Organizational Culture and Change

Collection of articles on Organizational Culture and Change is available here.

Exploring the Relationship Between Organizational Culture Types and Knowledge Management Processes: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis.
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Aichouche R, Chergui K, Brika SKM, El Mezher M, Musa A, Laamari A.
Frontiers in psychology. 2022;13:856234.
This study investigated the relationship between organizational culture types according to Competing Values Framework (Clan, Adhocracy, Market, Hierarchy) and Knowledge Management Processes (Creation, Dissemination, Storage, Application) using meta-analytic path analysis. To produce the necessary pooled correlation matrix for model testing, we used the univariate (r) approach to carry out two additional meta-analyzes. Based on data collected from several research databases, we extracted the paired correlation coefficients (r) among knowledge management processes (k = 32, N = 6835) then the inter-correlations between knowledge management processes and culture types (k = 7, N = 865). The findings revealed that no particular culture type has a stronger effect on all KM processes. Clan, Adhocracy and Market have significant but varying effects on Knowledge Management processes. Notably, the clan is more associated with knowledge creation, while Adhocracy has a greater effect on knowledge application, and market has a stronger effect on knowledge dissemination and storage. However, hierarchical culture has an insignificant effect on knowledge creation and the lowest effects on the rest of Knowledge Management processes. Therefore, the study concluded that knowledge management success is determined by developing a balanced portfolio of cultural traits from clan, adhocracy and market cultures.

Implementation and modification of an organizational-level intervention: a prospective analysis.
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Gordon EJ, Uriarte JJ, Anderson N, Romo E, Caicedo JC, Shumate M.
Implementation science communications. 2022 Jun;3(1):59.
BACKGROUND: Modifications to interventions can jeopardize intervention outcomes. Pre-existing perceived barriers and facilitators to the intervention arising in the implementation preparation phase may help explain why modifications to the intervention may occur during the implementation phase. This two-site comparative case study describes modifications made to a complex organizational-level intervention and examines how known implementation science factors may have enabled such changes to occur. METHODS: Northwestern Medicine’s(TM) Hispanic Kidney Transplant Program (HKTP) is a culturally competent transplant center-based intervention designed to reduce disparities in living donor kidney transplantation among Hispanics. In-depth qualitative interviews and discussions were longitudinally conducted with transplant stakeholders (i.e., physicians, administrators, clinicians) at two kidney transplant programs with large Hispanic populations during implementation preparation and implementation phases. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) guided interview design and qualitative analysis, and Stirman’s Framework for Reporting Adaptations and Modifications-Expanded (FRAME) guided modification classification. RESULTS: Across sites, 57 stakeholders participated in an interview, group discussion, and/or learning collaborative discussion. Site-B made more modifications than Site-A (n = 29 versus n = 18). Sites differed in the proportions of delaying/skipping (Site-A 50% versus Site-B 28%) and adding (Site-A 11% versus Site-B 28%) but had comparable substituting (Site-A 17% versus Site-B 17%) and tweaking (Site-A 17% versus Site-B 14%) modification types. Across sites, the transplant team consistently initiated the most modifications (Site-A 66%; Site-B 62%). While individuals initiated slightly more modifications at Site-B (21% versus Site-A 17%), institutions instigated proportionately slightly more modifications at Site-A (17% versus Site-B 10%). CFIR inner setting factors (i.e., structural characteristics, culture, available resources, implementation climate) that prominently emerged during the implementation preparation phase explained similarities and differences in sites’ modification numbers, types, and agents in the implementation phase. CONCLUSION: Organizations implementing a culturally competent care intervention made modifications. CFIR inner setting factors emerging in the implementation preparation phase largely explained similarities and differences in study sites’ modifications. Identifying factors contributing to modifications may help institutions become better prepared to implement an intervention by addressing known factors in advance, which may foster greater fidelity leading to desired outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03276390 . We registered the study retrospectively on 9-7-17.

Delivering person-centred palliative care in long-term care settings: is humanism a quality of health-care employees or their organisations?
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Hunter PV, McCleary L, Qiao T, Sussman T, Venturato L, Thompson G, et al.
Ageing and Society. 2022/06/09 ed. 2022;1–18.
Reflecting on sustained calls for patient-centredness and culture change in long-term care, we evaluated the relative importance of personal and organisational predictors of palliative care, hypothesising the former as weaker predictors than the latter. Health-care employees (N = 184) from four Canadian long-term care homes completed a survey of person-centred care, self-efficacy, employee wellbeing and occupational characteristics. Using backward stepwise regression models, we examined the relative contributions of these variables to person-centred palliative care. Specifically, blocks of variables representing personal, organisational and occupational characteristics; palliative care self-efficacy; and employee wellbeing were simultaneously regressed on variables representing aspects of person-centred care. The change in R2 associated with the removal of each block was examined to determine each block’s overall contribution to the model. We found that occupational characteristics (involvement in care planning), employee wellbeing (compassion satisfaction) and self-efficacy were reliably associated with person-centred palliative care (p < 0.05). Facility size was not associated, and facility profit status was less consistently associated. Demographic characteristics (gender, work experience, education level) and some aspects of employee wellbeing (burnout, secondary trauma) were also not reliably associated. Overall, these results raise the possibility that humanistic care is less related to intrinsic characteristics of employees, and more related to workplace factors, or to personal qualities that can be cultivated in the workplace, including meaningful role engagement, compassion and self-efficacy.

The impact of organizational culture and leadership climate on organizational attractiveness and innovative behavior: a study of Norwegian hospital employees.
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Mutonyi BR, Slåtten T, Lien G, González-Piñero M.
BMC health services research. 2022 May;22(1):637.
BACKGROUND: In the domain of health services, little research has focused on how organizational culture, specifically internal market-oriented cultures (IMOCs), are associated with organizational climate resources, support for autonomy (SA), and whether and how IMOCs and SA are either individually or in combination related to employee perceptions of the attractiveness of the organization and their level of innovative behavior. These knowledge gaps in previous research motivated this study. METHODS: A conceptual model was tested on a sample (N = 1008) of hospital employees. Partial least-squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was employed to test the conceptual models, using the SmartPLS 3 software. To test the mediator effect, a bootstrapping test was used to determine whether the direct and indirect effects were statistically significant, and when combining two tests, to determine the type of mediator effect. RESULTS: The results can be summarized as four key findings: i) organizational culture (referring to an IMOC) was positively and directly related to SA (β = 0.87) and organizational attractiveness (β = 0.45); ii) SA was positively and directly related to both organizational attractiveness (β = 0.22) and employee individual innovative behavior (β = 0.37); iii) The relationships between an IMOC, SA, and employee innovative behavior were all mediated through organizational attractiveness; and iv) SA mediated the relationship between the IMOC and organizational attractiveness as well as that between the IMOC and employee innovative behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Organizational culture, IMOC, organizational climate resources, and SA were highly correlated and necessary drivers of employee perceptions of organizational attractiveness and their innovative behavior. Managers of hospitals should consider IMOC and SA as two organizational resources that are potentially manageable and controllable. Consequently, managers should actively invest in these resources. Such investments will lead to resource capitalization that will improve both employee perceptions of organizational attractiveness as well as their innovative behavior.

Implementing “from here to there”: A case study of conceptual and practical challenges in implementation science.
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Reidpath DD, Allotey P, Barker SF, Clasen T, French M, Leder K, et al.
Social science & medicine (1982). 2022 May;301:114959.
There is a significant challenge in global health and development research that pivots on the difficulties of delivering (cost-)effective treatments or interventions that are scalable andtransferable across settings. That is, how does one deliver “true effects”, proven treatments, into new settings? This is often addressed in pragmatic trials or implementation research in which one makes adjustments to the delivery of the treatment to ensure that it works here and there. In this critical analytical review, we argue that the approach mis-characterises the cause-effect relationship and fails to recognise the local, highly contextual nature of what it means to say an intervention “works”. We use an ongoing randomised controlled trial (RCT)-an informal settlement redevelopment intervention in Indonesia and Fiji to reduce human exposure to pathogenic faecal contamination-as a vehicle for exploring the ideas and implications of identifying interventions that work in global health and development. We describe the highly contextualised features of the research and the challenges these would pose in attempts to generalise the results. In other words, we detail that which is frequently elided from most RCTs. As our critical lens, we us the work of American philosopher, Nancy Cartwright, who argued that research produces dappled regions of causal insights-lacunae against a backdrop of causal ignorance. Rather than learn about a relationship between a treatment and an outcome, we learn that in the right sort of context, a treatment reliably produces a particular outcome. Moving a treatment from here to there becomes, therefore, something of an engineering exercise to ensure the right factors (or “shields”) are in place so the cause-effect is manifest. As a consequence, one cannot assume that comparative effectiveness or cost-effectiveness would be maintained.

Linking organizational climate for evidence-based practice implementation to observed clinician behavior in patient encounters: a lagged analysis.
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Williams NJ, Becker-Haimes EM, Schriger SH, Beidas RS.
Implementation science communications. 2022 Jun;3(1):64.
BACKGROUND: Theory and empirical research suggest organizational climate for evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation may be an important and malleable target to improve clinician use of EBPs in healthcare; however, this work has been criticized for overreliance on self-report measures of implementation outcomes and cross-sectional designs. This study combines data from two studies spanning 7 years to test the hypothesis that higher levels of organizational EBP implementation climate prospectively predicts improved clinician adherence to an EBP, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), as rated by expert observers. METHODS: Biennial assessments of EBP implementation climate collected in 10 community mental health agencies in Philadelphia as part of a systemwide evaluation (time 1) were linked to subsequent observer ratings of clinician adherence to CBT in clinical encounters with 108 youth (time 2). Experts rated clinician adherence to CBT using the Therapy Process Observation Coding System which generated two primary outcomes (a) maximum CBT adherence per session (i.e., highest rated CBT intervention per session; depth of delivery) and (b) average CBT adherence per session (i.e., mean rating across all CBT interventions used; depth and breadth of delivery). RESULTS: On average, time 2 clinician adherence observations occurred 19.8 months (SD = 10.15) after time 1 organizational climate assessments. Adjusting for organization, clinician, and client covariates, a one standard deviation increase in organizational EBP implementation climate at time 1 predicted a 0.63-point increase in clinicians’ maximum CBT adherence per session at time 2 (p = 0.000), representing a large effect size (d = 0.93; 95% CI = 0.63-1.24) when comparing organizations in the upper (k = 3) versus lower tertiles (k = 3) of EBP implementation climate. Higher levels of time 1 organizational EBP implementation climate also predicted higher time 2 average CBT adherence per session (b = 0.23, p < 0.001, d = 0.72). Length of time between assessments of climate and adherence did not moderate these relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Organizational EBP implementation climate is a promising predictor of clinicians’ subsequent observed adherence to CBT. Implementation strategies that target this antecedent may improve the delivery of EBPs in healthcare settings.