February 25, 2020



Publications
Events & Training Opportunities
Resources
News

Announcements

Ever wanted to throw your computer out the window because of the Canadian Common CV? Well, use this opportunity to provide feedback on a new grants management system
Tri-Agency Grants Management Solution (TGMS) Initiative

The three federal granting agencies, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC), have embarked on an initiative to modernize their grants management system to better support applicants, administrators and reviewers during the grants management lifecycle. Upon completion, a more harmonized and integrated approach will provide the research community and agency staff with a more efficient and user-friendly experience.

New article by Whitney Berta
What is known about paediatric nurse burnout: a scoping review.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

L. Buckley, W. Berta, K. Cleverley, C. Medeiros and K. Widger.
Hum Resour Health 2020 Feb 11;18(1):9-020-0451-8
Burnout in healthcare providers has impacts at the level of the individual provider, patient, and organization. While there is a substantial body of literature on burnout in healthcare providers, burnout in pediatric nurses has received less attention. This subpopulation may be unique from adult care nurses because of the specialized nature of providing care to children who are typically seen as a vulnerable population, the high potential for empathetic engagement, and the inherent complexities in the relationships with families. Thus, the aim of this scoping review was to investigate, among pediatric nurses, (i) the prevalence and/or degree of burnout, (ii) the factors related to burnout, (iii) the outcomes of burnout, and (iv) the interventions that have been applied to prevent and/or mitigate burnout. This scoping review was performed according to the PRISMA Guidelines Scoping Review Extension. CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ASSIA, and The Cochrane Library were searched on 3 November 2018 to identify relevant quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-method studies on pediatric nurse burnout. Our search identified 78 studies for inclusion in the analysis. Across the included studies, burnout was prevalent in pediatric nurses. A number of factors were identified as impacting burnout including nurse demographics, work environment, and work attitudes. Similarly, a number of outcomes of burnout were identified including nurse retention, nurse well-being, patient safety, and patient-family satisfaction. Unfortunately, there was little evidence of effective interventions to address pediatric nurse burnout. Given the prevalence and impact of burnout on a variety of important outcomes, it is imperative that nursing schools, nursing management, healthcare organizations, and nursing professional associations work to develop and test the interventions to address key attitudinal and environmental factors that are most relevant to pediatric nurses.

 

Back to top of page

Publications

 

KT
Health Care Administration and Organization
Health Care Innovation and Quality Assurance
Organizational Culture and Change
Research Practice and Methodology
Aging

KT

A scoping review of full-spectrum knowledge translation theories, models, and frameworks
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

R. Esmail, H. M. Hanson, J. Holroyd-Leduc, et al.
Implement Sci 2020 Feb 14;15(1):11-020-0964-5
Application of knowledge translation (KT) theories, models, and frameworks (TMFs) is one method for successfully incorporating evidence into clinical care. However, there are multiple KT TMFs and little guidance on which to select. This study sought to identify and describe available full-spectrum KT TMFs to subsequently guide users. METHODS: A scoping review was completed. Articles were identified through searches within electronic databases, previous reviews, grey literature, and consultation with KT experts. Search terms included combinations of KT terms and theory-related terms. Included citations had to describe full-spectrum KT TMFs that had been applied or tested. Titles/abstracts and full-text articles were screened independently by two investigators. Each KT TMF was described by its characteristics including name, context, key components, how it was used, primary target audience, levels of use, and study outcomes. Each KT TMF was also categorized into theoretical approaches as process models, determinant frameworks, classic theories, implementation theories, and evaluation frameworks. Within each category, KT TMFs were compared and contrasted to identify similarities and unique characteristics. RESULTS: Electronic searches yielded 7160 citations. Additional citations were identified from previous reviews (n = 41) and bibliographies of included full-text articles (n = 6). Thirty-six citations describing 36 full-spectrum were identified. In 24 KT TMFs, the primary target audience was multi-level including patients/public, professionals, organizational, and financial/regulatory. The majority of the KT TMFs were used within public health, followed by research (organizational, translation, health), or in multiple contexts. Twenty-six could be used at the individual, organization, or policy levels, five at the individual/organization levels, three at the individual level only, and two at the organizational/policy level. Categorization of the KT TMFs resulted in 18 process models, eight classic theories, three determinant frameworks, three evaluation frameworks, and four that fit more than one category. There were no KT TMFs that fit the implementation theory category. Within each category, similarities and unique characteristics emerged through comparison. CONCLUSIONS: A systematic compilation of existing full-spectrum KT TMFs, categorization into different approaches, and comparison has been provided in a user-friendly way. This list provides options for users to select from when designing KT projects and interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: A protocol outlining the methodology of this scoping review was developed and registered with PROSPERO (CRD42018088564).

Exploring the evolution of engagement between academic public health researchers and decision-makers: from initiation to dissolution.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

N. S. Jessani, A. Valmeekanathan, C. Babcock, B. Ling, M. A. Davey-Rothwell and D. R. Holtgrave.
Health Res Policy Syst 2020 Feb 10;18(1):15-019-0516-0
Relationships between researchers and decision-makers have demonstrated positive potential to influence research, policy and practice. Over time, interest in better understanding the relationships between the two parties has grown as demonstrated by a plethora of studies globally. However, what remains elusive is the evolution of these vital relationships and what can be learned from them with respect to advancing evidence-informed decision-making. We therefore explored the nuances around the initiation, maintenance and dissolution of academic-government relationships. METHODS: We conducted in-depth interviews with 52 faculty at one school of public health and 24 government decision-makers at city, state, federal and global levels. Interviews were transcribed and coded deductively and inductively using Atlas.Ti. Responses across codes and respondents were extracted into an Excel matrix and compared in order to identify key themes. FINDINGS: Eight key drivers to engagement were identified, namely (1) decision-maker research needs, (2) learning, (3) access to resources, (4) student opportunities, (5) capacity strengthening, (6) strategic positioning, (7) institutional conditionalities, and (8) funder conditionalities. There were several elements that enabled initiation of relationships, including the role of faculty members in the decision-making process, individual attributes and reputation, institutional reputation, social capital, and the role of funders. Maintenance of partnerships was dependent on factors such as synergistic collaboration (i.e. both benefit), mutual trust, contractual issues and funding. Dissolution of relationships resulted from champions changing/leaving positions, engagement in transactional relationships, or limited mutual trust and respect. CONCLUSIONS: As universities and government agencies establish relationships and utilise opportunities to share ideas, envision change together, and leverage their collaborations to use evidence to inform decision-making, a new modus operandi becomes possible. Embracing the individual, institutional, networked and systems dynamics of relationships can lead to new practices, alternate approaches and transformative change. Government agencies, schools of public health and higher education institutions more broadly, should pay deliberate attention to identifying and managing the various drivers, enablers and disablers for relationship initiation and resilience in order to promote more evidence-informed decision-making.

Emergence of scaling in complex substitutive systems.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

C. Jin, C. Song, J. Bjelland, G. Canright and D. Wang.
Nat Hum Behav 2019 Aug;3(8):837-846
Diffusion processes are central to human interactions. One common prediction of the current modelling frameworks is that initial spreading dynamics follow exponential growth. Here we find that, for subjects ranging from mobile handsets to automobiles and from smartphone apps to scientific fields, early growth patterns follow a power law with non-integer exponents. We test the hypothesis that mechanisms specific to substitution dynamics may play a role, by analysing unique data tracing 3.6 million individuals substituting different mobile handsets. We uncover three generic ingredients governing substitutions, allowing us to develop a minimal substitution model, which not only explains the power-law growth, but also collapses diverse growth trajectories of individual constituents into a single curve. These results offer a mechanistic understanding of power-law early growth patterns emerging from various domains and demonstrate that substitution dynamics are governed by robust self-organizing principles that go beyond the particulars of individual systems.

Testing a theory of strategic implementation leadership, implementation climate, and clinicians’ use of evidence-based practice: a 5-year panel analysis.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

N. J. Williams, C. B. Wolk, E. M. Becker-Haimes and R. S. Beidas.
Implement Sci 2020 Feb 7;15(1):10-020-0970-7
Implementation theory suggests that first-level leaders, sometimes referred to as middle managers, can increase clinicians’ use of evidence-based practice (EBP) in healthcare settings by enacting specific leadership behaviors (i.e., proactive, knowledgeable, supportive, perseverant with regard to implementation) that develop an EBP implementation climate within the organization; however, longitudinal and quasi-experimental studies are needed to test this hypothesis. METHODS: Using data collected at three waves over a 5-year period from a panel of 30 outpatient children’s mental health clinics employing 496 clinicians, we conducted a quasi-experimental difference-in-differences study to test whether within-organization change in implementation leadership predicted within-organization change in EBP implementation climate, and whether change in EBP implementation climate predicted within-organization change in clinicians’ use of EBP. At each wave, clinicians reported on their first-level leaders’ implementation leadership, their organization’s EBP implementation climate, and their use of both EBP and non-EBP psychotherapy techniques for childhood psychiatric disorders. Hypotheses were tested using econometric two-way fixed effects regression models at the organization level which controlled for all stable organizational characteristics, population trends in the outcomes over time, and time-varying covariates. RESULTS: Organizations that improved from low to high levels of implementation leadership experienced significantly greater increases in their level of EBP implementation climate (d = .92, p = .017) and within-organization increases in implementation leadership accounted for 11% of the variance in improvement in EBP implementation climate beyond all other covariates. In turn, organizations that improved from low to high levels of EBP implementation climate experienced significantly greater increases in their clinicians’ average EBP use (d = .55, p = .007) and within-organization improvement in EBP implementation climate accounted for 14% of the variance in increased clinician EBP use. Mediation analyses indicated that improvement in implementation leadership had a significant indirect effect on clinicians’ EBP use via improvement in EBP implementation climate (d = .26, 95% CI [.02 to .59]). CONCLUSIONS: When first-level leaders increase their frequency of implementation leadership behaviors, organizational EBP implementation climate improves, which in turn contributes to increased EBP use by clinicians. Trials are needed to test strategies that target this implementation leadership-EBP implementation climate mechanism.

 

Back to top of page       Back to top of publications

Health Care Administration and Organization

The impact of street clothes among caregivers on residents with dementia in special care units: the STRECLO study.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

N. Bailly, S. Sanchez, C. Ferrand, G. Souesme, C. Giraudeau and O. Agli.
J Clin Nurs 2020 Feb 11
This study aimed to examine the impact of caregivers’ street clothes on people living in special care units (SCUs). We hypothesized that caregivers wearing street clothes would improve residents’ relationships with other residents and caregivers, and as a consequence would improve their quality of life. BACKGROUND: Environmental factors have been recognized as important elements in the care of people with dementia. Among these factors, the importance of the caregivers’ appearance and more particularly their street clothes has been raised. DESIGN: The Street Clothes study (STRECLO) was designed as a multicenter crossover observational study. METHOD: This study was conducted in two volunteer nursing homes. It involved videotaping residents (N=24) over a 6-month period: caregivers wore uniform and then street clothes for two consecutive three-month periods. Three outcome measures were observed: 1) behaviors of residents, 2) contents of conversations and 3) proximal interactions between residents and caregivers. The STROBE checklist was used to ensure quality reporting during this observational study. RESULTS: When caregivers wore street clothes, we observed: 1) greater solicitation and less anxiety in residents, 2) content of conversations between residents and caregivers included more personal and less health information, and 3) more proximal interaction between caregivers and residents. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study which investigated the long-term effects on residents of SCU caregivers wearing street clothes. Our study demonstrated the potential benefit of not wearing uniform on the quality of life of institutionalized people with dementia. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Given the budgetary constraints faced by nursing homes, wearing street clothes for caregivers could be readily applied to clinical practice and represents a promising way to increase the quality of life of dementia residents and their families.

Cameras on beds: The ethics of surveillance in nursing home rooms.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

C. Berridge, J. Halpern and K. Levy.
AJOB Empir Bioeth 2019 Jan-Mar;10(1):55-62
Surveillance cameras are increasingly being deployed in nursing homes and assisted living facilities, with insufficient attention to what is ethically fraught about this way of assuaging concerns about abuse and other personnel challenges. With seven state laws now regulating camera monitoring and more on the way, it is urgent for us to consider the ethical implications of how we use technology to keep older adults safe. Drawing on findings from the first facility survey on this topic, we address three ethical issues: the risk that in-room cameras pose to residents’ privacy and dignity, the risk of undermining care workers’ sense of being fiduciaries for residents, and the probable extension of camera use by facilities to monitor staff and residents. We argue that with an aging population, intensifying strain on the care workforce, and ease of access to Web-connected cameras, this is a critical moment to address these ethical challenges.

Nursing staff needs in providing palliative care for people with dementia at home or in long-term care facilities: A scoping review.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

S. R. Bolt, J. T. van der Steen, J. M. G. A. Schols, S. M. G. Zwakhalen, S. Pieters and J. M. M. Meijers.
Int J Nurs Stud 2019 Aug;96:143-152
Nursing staff caring for people with dementia have a crucial role in addressing palliative care needs and identifying changes in health status. Palliative care for people with dementia is complex and requires specific competences. A lack thereof may lead to unnecessary hospitalizations, poor symptom control and undesirable burdensome treatments. Understanding what nursing staff need to provide palliative care specifically for people with dementia facilitates the development of tailored and feasible interventions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate what is known from the literature regarding the needs in providing palliative dementia care as perceived by nursing staff working in home care or in long-term care facilities and to establish an integrated conceptualization of these needs. DESIGN: A scoping review method combined with thematic analysis methods. DATA SOURCES: Bibliographic databases of PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO were searched for primary research studies. REVIEW METHODS: Guidelines from the Joanna Briggs Institute were utilized as a framework for setting up and conducting the scoping review. Eligible articles considered nursing staff’s perceived needs in providing palliative dementia care at home or in long-term care facilities. Two authors assessed eligibility based on title and abstract, assessed full texts for selected records and assessed the quality of included articles. Thematic analysis methods were used to identify themes from relevant study findings, which were integrated to form a conceptualization. RESULTS: Of the 15 articles that were included, most used qualitative methods (N = 13) and were conducted in long-term care facilities (N = 14). Themes reflecting nursing staff needs on a direct care-level concern recognizing and addressing palliative care needs (such as comfort), verbal and non-verbal communication, challenging behaviour and familiarity: knowing and understanding the person with dementia. On more distant levels, themes involve a need for interdisciplinary collaboration, training and education and organizational support. CONCLUSION: A comprehensive overview of nursing staff perspectives on providing palliative care for people with dementia demonstrates interdependent needs related to recognizing and addressing palliative care needs, communicating, handling challenging behaviour and building close care relationships. These care-related needs occur within workplace and organizational contexts. Organizational support is considered insufficient. Yet, healthcare organizations have the authority to fulfil a facilitating role in implementing nursing interventions tailored to nursing staff needs. Areas for further research include home care settings, the psychosocial and spiritual domains of palliative dementia care, advance care planning and family involvement.

Effects of a practical training programme on burnout among professional caregivers in a care home for older adults with dementia: a pilot study.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

M. A. Briones-Peralta, I. Pardo-Garcia and F. Escribano-Sotos.
Psychogeriatrics 2020 Feb 7
As the number of persons with dementia has increased so has the need for both specialized care and long-term care centres. Professional caregivers working in these centres encounter specific problems, including stress, burnout, and feelings of dissatisfaction, each which can affect the quality of care. Due to the nature of their work, they are more likely to experience stress, which may lead to burnout syndrome. Therefore, the aim of this work was to assess the results of a practical training programme with regard to burnout among direct care professionals in a nursing home for people with dementia. METHODS: A practical training programme was conducted for caregivers at the Sagrado Corazon de Jesus Nursing Home in Cuenca, Spain. The programme used a dynamic, interactive methodology to provide training related to concepts and strategies for dementia care. Weekly 2-h sessions were held over 9 months, from April 2016 to January 2017, with the post-test administered in February. Pretest and post-test measures were taken for a sample of 36 caregivers. An anova was used to analyze the differences in means before and after training. An ancova was also performed to determine the effects of the intervention. RESULTS: The results revealed a significant difference between pre- and post-intervention emotional exhaustion and depersonalization scores. Personal accomplishment scores improved, but the changes were not significant. CONCLUSION: A practical training programme for direct care professionals working with dementia patients can decrease burnout levels.

Innovative care models across settings: Providing nursing care to older adults.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

P. Z. Cacchione.
Geriatr Nurs 2020 Feb 4
The aging demographic shift occurring world-wide is creating an opportunity for innovative care models to address the burgeoning care needs of the expanding population of older adults. Nursing and advanced practice nursing as well as interprofessional models past and present hold insights into how to meet the needs of older adults across the continuum of care. A review of past and present models of care is provided. These models across settings emphasize maximizing the role of nurses and advanced practice nurses. The models reviewed include: On LOK and Programs of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE); Community Aging in Place, Advancing Better Living for Elders (CAPABLE); Teaching Nursing Homes; Interventions to Reduce Acute Care Transfers (INTERACT); Missouri Quality Initiative (MOQI); Evercare/Optum; Nurses Improving Care for Health System Elders (NICHE); Acute Care for the Elderly Unit (ACE Unit); Hospital Elder Life Program (HELP); Age-Friendly Health Systems; and the Transitional Care Model. Each model emphasizes education on the special needs of older adults, providing easy access to evidence-based tools and interventions, as well as strong interprofessional collaboration. Sustainable evidence-based nursing and interprofessional innovations are present across health care settings from the community, long-term care and the acute care setting to address the complex needs of older adults.

Alternative staffing structures in a clustered domestic model of residential aged care in Australia.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

S. L. Harrison, S. M. Dyer, R. Milte, E. Liu, E. S. Gnanamanickam and M. Crotty.
Australas J Ageing 2019 Sep;38 Suppl 2:68-74
A clustered domestic model of residential aged care has been associated with better consumer-rated quality of care. Our objective was to examine differences in staffing structures between clustered domestic and standard models. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 541 individuals living in 17 Australian not-for-profit residential aged care homes. RESULTS: Four of the homes offered dementia-specific clustered domestic models of care with higher personal care attendant (PCA) hours-per-resident-per-day (mean [SD] 2.43 [0.29] vs. 1.74 [0.46], P < 0.001), slightly higher direct care hours-per-resident-per-day (2.66 [0.35] vs. 2.58 [0.44], P = 0.006), higher staff training costs ($1492 [258] vs. $989 [928], P < 0.001) and lower registered/enrolled nurse hours-per-resident-per-day (0.23 [0.10] vs. 0.85 [0.17], P < 0.001) compared to standard models. CONCLUSIONS: An Australian clustered domestic model of care had higher PCA hours, more staff training and more direct care time compared to standard models. Further research to determine optimal staffing structures within alternative models of care is warranted
.

Toward a conceptual framework for the interdisciplinary function-focused care in nursing homes.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

M. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, M. S. Park, E. H. Jeong and S. O. Chang.
Jpn J Nurs Sci 2020 Feb 18:e12330
To develop a conceptual framework to structure the shared roles and tasks of interdisciplinary teams for efficient function-focused care of nursing home (NH) residents. METHODS: A qualitative study using focus groups. Two focus group interviews were conducted on NH practitioners and professors. Focus group 1 consisted of six practitioners with more than 5 years of practical experience in NHs. Focus group 2 consisted of six professors with more than 5 years of educational experience in geriatrics or gerontology and who are capable of adopting theoretical approaches to older adults’ functions. RESULTS: The post-acute care-rehabilitation quality framework furnished the underlying structure for the focus group interview questionnaire to develop the shared interdisciplinary function-focused care framework. The focus of the framework is how resident care processes should be based on individuality of the residents and include holistic continuous assessments, integration of care, and professional interventions by each discipline. An interdisciplinary process involves setting shared goals, communicating and coordinating roles and tasks of interdisciplinary teams, and providing complementary care. Shared final outcomes are defined as improving residents’ independence and quality of life and reducing hospital transfer and admission rates. CONCLUSION: In this study, we have developed the first conceptual framework of interdisciplinary function-focused care in NHs, which will provide an evidence-based foundation for integrated and continuous function-focused care for NH residents. The results of this study will contribute to efficient communication among the interdisciplinary teams and improvement of the outcomes of function-focused care subjects.

Characteristics of Nursing Home Providers With Distinct Patterns of Physical and Occupational Therapy Staffing.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

I. Livingstone, J. Hefele and N. Leland.
J Appl Gerontol 2020 Feb 6:733464820903902
Previous work found a substantial growth in therapy staffing among nursing home providers following the introduction of Medicare’s Prospective Payment System (PPS). Since the PPS, however, several new Medicare policies have been implemented that may impact the provision of rehabilitative care in nursing homes. In view of the rising focus on patient outcomes and provider performance, it is worthwhile to explore more recent therapy staffing patterns following the introduction of these Medicare programs. While our results show stable staffing levels through prior policy changes, upcoming Medicare payment changes will likely have a stronger impact that may result in reduced therapy staffing. In addition, given that our findings show that staffing patterns vary across provider type, we may see greater variation as a result of the upcoming changes. Thus, therapy staffing should continue to be monitored and deeper explorations into the impact of staffing changes on patient outcomes should be undertaken.

Video feedback: A novel application to enhance person-centred dementia communication.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

D. J. O’Rourke, M. M. Lobchuk, G. N. Thompson and C. Lengyel.
Int J Nurs Pract 2020 Feb 19:e12820
A discussion of the use of video feedback as an effective and feasible method to promote person-centred communication approaches within dementia care and long-term care. BACKGROUND: Effective strategies to integrate person-centred approaches into health care settings have attracted global attention and research in the past two decades. Video feedback has emerged as technique to enhance reflective learning and person-centred practice change in some care settings; however, it has not been tested in the context of person-centred dementia communication in long-term care. DESIGN: Discussion paper. DATA SOURCES: Articles dating from 1995 to 2018 retrieved via searches of the SCOPUS, CINAHL, MEDLINE and Cochrane Systematic Review databases. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: Inclusion of video feedback in a person-centred dementia communication intervention for nurses and other health care providers may effectively fill a gap evident in the literature. This intervention can offer feedback of enhanced quality and enduring impact on behaviour change relative to traditional training. CONCLUSION: A critical review of empirical and theoretical evidence supports video feedback as a potential means to enhance person-centred communication within the context of dementia and long-term care. The promising benefits of video feedback present a novel research opportunity to pilot its use to enhance person-centred communication between nurses/health care providers and persons with dementia in long-term care.

Establishing Effective Resident and Family Councils: A Pilot Project to Increase Family and Resident Engagement in Alberta’s Continuing Care Sites.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

J. Parmar, J. A. Babiuk, K. Classen, J. Hurst, A. Haq and L. R. Sacrey.
Healthc Q 2019 Jul;22(2):47-52
Resident and family councils aim to improve resident and family satisfaction, but guidelines for councils are scarce. This project developed a toolkit and tested its ability, along with networking meetings, to promote successful councils. Nine continuing care sites participated with residents, family and staff from each site who received the toolkit, completed surveys, attended meetings and participated in post-pilot interviews. Participants found that the toolkit helped improve council function and, with the networking meetings, increased participation. All sites found the toolkit and networking meetings to be valuable resources and had a strong desire to have them available in the future.

How Often, Where, and by Which Specialty Do Long-Term Care Home Residents Receive Specialist Physician Care? A Retrospective Cohort Study.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

N. S. Shaver, J. Lapenskie, G. A. Smith, A. T. Hsu, C. Liddy and P. Tanuseputro.
J Appl Gerontol 2020 Feb 6:733464819901255
This retrospective cohort study describes the rates, location, and determinants of specialist physician visits among 257,216 long-term care (LTC) residents across 648 LTC homes in Ontario, Canada, between 2007 and 2016. Visit rates in the last year of life were calculated for a sub-cohort of residents who died in LTC between 2013 and 2016. Visits were measured per resident-year using physician billings. Over 10 years, the rate of visits to specialists outside the LTC home was consistently higher than within LTC (2.99 vs. 1.55 visits/resident-year). Residents were less likely to receive specialist care if they were older, had dementia, or lived in urban LTC homes. From 12 months before death to the last week of life, rates of specialist visits increased by 246% and 56% inside and outside of LTC, respectively. Improving access to physician specialist care in LTC homes may reduce burdensome transitions and improve resident quality of life.

Electronic patient records as a tool to facilitate care provision in nursing homes: an integrative review.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

K. Shiells, I. Holmerova, M. Steffl and O. Stepankova.
Inform Health Soc Care 2019 Sep;44(3):262-277
The electronic patient record (EPR) has been introduced into nursing homes with the aim of reducing time spent on documentation, improving documentation quality and increasing transferability of information, all of which should facilitate care provision. However, previous research has shown that EPR may be creating new burdens for staff. The purpose of this literature review is to explore how EPR is facilitating or hindering care provision in nursing homes. Methods: An integrative literature review was carried out using four electronic databases to search for relevant articles. After screening, 22 articles were included for thematic synthesis. Results: Thematic synthesis resulted in six analytical themes linked to care provision: time for direct care; accountability; assessment and care planning; exchange of information; risk awareness; and person-centered care. Conclusion: For EPR to facilitate care provision in nursing homes, consideration should be given to the type of device used for documentation, as well as the types of applications, the functionality, content, and structure of EPR. Further research exploring the experiences of end users is required to identify the optimal characteristics of an EPR system specifically for use in nursing homes.

Back to top of page       Back to top of publications

Health Care Innovation and Quality Assurance

Opportunities for improvement in nursing homes: Variance of six patient safety climate factor scores across nursing homes and wards-Assessed by the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

E. C. T. Deilkas, D. Hofoss, B. S. Husebo and G. T. Bondevik.
PLoS One 2019 Jun 19;14(6):e0218244
Safety climates are perceptions of safety culture shared by staff in organizational units. Measuring staff perceptions of patient safety culture by using safety climate surveys is a possible way of addressing patient safety. Studies have documented that patient safety climates vary significantly between work sites in hospitals. Across-ward variations in the measurements of safety climate factor scores may indicate ward-specific risk of adverse events related to patient care routines, work environment, staff behaviour, and patient results. Variation in patient safety climates has not yet been explored in nursing homes. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the Norwegian translation of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire-Ambulatory Version is useful to identify significant variation in the patient safety climate factor scores: Teamwork climate, Safety climate, Job satisfaction, Working conditions, Stress recognition, and Perceptions of management, across wards in nursing homes. METHODS: Four hundred and sixty three employees from 34 wards in five nursing homes were invited to participate. Cronbach alphas were computed based on individual respondents’ scores on the six patient safety climate factor scores. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated by multilevel analysis to measure patient safety climate variance at ward level. RESULTS: Two hundred and eighty eight (62.2%) returned the questionnaire. At ward level Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for the factors were 10.2% or higher for the factors Safety climate, Working conditions and Perceptions of management, 2.4% or lower for Teamwork climate, Job satisfaction, and zero for Stress recognition. ICC for variance at nursing home level was zero or less than one per cent for all factor scores. CONCLUSIONS: Staff perceptions of Safety climate, Working conditions and Perceptions of management varied significantly across wards. These factor scores may, therefore, be used to identify wards in nursing homes with high and low risk of adverse events, and guide improvement resources to where they are most needed.

Physicians’, Nurses’ and Pharmacists’ Perceptions of Determinants to Deprescribing in Nursing Homes Considering Three Levels of Action: A Qualitative Study.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

R. A. Foley, L. L. Hurard, D. Cateau, D. Koutaissoff, O. Bugnon and A. Niquille.
Pharmacy (Basel) 2020 Feb 7;8(1):10.3390/pharmacy8010017
Polypharmacy and the use of potentially inappropriate medications are frequent safety issues among nursing home (NH) residents. Deprescribing can significantly reduce the number of drugs used, medication costs, and mortality. This qualitative study sought to understand and compare the perceptions and practices of nurses, pharmacists, and physicians regarding deprescribing in Swiss NHs, referring to an implementation approach on three levels of action: the individual, the institution, and the healthcare system. Methods: Two focus groups were held with 21 participants: one focus group with 11 pharmacists, another with 10 nurses and six semi-structured interviews with physicians were conducted and focused on their individual experience and practices. They were audiotaped and fully transcribed, and a content analysis was performed using to MAXQDA (Ver 12) software. Results: (1) At an individual level, physicians were concerned by consequences of deprescribing in terms of safety. Nurses were closest to residents and stressed the importance of finding the right time, creating a bond of trust before deprescribing and considering the purpose of the stay in the NH. Pharmacists relied on structured guides for deprescribing, which led their reflection and practice. All professionals saw the complexity of the clinical situations, as well as residents’ and relatives’ fears of interruption of care. (2) At an institutional level, the professionals stressed the lack of time to discuss patients’ health and treatment, while pre-existing interprofessional collaboration, specifically, quality circles, seemed useful tools to create common knowledge. In order to reduce prescriptions, better coordination between physicians, nurses, pharmacists and specialists seemed crucial. (3) At the health system level, funding still needs to be provided to consolidate the process, go beyond organisational constraints and ensure deprescribing serves the patient’s wellbeing above all. Conclusions: At the individual level of implementation, the different healthcare professionals expressed specific concerns about deprescribing, depending on their defined role in NHs. Their perspective about the different levers to promote deprescribing at institutional and healthcare system levels converge towards interprofessional collaboration supported by the healthcare system. Specific funding and incentives are therefore needed to support a sustainable interprofessional team.

Reducing hospital admissions in older care home residents: a 4-year evaluation of the care home innovation Programme (CHIP).
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

C. Giebel, D. Harvey, A. Akpan and P. Chamberlain.
BMC Health Serv Res 2020 Feb 6;20(1):94-020-4945-9
Older care home residents frequently attend emergency departments with a high conversion to admissions. For this purpose, a novel Care Home Innovation Programme (CHIP) was introduced with the aim of reducing potentially avoidable hospital admissions by 30%. The aim of this study is to evaluate the implementation of this innovative service in practice. METHODS: A total of 32 care homes with 1314 beds in South Sefton, Merseyside were invited to sign up to CHIP which was launched in April 2015 and continued in its entirety until June 2018. As part of the CHIP, care home matrons were introduced, new protocols were developed to address common presentations, a 24-h 7-day a week televideo system installed across all homes, and a quarterly training collaborative brought care homes together to learn and share good practices together. Data on emergency calls and calls resulting in conveyances were recorded over a four-year period, and analysed using frequency analysis. RESULTS: In comparison to the 12 months prior to launch, over a four-year period, implementation of the CHIP resulted in a 15% reduction of emergency calls, and in a 19% reduction of conveyances to hospital. CONCLUSIONS: The South Sefton CHIP demonstrated itself an effective programme in reducing conveyances and consequently, hospital admissions of care home residents. This model will be superseded by the enhanced health in care homes being promoted by the NHS Long Term Care Plan.

De-implementing wisely: developing the evidence base to reduce low-value care.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

J. M. Grimshaw, A. M. Patey, K. R. Kirkham, et al.
BMJ Qual Saf 2020 Feb 6
Choosing Wisely (CW) campaigns globally have focused attention on the need to reduce low-value care, which can represent up to 30% of the costs of healthcare. Despite early enthusiasm for the CW initiative, few large-scale changes in rates of low-value care have been reported since the launch of these campaigns. Recent commentaries suggest that the focus of the campaign should be on implementation of evidence-based strategies to effectively reduce low-value care. This paper describes the Choosing Wisely De-Implementation Framework (CWDIF), a novel framework that builds on previous work in the field of implementation science and proposes a comprehensive approach to systematically reduce low-value care in both hospital and community settings and advance the science of de-implementation.The CWDIF consists of five phases: Phase 0, identification of potential areas of low-value healthcare; Phase 1, identification of local priorities for implementation of CW recommendations; Phase 2, identification of barriers to implementing CW recommendations and potential interventions to overcome these; Phase 3, rigorous evaluations of CW implementation programmes; Phase 4, spread of effective CW implementation programmes. We provide a worked example of applying the CWDIF to develop and evaluate an implementation programme to reduce unnecessary preoperative testing in healthy patients undergoing low-risk surgeries and to further develop the evidence base to reduce low-value care.

Systematic review on barriers and facilitators of complex interventions for residents with dementia in long-term care.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

C. M. Groot Kormelinck, S. I. M. Janus, M. Smalbrugge, D. L. Gerritsen and S. U. Zuidema.
Int Psychogeriatr 2020 Feb 7:1-17
Psychotropic drugs are frequently and sometimes inappropriately used for the treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms of people with dementia, despite their limited efficacy and side effects. Interventions to address neuropsychiatric symptoms and psychotropic drug use are multifactorial and often multidisciplinary. Suboptimal implementation of these complex interventions often limits their effectiveness. This systematic review provides an overview of barriers and facilitators influencing the implementation of complex interventions targeting neuropsychiatric symptoms and psychotropic drug use in long-term care. DESIGN: To identify relevant studies, the following electronic databases were searched between 28 May and 4 June: PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Cochrane, and CINAHL. Two reviewers systematically reviewed the literature, and the quality of the included studies was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme qualitative checklist. The frequency of barriers and facilitators was addressed, followed by deductive thematic analysis describing their positive of negative influence. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research guided data synthesis. RESULTS: Fifteen studies were included, using mostly a combination of intervention types and care programs, as well as different implementation strategies. Key factors to successful implementation included strong leadership and support of champions. Also, communication and coordination between disciplines, management support, sufficient resources, and culture (e.g. openness to change) influenced implementation positively. Barriers related mostly to unstable organizations, such as renovations to facility, changes toward self-directed teams, high staff turnover, and perceived work and time pressures. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation is complex and needs to be tailored to the specific needs and characteristics of the organization in question. Champions should be carefully chosen, and the application of learned actions and knowledge into practice is expected to further improve implementation.

Developing evidence-based guidance for assessment of suspected infections in care home residents.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

C. Hughes, D. R. Ellard, A. Campbell, et al.
BMC Geriatr 2020 Feb 14;20(1):59-020-1467-6
The aim of this study was to update and refine an algorithm, originally developed in Canada, to assist care home staff to manage residents with suspected infection in the United Kingdom care home setting. The infections of interest were urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections and skin and soft tissue infection. METHOD: We used a multi-faceted process involving a literature review, consensus meeting [nominal group technique involving general practitioners (GPs) and specialists in geriatric medicine and clinical microbiology], focus groups (care home staff and resident family members) and interviews (GPs), alongside continual iterative internal review and analysis within the research team. RESULTS: Six publications were identified in the literature which met inclusion criteria. These were used to update the algorithm which was presented to a consensus meeting (four participants all with a medical background) which discussed and agreed to inclusion of signs and symptoms, and the algorithm format. Focus groups and interview participants could see the value in the algorithm, and staff often reported that it reflected their usual practice. There were also interesting contrasts between evidence and usual practice informed by experience. Through continual iterative review and analysis, the final algorithm was finally presented in a format which described management of the three infections in terms of initial assessment of the resident, observation of the resident and action by the care home staff. CONCLUSIONS: This study has resulted in an updated algorithm targeting key infections in care home residents which should be considered for implementation into everyday practice.

Quality of care reported by proxies – Does resident cognition count?
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

A. Kahanpaa, A. Noro and M. L. Perala.
Dementia (London) 2019 Oct-Nov;18(7-8):2543-2555
Resident self-reports are considered the primary source of quality of care information, but proxy reports by family or staff can also be used to supplement or substitute resident reports. This study analyses how the results of proxy reports vary according to residents’ cognition level. The data set used covers proxy reports of family (n = 558) and staff (n = 801), divided by the availability of resident self-reports (family yes n = 289, no n = 269; staff yes 393, no = 408). Family and staff proxies assessed residents’ quality of care as better when resident self-reports were also available, and quality of care tended to be assessed as poorer among those with higher cognitive decline. The results of this methodological study indicate the importance of using several proxy evaluations; however, these can only supplement resident self-reports, not replace them. The interpretation rules acknowledging dependency between residents’ cognition and proxy assessments could be used as a basis for future comparisons of quality improvement in long-term care and for painting a more comprehensive picture of service quality.

How to assess experienced quality of care in nursing homes from the client’s perspective: results of a qualitative study.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

K. Y. J. Sion, H. Verbeek, B. de Boer, et al.
BMC Geriatr 2020 Feb 17;20(1):67-020-1466-7
The culture shift in nursing homes from task-oriented to person-centered care has created a need to assess clients’ experienced quality of care (QoC), as this corresponds best with what matters to them. This study aimed to gain insight into how to assess experienced QoC in nursing homes from the client’s perspective. METHOD: A qualitative study was performed consisting of a focus group with client representatives (n = 10), a focus group with nursing home staff (n = 9) and a world cafe with client representatives and staff recruited from the Living Lab in Ageing & Long-Term Care (n = 24). Three questions about assessing experienced QoC from the client’s perspective were addressed during data collection: 1) What content needs to be assessed? 2) What assessment procedures are needed? and, 3) Who needs to be involved in the assessment? Semi-structured questions, photo elicitation and creative writing were used to answer these questions. Conventional content analysis was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Participants indicated that experienced QoC mostly occurs within the interactions between clients, family and staff, highlighting the impact of relationships. They suggested assessments should focus on three aspects: 1) knowledge about the client, 2) a responsive approach, and 3) a caring environment. These can be assessed by having conversations with clients, their families and staff, and additionally observing the clients in their living environments. Sufficient time and resources are prerequisites for this. Additionally, the person performing the quality assessments needs to possess certain communication and empathy skills. CONCLUSION: It is important to include the perspectives of the client, family and staff when assessing experienced QoC, in line with the principles underlying relationship-centered care. In order to be feasible, it is recommended to incorporate quality assessments into the nursing homes’ daily routines. Further research with clients, family and staff in nursing homes is needed to develop a feasible, reliable and valid method that assesses experienced QoC from the client’s perspective.

 

Back to top of page       Back to top of publications

Organizational Culture and Change

How provider organisations interpret regulation in the context of residential dementia aged care.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

S. Biggs and A. Carr.
Australas J Ageing 2019 Sep;38 Suppl 2:83-89
To explore how Australian residential dementia aged care providers respond to regulation via organisational culture, level, processes and interpretation. METHODS: Observation took place in three provider organisations. Qualitative, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with aged care staff (n = 60) at three different levels of each organisation: senior management from three head offices (n = 17), facility management (n = 13) and personal care workers (n = 30) from eight residential care facilities. RESULTS: Orientations towards regulation included the following: “above and beyond;” “pushing back;” and “engineering out.” Regulation was interpreted differently depending on the level of authority within an organisation where boundaries were managed according to strategic, operational and interactional priorities. DISCUSSION: Examining regulation within an organisational context and at different staff levels suggests ways to balance dementia care with regulatory control. Both generate stress, mitigated by culture and interdependent role differentiation.

Unpacking organizational readiness for change: an updated systematic review and content analysis of assessments.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

I. M. Miake-Lye, D. M. Delevan, D. A. Ganz, B. S. Mittman and E. P. Finley.
BMC Health Serv Res 2020 Feb 11;20(1):106-020-4926-z
Organizational readiness assessments have a history of being developed as important support tools for successful implementation. However, it remains unclear how best to operationalize readiness across varied projects or settings. We conducted a synthesis and content analysis of published readiness instruments to compare how investigators have operationalized the concept of organizational readiness for change. METHODS: We identified readiness assessments using a systematic review and update search. We mapped individual assessment items to the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), which identifies five domains affecting implementation (outer setting, inner setting, intervention characteristics, characteristics of individuals, and implementation process) and multiple constructs within each domain. RESULTS: Of 1370 survey items, 897 (68%) mapped to the CFIR domain of inner setting, most commonly related to constructs of readiness for implementation (n = 220); networks and communication (n = 207); implementation climate (n = 204); structural characteristics (n = 139); and culture (n = 93). Two hundred forty-two items (18%) mapped to characteristics of individuals (mainly other personal attributes [n = 157] and self-efficacy [n = 52]); 80 (6%) mapped to outer setting; 51 (4%) mapped to implementation process; 40 (3%) mapped to intervention characteristics; and 60 (4%) did not map to CFIR constructs. Instruments were typically tailored to specific interventions or contexts. DISCUSSION: Available readiness instruments predominantly focus on contextual factors within the organization and characteristics of individuals, but the specificity of most assessment items suggests a need to tailor items to the specific scenario in which an assessment is fielded. Readiness assessments must bridge the gap between measuring a theoretical construct and factors of importance to a particular implementation.

Back to top of page       Back to top of publications

Research Practice and Methodology

The Community-Academic Aging Research Network: A Pipeline for Dissemination.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

J. E. Mahoney, M. M. Pinzon, S. Myers, J. Renken, E. Eggert and W. Palmer.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2020 Feb 10
The Community-Academic Aging Research Network (CAARN) was created to increase the capacity and effectiveness of Wisconsin’s Aging Network and the University of Wisconsin to conduct community-based research related to aging. The purpose of this article is to describe CAARN’s infrastructure, outcomes, and lessons learned. DESIGN: Using principles of community-based participatory research, CAARN engages stakeholders to participate in the design, development, and testing of older adult health interventions that address community needs, are sustainable, and improve health equity. SETTING: Academic healthcare and community organizations. PARTICIPANTS: Researchers, community members, and community organizations. INTERVENTION: CAARN matches academic and community partners to develop and test evidence-based programs to be distributed by a dissemination partner. MEASUREMENTS: Number of partnerships and funding received. RESULTS: CAARN has facilitated 33 projects since its inception in 2010 (30 including rural populations), involving 46 academic investigators, 52 Wisconsin counties, and 1 tribe. These projects have garnered 52 grants totaling $20 million in extramural and $3 million in intramural funding. Four proven interventions are being prepared for national dissemination by the Wisconsin Institute for Healthy Aging: one to improve physical activity; one to reduce bowel and bladder incontinence; one to reduce sedentary behavior; and one to reduce falls risk among Latinx older adults. Additionally, one intervention to improve balance using a modified tai chi program is being disseminated by another organization. CONCLUSION: CAARN’s innovative structure creates a pipeline to dissemination by designing for real-world settings through inclusion of stakeholders in the early stages of design and by packaging community-based health interventions for older adults so they can be disseminated after the research has been completed. These interventions provide opportunities for clinicians to engage with community organizations to improve the health of their patients through self-management.

Qualitative instruments involving clients as co-researchers to assess and improve the quality of care relationships in long-term care: an evaluation of instruments to enhance client participation in quality research.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

A. Scheffelaar, N. Bos, M. Triemstra, M. de Jong, K. Luijkx and S. van Dulmen.
BMJ Open 2020 Feb 13;10(2):e033034-2019-033034
Enhancing the active involvement of clients as co-researchers is seen as a promising innovation in quality research. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and usability of five qualitative instruments used by co-researchers for assessing the quality of care relationships in long-term care. DESIGN AND SETTING: A qualitative evaluation was performed in three care organisations each focused on one of the following three client groups: frail older adults, people with mental health problems and people with intellectual disabilities. A total of 140 respondents participated in this study. The data comprised observations by researchers and experiences from co-researchers, clients and professionals. RESULTS: Two instruments scored best on feasibility and usability and can therefore both be used by co-researchers to monitor the quality of care relationships from the client perspective in long-term care. CONCLUSIONS: The selected instruments let co-researchers interview other clients about their experiences with care relationships. The study findings are useful for long-term care organisations and client councils who are willing to give clients an active role in quality improvement.

Research co-design in health: a rapid overview of reviews.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

P. Slattery, A. K. Saeri and P. Bragge.
Health Res Policy Syst 2020 Feb 11;18(1):17-020-0528-9
Billions of dollars are lost annually in health research that fails to create meaningful benefits for patients. Engaging in research co-design – the meaningful involvement of end-users in research – may help address this research waste. This rapid overview of reviews addressed three related questions, namely (1) what approaches to research co-design exist in health settings? (2) What activities do these research co-design approaches involve? (3) What do we know about the effectiveness of existing research co-design approaches? The review focused on the study planning phase of research, defined as the point up to which the research question and study design are finalised. METHODS: Reviews of research co-design were systematically identified using a rapid overview of reviews approach (PROSPERO: CRD42019123034). The search strategy encompassed three academic databases, three grey literature databases, and a hand-search of the journal Research Involvement and Engagement. Two reviewers independently conducted the screening and data extraction and resolved disagreements through discussion. Disputes were resolved through discussion with a senior author (PB). One reviewer performed quality assessment. The results were narratively synthesised. RESULTS: A total of 26 records (reporting on 23 reviews) met the inclusion criteria. Reviews varied widely in their application of ‘research co-design’ and their application contexts, scope and theoretical foci. The research co-design approaches identified involved interactions with end-users outside of study planning, such as recruitment and dissemination. Activities involved in research co-design included focus groups, interviews and surveys. The effectiveness of research co-design has rarely been evaluated empirically or experimentally; however, qualitative exploration has described the positive and negative outcomes associated with co-design. The research provided many recommendations for conducting research co-design, including training participating end-users in research skills, having regular communication between researchers and end-users, setting clear end-user expectations, and assigning set roles to all parties involved in co-design. CONCLUSIONS: Research co-design appears to be widely used but seldom described or evaluated in detail. Though it has rarely been tested empirically or experimentally, existing research suggests that it can benefit researchers, practitioners, research processes and research outcomes. Realising the potential of research co-design may require the development of clearer and more consistent terminology, better reporting of the activities involved and better evaluation.

Back to top of page       Back to top of publications

Aging

How do “robopets” impact the health and well-being of residents in care homes? A systematic review of qualitative and quantitative evidence.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

R. Abbott, N. Orr, P. McGill, et al.
Int J Older People Nurs 2019 Sep;14(3):e12239
Robopets are small animal-like robots which have the appearance and behavioural characteristics of pets. OBJECTIVE: To bring together the evidence of the experiences of staff, residents and family members of interacting with robopets and the effects of robopets on the health and well-being of older people living in care homes. DESIGN: Systematic review of qualitative and quantitative research. DATA SOURCES: We searched 13 electronic databases from inception to July 2018 and undertook forward and backward citation chasing. METHODS: Eligible studies reported the views and experiences of robopets from residents, family members and staff (qualitative studies using recognised methods of qualitative data collection and analysis) and the effects of robopets on the health and well-being of care home residents (randomised controlled trials, randomised crossover trials and cluster randomised trials). Study selection was undertaken independently by two reviewers. We used the Wallace criteria and the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool to assess the quality of the evidence. We developed a logic model with stakeholders and used this as a framework to guide data extraction and synthesis. Where appropriate, we used meta-analysis to combine effect estimates from quantitative studies. RESULTS: Nineteen studies (10 qualitative, 2 mixed methods and 7 randomised trials) met the inclusion criteria. Interactions with robopets were described as having a positive impact on aspects of well-being including loneliness, depression and quality of life by residents and staff, although there was no corresponding statistically significant evidence from meta-analysis for these outcomes. Meta-analysis showed evidence of a reduction in agitation with the robopet “Paro” compared to control (-0.32 [95% CI -0.61 to -0.04, p = 0.03]). Not everyone had a positive experience of robopets. CONCLUSIONS: Engagement with robopets appears to have beneficial effects on the health and well-being of older adults living in care homes, but not all chose to engage. Whether the benefits can be sustained are yet to be investigated. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Robopets have the potential to benefit people living in care homes, through increasing engagement and interaction. With the robopet acting as a catalyst, this engagement and interaction may afford comfort and help reduce agitation and loneliness.

The Effect of Aromatherapy Application on Cognitive Functions and Daytime Sleepiness in Older Adults Living in a Nursing Home.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

T. Aydin Yildirim and Y. Kitis.
Holist Nurs Pract 2020 Mar/Apr;34(2):83-90
Changes in the aging process affect the duration and quality of sleep. Not having a quality night’s sleep leads to a reduction in daytime wakefulness in older adults. We examined the effect of aromatherapy on the cognitive functions and daytime sleepiness of older adults living in a nursing home. The research was a pretest and posttest design, which was conducted without a control group. The sample included 39 elders. A rosemary-lemon oil mixture was smelled by elders in the mornings for a week. After a 1-week washout period, lavender oils were smelled in the evenings for a week. After application of the rosemary-lemon oil mixture, the mean score of participants’ daytime sleepiness was lower, but that decline was not statistically meaningful (P > .050). After the same application, the mean score of the participants’ cognitive functions was significantly lower (P < .001). After application of lavender oil, the scores were significantly lower (P < .001). Lower scores on the scales used indicate lower sleepiness. The results showed that the 2 applications can be used to improve cognitive functions in older adults; in addition, lavender oil has an advantage in reducing daytime sleepiness.

Testing the Implementation of the Veder Contact Method: A Theatre-Based Communication Method in Dementia Care.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

P. Boersma, J. C. M. van Weert, B. I. Lissenberg-Witte, B. van Meijel and R. M. Droes.
Gerontologist 2019 Jul 16;59(4):780-791
There is a lack of research on implementation of person-centered care in nursing home care. The purpose of this study was to assess the implementation of the Veder contact method (VCM), a new person-centered method using theatrical, poetic and musical communication for application in 24-hr care. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Caregivers (n = 136) and residents (n = 141) participated in a 1-year quasi-experimental study. Foundation Theater Veder implemented VCM on six experimental wards and rated implementation quality. Six control wards delivered care-as-usual. Before and after implementation, caregiver behavior was assessed during observations using the Veder-observation list and Quality of Caregivers’ Behavior-list. Caregiver attitude was rated with the Approaches to Dementia Questionnaire. Quality of life, behavior, and mood of the residents were measured with QUALIDEM, INTERACT and FACE. Residents’ care plans were examined for person-centered background information. RESULTS: Significant improvements in caregivers’ communicative behavior (i.e., the ability to apply VCM, establishing positive interactions) and some aspects of residents’ behavior and quality of life (i.e., positive affect, social relations) were found on the experimental wards with a high implementation score, as compared to the experimental wards with a low implementation score, and the control wards. No significant differences were found between the groups in caregivers’ attitudes, residents’ care plans, or mood. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: The positive changes in caregivers’ behavior and residents’ well-being on the high implementation score wards confirm the partly successful VCM implementation. Distinguishing between wards with a high and low implementation score provided insight into factors which are crucial for successful implementation.

Nasogastric tube feeding versus assisted hand feeding in-home healthcare older adults with severe dementia in Taiwan: a prognosis comparison.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

H. H. Chou, M. T. Tsou and L. C. Hwang.
BMC Geriatr 2020 Feb 14;20(1):60-020-1464-9
All individuals with severe dementia should be offered careful hand feeding. However, under certain circumstances, people with severe dementia have a feeding tube placed. In Taiwan, tube feeding rate in demented older home care residents is increasing; however, the benefits of tube feeding in this population remain unknown. We compared the clinical prognosis and mortality of older patients with severe dementia receiving nasogastric tube feeding (NGF) or assisted hand feeding (AHF). METHODS: Data from the in-home healthcare system between January 1 and December 31, 2017 were analyzed to identify 169 participants over 60 years of age in this retrospective longitudinal study. All subjects with severe dementia and complete functional dependence suffered from difficulty in oral intake and required either AHF or NGF. Data were collected from both groups to analyze pneumonia, hospitalization, and mortality rates. RESULTS: A total of 169 subjects (56 males and 113 females, aged 85.9 +/- 7.5 years) were analyzed. 39 required AHF and 130 NGF. All subjects were bedridden; 129 (76%) showed Barthel index < 10. Pneumonia risk was higher in the NGF group (48%) than in the AHF group (26%, p = 0.015). After adjusting for multiple factors in the regression model, the risk of pneumonia was not significantly higher in the NGF group compared with the AHF group. One-year mortality rates in the AHF and NGF groups were 8 and 15%, respectively, and no significant difference was observed after adjustment with logistic regression (aOR = 2.38; 95% CI, 0.58-9.70). There were no significant differences in hospitalization rate and duration. CONCLUSIONS: For older patients with dementia requiring in-home healthcare, NGF is not associated with a significantly lower risk of pneumonia than AHF. Additionally, neither mortality nor hospitalization rates decreased with NGF. On the contrary, a nonsignificant trend of increased risk of pneumonia was observed in NGF group. Therefore, the benefits of NGF are debatable in older patients with severe dementia requiring in-home healthcare. Continued careful hand feeding could be an alternative to NG feeding in patients with severe dementia. Furthermore, large-scale studies on in-home healthcare would be required to support these results.

Does the institutionalization influence elderly’s quality of life? A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

M. M. D. de Medeiros, T. M. Carletti, M. B. Magno, L. C. Maia, Y. W. Cavalcanti and R. C. M. Rodrigues-Garcia.
BMC Geriatr 2020 Feb 5;20(1):44-020-1452-0
Institutionalization is a global phenomenon and its impact on elderly’s quality of life (QoL) is under discussion. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the influence of the institutionalization on elderly’s QoL. METHODS: Searches were performed in Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Lilacs, Cochrane Library and SIGLE by two independent reviewers up to May 2019. The eligibility criteria were based on PECO strategy, considering observational studies in elderly (P), which were (E) or not (C) institutionalized to identify differences in their QoL (O). For qualitative synthesis, data were extracted and risk of bias was evaluated through a validated guideline. Meta-analysis was based on Mean Difference (MD) and Standard Mean Difference (SMD) calculation (p </= 0.05). The evidence was quality-tested using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. RESULTS: The initial search identified 3841 articles. Duplicates were removed, titles and abstracts were read and eligibility criteria were applied, remaining 16 sixteen cross-sectional studies that were included for data extraction and qualitative synthesis. Out of 16 articles, 14 evaluated the Health-Related Quality of Life, using Leipad (n = 2), WHOQOL-BREF and/or OLD (n = 8), SF-36 or RAND-36 (n = 4) questionnaires, and two assessed the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life, through GOHAI questionnaire. One eligible article was considered as low risk of bias. In the meta-analysis, 12 studies were included. Leipad questionnaire did not show differences on elderly’s QoL (MD 0.11 [- 0.10, 0.32] I(2) = 76%). Differences on elderly’s QoL were detected through WHOQOL-BREF (SMD -0.70 [CI95%: – 0.94, – 0.47] I(2) = 93%), WHOQOL-OLD (SMD -1.13 [- 1.47, – 0.80] I(2) = 91%) and SF-36/RAND-36 (MD -5.97 [CI95%: – 11.29, – 0.64] I(2) = 90%). All studies had very low or low certainty of evidence, since the study design influenced evidence classification, and show high heterogeneity. CONCLUSION: Although the institutionalization influences negatively the elderly’s QoL, further well-designed studies are needed to confirm this evidence.

Appropriateness of End-of-Life Care in People Dying With Dementia: Applying Quality Indicators on Linked Administrative Databases.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

R. De Schreye, T. Smets, L. Deliens, L. Annemans, B. Gielen and J. Cohen.
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2020 Feb 6
Dementia is a progressive incurable life-limiting illness. Previous research suggests end-of-life care for people with dementia should have a symptomatic focus with an effort to avoid burdensome interventions that would not improve quality of life. This study aims to assess the appropriateness of end-of-life care in people who died with dementia in Belgium and to establish relative performance standards by measuring validated population-level quality indicators. DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective observational study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We included all persons deceased with dementia in 2015 in Belgium. Data from 8 administratively collected population-level databases was linked. MEASURES: We used a validated set of 28 quality indicators for end-of-life dementia care. We compared quality indicator scores across 14 healthcare regions to establish relative benchmarks. RESULTS: In Belgium in 2015, 10,629 people died with dementia. For indicators of appropriate end-of-life care, people who died with dementia had on average 1.83 contacts with their family physician in the last week before death, whereas 68.4% died at home or in their nursing home of residence. For indicators of inappropriate end-of-life care, 32.4% were admitted to the hospital and 36.3% underwent diagnostic testing in the last 30 days before death, whereas 25.1% died in the hospital. In the last 30 days, emergency department admission varied between 19% and 31%, dispensing of gastric protectors between 18% and 42%, and antihypertensives between 40% and 53% between healthcare regions, with at least 25% of health regions below 46%. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Our study found indications of appropriate as well as inappropriate end-of-life care in people with dementia, including high rates of family physician contact, as well as high percentages of diagnostic testing, and emergency department and hospital admissions. We also found high risk-adjusted variation for multiple quality indicators, indicating opportunity for quality improvement in end-of-life dementia care.

Promoting mealtime function in people with dementia: A systematic review of studies undertaken in residential aged care.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

D. Fetherstonhaugh, E. Haesler and M. Bauer.
Int J Nurs Stud 2019 Aug;96:99-118
Dementia is one of the most prevalent conditions in older adults in residential aged care. Dementia has a significant impact on a person’s ability to eat, drink and participate in mealtime activities. Dementia impacts memory, appetite, gross and fine motor skills, communication skills, mood and social behaviours, all of which can decrease the person’s ability to engage in a meal. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to review the literature on strategies to promote mealtime function in people with dementia living in residential aged care and assess their effectiveness. The review considered studies reporting outcome measures that related to nutritional status, communication, behaviour and eating skills and ability. DESIGN: Systematic review using the Joanna Briggs Institute review methods. DATA SOURCES: Seven databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EMBASE, Current Contents, PsycINFO and Allied and Complementary Medicine Database) were searched for research published 2000-2017 in English. Eligible studies included quantitative studies reporting a mealtime intervention delivered to people with dementia in residential aged care compared with standard care reporting nutritional, behavioural or functional outcomes, including observation studies with no comparator. REVIEW METHODS: Studies were screened and independently appraised by two reviewers using Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal tools based on study design. Data was extracted from eligible studies using JBI extraction tables that assess study design, population characteristics, intervention and comparator, outcome measures and findings. Results related to mealtime function were tabulated and reported in narrative format. RESULTS: 136 studies were identified, of which 20 were eligible for inclusion. Studies reported strategies related to: food presentation; meal styles; environment adaptations; skills training; music therapy and animal-assisted therapy. Outcomes included measures of nutritional status, communication and behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Low quality evidence suggested that playing music and introducing fish to the dining room may improve the food intake of people with dementia by a small amount. Montessori and spaced retrieval programs also demonstrated some positive impact on eating skills and nutritional intake. Animal-assisted therapy also demonstrated small statistically significant improvements in weight and body mass index. CONCLUSION: There is insufficient evidence to highly recommend any specific intervention to improve mealtime functional ability in people with dementia. Further research is required through robust study designs using valid and reliable outcome measures to demonstrate clinically significant effects for mealtime interventions.

Depressive symptoms and associated factors in elderly long-term care residents.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

L. A. Guimaraes, T. A. Brito, K. R. Pithon, et al.
Cien Saude Colet 2019 Sep 9;24(9):3275-3282
To determine the prevalence and factors associated with depressive symptoms in institutionalized elderly. METHODS: This is an epidemiological cross-sectional study with 42 elderly in a Long-Term Care Institution for the Elderly (LTCIE). Data was collected from April to December 2014 through a questionnaire with information on demographic and socioeconomic aspects, the Geriatric Depression Scale short version (GDS-15) and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). RESULTS: Of the elderly studied, 54.8% had depressive symptoms and were predominantly females (64.7%). There was a significant association between depressive symptoms and variables retired (p = 0.043); urinary incontinence (p = 0.028); self-perceived health (p-value = 0.042) and sleep quality (p-value = 0.000). CONCLUSION: The study found a high prevalence of depressive symptoms in institutionalized elderly, associated with the presence of urinary incontinence, (negative) self-perceived health, (poor) quality of sleep and retirement (yes). Following the study and in the face of the needs of this population, it is necessary to seek measures that act directly on the modifiable variables, preventing and treating them.

Dealing with the behaviour of residents with dementia that challenges: A stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial of two types of dementia-specific case conferences in nursing homes (FallDem).
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

M. Halek, S. Reuther, R. Muller-Widmer, D. Trutschel and D. Holle.
Int J Nurs Stud 2019 Sep 25;104:103435
The negative effects of behavioural changes among dementia residents and the consequences for caregivers are a major problem in the care of people with dementia. Case conferences (CC) are recommended as a useful method to understand the underlying causes of the behaviour and to plan tailored interventions OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article is to describe the effects of two dementia-specific CC models on the prevalence of behaviour that challenges and other secondary outcomes. DESIGN: Stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial. SETTING: Nursing homes: The inclusion criterion was the participation of at least two units with a minimum of 30 residents who were mainly cared for in the study units. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 224 residents and 189 staff from six nursing homes in the IdA (Innovative dementia-orientated Assessment system) cohort and 241 residents and 284 staff from six nursing homes in the Neo (Narrative Approach) cohort were included in the study. The inclusion criteria were the following: medical diagnosis of dementia from nursing charts, FAST (Functional Assessment Staging) score > 1, living at least 15 days in the unit, and informed consent. METHODS: The nursing homes were randomized to the type of intervention and time point of intervention delivery. The two interventions in the form of the case conference models (Welcome-IdA and -Neo) differed in the type of behaviour analysis method. The intervention duration was seven months. The primary outcome was the change in the prevalence of behaviour that challenges. Secondary outcomes were residents’ quality of life, prescription of psychotropic medications, formal caregiver burnout, dementia-related stress, and vocational action competence. The outcomes were measured on seven data points every three months. Linear mixed-effects models were used to analyze intervention effects between the control, intervention and follow-up periods. RESULTS: No differences were found concerning the primary outcome between the control and intervention cohorts for both CC models. Further exploratory data analyses showed a reduction in behaviours such as apathy (18%) and eating disturbances (29%) for the IdA cohort and hallucination (27%) and delusion (28%) in the NEO cohort. Only staff in the IdA cohort demonstrated a reduction in work-related burnout from the control phase to the intervention phase. CONCLUSION: Specific CC for behaviour that challenges do not decrease the overall prevalence of residents showing changes in behaviour. However, there are indications that the case conferences influence some types of behaviour and reduce the risk factors for work-related burnout.

What happens before, during and after crisis for someone with dementia living at home: A systematic review.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

J. B. Hopkinson, A. King, J. Mullins, et al.
Dementia (London) 2020 Feb 3:1471301220901634
People living with dementia often experience crisis. Home treatment of crisis is an alternative to hospital admission that can have better outcomes. This systematic review is about people with dementia living at home and in crisis. It identifies modifiable factors in the crisis process that may facilitate crisis resolution. Methods The protocol is registered on PROSPERO. A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AHMED, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library and references of retrieved publications, identified empirical research in English language and date range January 2000 to February 2019. Two researchers independently screened abstracts, selected publications and extracted data using a framework based on published guidelines. This is a report of the analysis and narrative synthesis. Results The search identified 2755 titles and abstracts, 76 were selected for full-text examination and 13 agreed for inclusion. The included studies evidence that: for a person with dementia, crisis is a process that begins with a problem judged to put them or others at risk of harm. It leads to decision and action to treat this risk, thus resolve the crisis. Such crisis can be predicted or unpredicted and progress quickly or slowly. Medical treatment, community resources and psychosocial support of personal resources, decision making, relationships and social networks, are all modifiable factors that can treat the risk of harm during crisis. Carers’ and professionals’ knowledge and skills in dementia care are likely to play a key role in crisis resolution in the home. Conclusion There has been limited investigation of the process and management of crisis at home for people living with dementia. The results of this review provide a foundation for future research. There is no consensus on critical components of home treatment to facilitate crisis resolution. However, education in dementia care for carers and professionals is likely to prove essential to successful home treatment.

Components of palliative care interventions addressing the needs of people with dementia living in long-term care: A systematic review.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

S. Kochovska, M. V. Garcia, F. Bunn, et al.
Palliat Med 2020 Feb 4:269216319900141
People with dementia requiring palliative care have multiple needs, which are amplified in long-term care settings. The European Association for Palliative Care White Paper offers recommendations for optimal palliative care in dementia integral for this population, providing useful guidance to inform interventions addressing their specific needs. AIM: The aim of this study is to describe the components of palliative care interventions for people with dementia in long-term care focusing on shared decision-making and examine their alignment to the European Association for Palliative Care domains of care. DESIGN: Systematic review with narrative synthesis (PROSPERO ID: CRD42018095649). DATA SOURCES: Four databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and CENTRAL) were searched (earliest records – July 2019) for peer-reviewed articles and protocols in English, reporting on palliative care interventions for people with dementia in long-term care, addressing European Association for Palliative Care Domains 2 (person-centred) or 3 (setting care goals) and 1 other domain. RESULTS: Fifty-one papers were included, reporting on 32 studies. For each domain (1-10), there were interventions found aiming to address its goal, although no single intervention addressed all domains. Domain 7 (symptom management; n = 19), 6 (avoiding overly aggressive treatment; n = 18) and 10 (education; n = 17) were the most commonly addressed; Domain 5 (prognostication; n = 7) and 4 (continuity of care; n = 2) were the least addressed. CONCLUSION: Almost all domains were addressed across all interventions currently offered for this population to various degrees, but not within a singular intervention. Future research optimally needs to be theory driven when developing dementia-specific interventions at the end of life, with the European Association for Palliative Care domains serving as a foundation to inform the best care for this population.

Potentially avoidable hospitalisations of German nursing home patients? A cross-sectional study on utilisation patterns and potential consequences for healthcare.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

R. Leutgeb, S. J. Berger, J. Szecsenyi and G. Laux.
BMJ Open 2019 Jan 21;9(1):e025269-2018-025269
Demand for nursing home (NH) care is soaring due to gains in life expectancy and people living longer with chronic illness and disability. This is dovetailing with workforce shortages across the healthcare profession. Access to timely and appropriate medical care for NH residents is becoming increasingly challenging and can result in potentially avoidable hospitalisations (PAHs). In light of these factors, we analysed PAHs comparing NH patients with non-NH patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with claims data from 2015 supplied by a large German health insurance company within the federal state of Baden-Wuerttemberg. SETTING: One-year observation of hospitalisation patterns for NH and non-NH patients. PARTICIPANTS: 3 872 245 of the 10.5million inhabitants of Baden-Wuerttemberg were covered. METHODS: Patient data about hospitalisation date, sex, age, nationality, level of care and diagnoses were available. PAHs were defined based on international classification of diseases (ICD-10) diagnoses belonging to ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs). Adjusted ORs for PAHs for NH patients in comparison with non-NH patients were calculated with multivariable regression models. RESULTS: Of the 933 242 hospitalisations in 2015, there were 23 982 for 13 478 NH patients and 909 260 for 560 998 non-NH patients. Mean age of hospitalised NH patients and level of care were significantly higher than those of non-NH patients. 6449 PAHs (29.6%) for NH patients and 136 543 PAHs (15.02%) for non-NH patients were identified. The adjusted OR for PAHs was significantly heightened for NH patients in comparison with non-NH patients (OR: 1.22, CI (1.18 to 1.26), p<0.0001). Moreover, we could observe that more than 90% of PAHs with ACSCs were unplanned hospitalisations (UHs). CONCLUSIONS: Large numbers of PAHs for NH patients calls for improved coordination of medical care, especially general practitioner service provision. Introduction of targeted training programmes for physicians and NH staff on health problem management for NH patients could perhaps contribute to reduction of PAHs, predominantly UHs.

Mobile device use and the cognitive function and depressive symptoms of older adults living in residential care homes.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

L. Lin, X. C. Jing, S. J. Lv, et al.
BMC Geriatr 2020 Feb 3;20(1):41-020-1427-1
With the fast-paced aging and increasing digitalization of society, there has been a growing interest in the effect of mobile device use on cognitive function and depression in older adults. However, research examining this issue among older adults in residential care homes (RCHs) is scant. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the impact of mobile device use on the cognitive function and depressive symptoms of older adults living in RCHs. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). RESULTS: A total of 235 senior residents (aged 82.58 +/- 5.54) in four RCHs were surveyed. Users of mobile devices had a significantly higher total MoCA score (25.02 +/- 4.14) and a significantly lower GDS-15 score (3.28 +/- 2.74) than non-users (MoCA: 19.34 +/- 5.21, GDS-15: 4.69 +/- 2.90). Multivariate linear regression indicate that mobile device use is significantly associated with total MoCA score, six of the seven sub-scores (visuospatial abilities and execution functions, attention, language, abstraction, delayed recall, and orientation)(P < 0.05). Logistic regression showed that mobile device use was significantly associated with the level of depressive symptoms (OR = 0.458, 95%CI = 0.249-0.845). CONCLUSIONS: Use of mobile devices has a significant association with the cognitive function and depressive symptoms of older adults living in RCHs, and thus should be encouraged as a measure to maintain and improve cognition and prevent depression.

Photovoice in aged care: What do residents value?
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

E. Miller, L. Buys and G. Donoghue.
Australas J Ageing 2019 Sep;38(3):e93-e97
This paper visually explores older aged care resident’s day-to-day lived experience, as well as providing a brief introduction to the participatory documentary photography method of photovoice. METHODS: Ten residents from one Australian residential aged care facility collaborated with researchers and care staff to photograph, reflect on and share their lives. Photographs were shortlisted in individual and group discussions. RESULTS: Residents’ photographs and narratives provide a visual understanding of what they value. Photographs captured three core themes: the restorative joy of nature (frangipanis); active engagement through leisure activities (football); and the value of social interactions and connections, especially with fellow residents and staff (friendship). CONCLUSIONS: As old age and aged care remain virtually invisible within popular visual culture, this research highlights the communicative value of participatory photography for challenging stereotypes, as well as the opportunities, challenges and value of visual methods with this cohort.

Risk factors for pneumonia and influenza hospitalizations in long-term care facility residents: a retrospective cohort study.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

P. Moyo, A. R. Zullo, K. W. McConeghy, et al.
BMC Geriatr 2020 Feb 10;20(1):47-020-1457-8
Older adults who reside in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are at particularly high risk for infection, morbidity and mortality from pneumonia and influenza (P&I) compared to individuals of younger age and those living outside institutional settings. The risk factors for P&I hospitalizations that are specific to LTCFs remain poorly understood. Our objective was to evaluate the incidence of P&I hospitalization and associated person- and facility-level factors among post-acute (short-stay) and long-term (long-stay) care residents residing in LTCFs from 2013 to 2015. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we used Medicare administrative claims linked to Minimum Data Set and LTCF-level data to identify short-stay (< 100 days, index = admission date) and long-stay (100+ days, index = day 100) residents who were followed from the index date until the first of hospitalization, LTCF discharge, Medicare disenrollment, or death. We measured incidence rates (IRs) for P&I hospitalization per 100,000 person-days, and estimated associations with baseline demographics, geriatric syndromes, clinical characteristics, and medication use using Cox regression models. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 1,118,054 short-stay and 593,443 long-stay residents. The crude 30-day IRs (95% CI) of hospitalizations with P&I in the principal position were 26.0 (25.4, 26.6) and 34.5 (33.6, 35.4) among short- and long-stay residents, respectively. The variables associated with P&I varied between short and long-stay residents, and common risk factors included: advanced age (85+ years), admission from an acute hospital, select cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, impaired functional status, and receipt of antibiotics or Beers criteria medications. Facility staffing and care quality measures were important risk factors among long-stay residents but not in short-stay residents. CONCLUSIONS: Short-stay residents had lower crude 30- and 90-day incidence rates of P&I hospitalizations than long-stay LTCF residents. Differences in risk factors for P&I between short- and long-stay populations suggest the importance of considering distinct profiles of post-acute and long-term care residents in infection prevention and control strategies in LTCFs. These findings can help clinicians target interventions to subgroups of LTCF residents at highest P&I risk.

Quality of Life in People With Severe Dementia and Its Association With the Environment in Nursing Homes: An Observational Study.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

R. Palm, D. Trutschel, C. G. G. Sorg, M. N. Dichter, B. Haastert and B. Holle.
Gerontologist 2019 Jul 16;59(4):665-674
Theoretical models propose the environment as a factor influencing the quality of life (QoL) of nursing home residents with dementia. This study investigates whether the observed QoL differs depending on the type of care unit. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: DemenzMonitor is an exploratory, observational study involving annual data collection in German nursing homes (2012-2014). For this analysis, we selected residents with a recorded diagnosis of dementia and severe cognitive impairment. QoL was measured with the proxy assessment QUALIDEM. Four care unit types were investigated: large integrated, large segregated, small integrated, and small segregated. RESULTS: We did not find a significant difference between the care units. During the 2 years, the observed QoL was not affected by any of the care unit types in a statistically significant or clinically relevant manner. However, a significant interaction effect between time and care unit types was found. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Structural and organizational characteristics of care units, which in turn have implications for residents characteristics and the quality of care, may influence the QoL of residents. This may explain the interaction we observed.

Ultrasound-assisted prompted voiding care for managing urinary incontinence in nursing homes: A randomized clinical trial.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

M. Suzuki, H. Miyazaki, J. Kamei, et al.
Neurourol Urodyn 2019 Feb;38(2):757-763
To determine whether ultrasound-assisted prompted voiding (USAPV) care is more efficacious than conventional prompted voiding (CPV) care for managing urinary incontinence in nursing homes. METHODS: Thirteen participating nursing homes in Japan were randomized to CPV (n = 7) or USAPV care group (n = 6). Residents of the allocated nursing homes received CPV (n = 35) or USAPV (n = 45) care for 8 weeks. In the CPV group, caregivers asked the elderly every 2-3 h whether they had a desire to void and prompted them to void when the response was yes. In the USAPV group, caregivers regularly monitored bladder urine volume by an ultrasound device and prompted them to void when the volume reached close to the individually optimized bladder capacity. Frequency-volume chart was recorded at the baseline and after the 8-week intervention to measure the daytime urine loss. RESULTS: The change in daytime urine loss was statistically greater in the USAPV (median, -80.0 g) than in the CPV (median, -9.0 g; P = .018) group. The proportion of elderly individuals whose daytime urine loss decreased by >25% was 51% and 26% in the USAPV and CPV group, respectively (P = .020). Quality-of-life measures of elderly participants showed no significant changes in both groups. The care burden scale score of caregivers was unchanged in the USAPV group (P = .59) but significantly worsened in the CPV group (P = .010) after the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: USAPV is efficacious and feasible for managing urinary incontinence in nursing homes.

Trajectories of physical performance in nursing home residents with dementia.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

K. Sverdrup, S. Bergh, G. Selbaek, et al.
Aging Clin Exp Res 2020 Feb 14
In nursing homes (NH) the prevalence of dementia ranges from 50 to 84% and most residents have extensive physical-performance impairments. However, from time of admission, development of physical performance in NH residents with dementia remains unexplored. AIMS: To explore the overall trend in physical performance, associated characteristics, and groups following distinct trajectories from time of admission, in NH residents with dementia. METHODS: We followed newly admitted NH residents diagnosed with dementia (N = 583) from 47 NHs across Norway for 3 years. Individual assessments were conducted biannually, and main outcome measure was the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Facility-level characteristics included unit size, staff-to-resident ratio, and quality of the physical environment (Special Care Unit Environmental Quality Scale, SCUEQS). RESULTS: From time of admission, NH residents with dementia showed a significant overall decline in physical performance. Further, we identified three distinct trajectory groups with significantly different baseline physical-performance status (“good,” “moderate,” and “poor”), differences between groups maintained and all declined across time. Younger age, good general medical health, less-severe dementia, and less musculoskeletal pain were associated with both an average higher overall trend and better baseline group-belonging. Additionally, less apathy and more psychosis were associated with a higher overall trend, and agitation was associated with poorer baseline group-belonging. CONCLUSIONS: To prevent excessive decline in physical performance in this population, NH clinicians should focus efforts specifically on assessment of physical performance at admission and on identification and management of musculoskeletal pain and neuropsychiatric symptoms.

Adapting Andersen’s expanded behavioral model of health services use to include older adults receiving long-term services and supports.
Access if not affiliated with University of Alberta

J. L. Travers, K. B. Hirschman and M. D. Naylor.
BMC Geriatr 2020 Feb 14;20(1):58-019-1405-7
Andersen’s Expanded Behavioral Model of Health Services Use describes factors associated with the use of long-term services and supports (LTSS). This model, however, has only been tested on the intent to use such services among African-American and White older adults and not the actual use. Given the increasing diversity of older adults in the U.S., the ability to conceptualize factors associated with actual use of LTSS across racial/ethnic groups is critical. METHODS: We applied Andersen’s Expanded model in the analysis of 2006-2010 qualitative data using multiple methods to understand both the relevancy of factors for older adults who currently use LTSS vs. those who intend to use LTSS (as described in Andersen’s original exploration). We additionally explored differences in these factors across racial/ethnic groups and included Hispanic older adults in our analyses. RESULTS: Four additional constructs linked with actual LTSS use emerged: losses and changes, tangible support, capability to provide informal support, and accessibility of informal support. Racial differences were seen in level of participation in decisions to use nursing home services (Not involved: 45% African-Americans vs. 24% Whites). Reports of LTSS use to avoid burdening one’s family were greater among White older adults compared to African-American older adults. CONCLUSIONS: Findings around decision-making and burden along with other constructs enhance our understanding of determinants that influence actual LTSS use and require targeted interventions.

Hospital initiated prescription of psychotropic medication for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (UK)

Healthcare Quality Improvement Partnership (HQIP), 2020
This report is for a spotlight audit carried out using data gathered from the casenotes of people with dementia who had been prescribed psychotropic medications at some point in their hospital admission. It reports on the types of medications used to treat behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in hospital and what symptoms are most frequently targeted.

 

Back to top of page        Back to top of publications

Events & Training Opportunities

Client/Patient Handling Multidisciplinary Analysis of Assisted Sit-to-Stand Techniques: A Work in Progress Webinar

Wednesday 26 February 10:00-11:00 MT
Presenter: Centre of Research Expertise for the Prevention of Musculoskeletal Disorders (CRE-MSD), University of Waterloo
A wide range of techniques are in use for assisting with sit-to-stand transfers, but the safety of many of these practices is questionable – for both the recipient and the provider of the assistance. However, various individual and environmental factors may make ‘ideal’ techniques difficult to apply. This webinar will present a multidisciplinary analysis of a range of recommended techniques, with a focus on a restorative framework to provide care, assessing how each approach contributes to building client confidence, skills and conditioning ways in which it might reinforce dependence risks to the client risks to the caregiver, and client ability. This analysis has been conducted in collaboration with experts in home care, personal support, physical and occupational therapy, kinesiology, gerontology, occupational safety, and education. The analysis is a work in progress and feedback from webinar participants is welcomed.

Les défis que rencontrent les personnes aînées homosexuelles Webinar (Disponible uniquement en français, in French only)

Wednesday 4 March 10:30-11:30 MT
Presenters: Julien Rougerie, La Fédération québécoise des Sociétés Alzheimer, en collaboration avec brainXchange, la Société Alzheimer du Canada et le CCNV

“Shining a light on the implementation to scale-up continuum – how does it apply to health promoting innovations?” Webinar

Friday 28 February 28 12:00-12:45 MT
Presenter: Heather McKay
Health interventions are important but without effective strategies to enhance their translation on a broad scale they cannot improve the health of populations in BC or Canada. Policy makers want to know how health promotion (or any) interventions that led to better health on a small scale can be disseminated– while retaining their effectiveness. Currently there is an evidence gap as scale-up studies of effective health promoting interventions, are almost non-existent. I will present the central tenets of conceptual frameworks that guide implementation of interventions delivered at scale. I will describe implementation evaluation and discuss ‘the tug of war’ between adaptation and fidelity, especially as interventions are delivered at larger and larger scale. I will embed implementation and scale-up science within a real world scale-up study that I lead, in collaboration with an interdisciplinary team of researchers, BC Ministry of Health and many community partner organizations.

New and Evolving Academic Leaders Program

Various dates in 2020 and 2021 in Toronto
At NEAL, we aim to foster productive, visionary, and collaborative academic leaders in the Academic Health Science Network. Our participants develop mindsets and capabilities to successfully lead and help enable the success of their academic teams. We help them do their job. After every module of the NEAL program, participants will walk away with actionable tools and frameworks that they can apply immediately when they return to work. We believe that their learning should be immediately relevant and last long after the program is finished.

The NEAL program is a scholarly endeavor. Applicants who are accepted to the program are given the opportunity to consent to participate in research related to program impact and outcomes.

Back to top of page

Resources

New initiative to improve health data access for researchers (Health Data Research Network)

The Data Access Support Hub (DASH) is a one-stop data access service portal for researchers requiring multi-jurisdictional data in Canada.

Tools for Collaborative Innovation

CoCreative develops, tests, and refines a lot of powerful tools to help people solve complex problems together—and they share freely. Because by helping you succeed in making the world a better place, we also succeed, even if we never actually work with you.

Back to top of page

News

The loneliness of the online learner

Fundamental research continues to be undermined in Canada

The biggest driver of scientific advances: people

Preparing Emerging Leaders for Alternative Futures in Health Systems Across Canada

What Are the 3 Biggest Challenges to Creating and Sustaining a Culture of Continuous Improvement and Operational Excellence?

What Is Missing from “Patient Oriented Research”? A View from Public Health Systems and Services

Male authors boost research impact through self-hyping studies

Think you want to die at home? You might want to think twice about that

Is our current research culture on the brink of major change? (UK)

They Wanted Research Funding, So They Entered the Lottery

Policymaking Is Not a Science (Yet)

How Multitasking Erodes Productivity And Dings Your IQ

What happens when a machine can write as well as an academic?

Simple tricks to add clarity in complex sentences

Nursing and residential care facilities, 2017 and 2018

The Curious Case of ConsultLoop:
Promise and Failure in Canadian Healthcare

Relational care in older persons nursing is not just a consideration but an organisational priority
Back to top of page