falls prevention service delivery in LTC. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is a sub-study of a randomized controlled trial which was registered to the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12618001827224 on 09/11/2018. Universal trial number U1111-1217-7148.

Adopting an electronic medication administration system in long-term care facilities: a key stakeholder interview study in Macao.
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Lei KC, Loi CI, Cen Z, Li J, Liang Z, Hu H, et al.
Inform Health Soc Care. 2023 Jan 17;1–15.
To improve medication safety for residents in long-term care facilities (LTCFs), electronic medication administration records (eMARs) are widely adopted in Macao. This study aimed to (1) develop a logic model for adopting eMAR in LTCFs and (2) explore the contextual factors relevant to the implementation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key stakeholders (managers, doctors, nurses, pharmacy staff and other frontline workers) experienced with eMAR in LTCFs in Macao between February and March 2021. Purposive sampling was used for recruitment and thematic analysis followed the theoretical framework of the logic model. All 57 participants were positive about eMAR. Financial and nonfinancial resources were critical to adopting eMAR. eMAR was mostly used for its functions in documentation, e-prescribing and monitoring. Immediate output included simplified working process, reduced errors, closer monitoring of residents’ conditions, and timely communication among staff. The outcomes mainly related to efficiency, safety and quality of care, workload redundancy, and data unification. Key influencing factors included eMAR flexibility, stability, and technical support. Adopting eMARs is highly consuming and the benefits in improving quality of care can only be realized with appropriate implementation, precise execution, regular evaluation and responsive adjustment. The proposed logic model framework serves as a roadmap for LTCFs, both current and future users of eMAR.

Drug-drug interactions in nursing home residents: analysis from the COME-ON trial.
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Lion S, Evrard P, Foulon V, Spinewine A.
Age Ageing. 2023 Jan 8;52(1):afac278.
BACKGROUND: as a result of the high prevalence of polypharmacy in nursing homes (NHs), nursing home residents (NHRs) are exposed to numerous drug-drug interactions (DDIs) that can lead to adverse drug effects, and increased morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: to evaluate (i) the prevalence of DDIs among NHRs and its evolution over time, and (ii) factors associated with a favourable evolution. DESIGN: posthoc analysis of the COME-ON study, a cluster-randomised controlled trial aiming at reducing potentially inappropriate prescriptions in NHs, through the implementation of a complex intervention. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: 901 NHRs from 54 Belgian NHs. METHODS: DDIs were identified using a validated list of 66 potentially clinically relevant DDIs in older adults. We defined a favourable evolution at 15 months as the resolution of at least one DDI present at baseline, without the introduction of any new DDI. Factors associated with a favourable evolution were analysed using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: at baseline, 475 NHRs (52.7%) were exposed to at least 1 DDI and 225 NHRs (25.0%) to more than one DDI. Most common DDI was ‘Concomitant use of at least three central nervous system active drugs’. At 15 months, we observed a 6.3% absolute decrease in DDI prevalence in intervention group, and a 1.0% absolute increase in control group. The intervention, older age and private NH ownership were significantly associated with a favourable DDI evolution. CONCLUSION: a high prevalence of DDI in Belgian NHs was observed, but the COME-ON intervention was associated with a favourable evolution over time.

Sustainment of diverse evidence-informed practices disseminated in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA): initial development and piloting of a pragmatic survey tool.
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Reardon CM, Damschroder L, Opra Widerquist MA, Arasim M, Jackson GL, White B, et al.
Implement Sci Commun. 2023 Jan 16;4(1):6.
BACKGROUND: There are challenges associated with measuring sustainment of evidence-informed practices (EIPs). First, the terms sustainability and sustainment are often falsely conflated: sustainability assesses the likelihood of an EIP being in use in the future while sustainment assesses the extent to which an EIP is (or is not) in use. Second, grant funding often ends before sustainment can be assessed. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Diffusion of Excellence (DoE) program is one of few large-scale models of diffusion; it seeks to identify and disseminate practices across the VHA system. The DoE sponsors “Shark Tank” competitions, in which leaders bid on the opportunity to implement a practice with approximately 6 months of implementation support. As part of an ongoing evaluation of the DoE, we sought to develop and pilot a pragmatic survey tool to assess sustainment of DoE practices. METHODS: In June 2020, surveys were sent to 64 facilities that were part of the DoE evaluation. We began analysis by comparing alignment of quantitative and qualitative responses; some facility representatives reported in the open-text box of the survey that their practice was on a temporary hold due to COVID-19 but answered the primary outcome question differently. As a result, the team reclassified the primary outcome of these facilities to Sustained: Temporary COVID-Hold. Following this reclassification, the number and percent of facilities in each category was calculated. We used directed content analysis, guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), to analyze open-text box responses. RESULTS: A representative from forty-one facilities (64%) completed the survey. Among responding facilities, 29/41 sustained their practice, 1/41 partially sustained their practice, 8/41 had not sustained their practice, and 3/41 had never implemented their practice. Sustainment rates increased between Cohorts 1-4. CONCLUSIONS: The initial development and piloting of our pragmatic survey allowed us to assess sustainment of DoE practices. Planned updates to the survey will enable flexibility in assessing sustainment and its determinants at any phase after adoption. This assessment approach can flex with the longitudinal and dynamic nature of sustainment, including capturing nuances in outcomes when practices are on a temporary hold. If additional piloting illustrates the survey is useful, we plan to assess the reliability and validity of this measure for broader use in the field.