Ginsburg LR, Hoben M, Berta W, Doupe M, Estabrooks C, Norton PG, et al.
Background Assessing fidelity in complex interventions is important. Ignoring it increases the risk of discarding potentially effective interventions that failed to work because they were not implemented as intended or, accepting ineffective interventions whose effects were brought about by factors other than the intervention. Unlike simple interventions, fidelity assessment in complex interventions is underexplored and not straightforward. Adapting the evaluative approach used in Objective Structured Clinical Exams (OSCEs), we describe the development and validation of an easy to use, objective approach to fidelity assessment – the Overall Fidelity Enactment Scale for use in complex interventions (the OFES-CI).Methods We developed the OFES-CI and assessed its accuracy using secondary data collected as part of the process evaluation of the SCOPE intervention. Specifically, we compared the OFES-CI ratings obtained from trained study observers during SCOPE intervention workshops to more detailed and comprehensive qualitative fidelity enactment data collected between and during the same workshops (our gold standard).Results The OFES-CI demonstrates acceptable reliability against our gold standard assessment approach and addresses the practicality problem in fidelity assessment by virtue of its suitable implementation qualities (acceptability, ease of completion, low burden, low training requirements). It can be easily adapted to assess enactment of a variety of complex interventions.Conclusions Global ratings approaches validated in the context of assessing clinician competence in OSCEs provide a novel, practical and underexplored opportunity to assess fidelity enactment in complex trials. Given important questions that are increasingly being asked regarding evaluation of complex pragmatic interventions, the proposed approach to fidelity assessment, if incorporated into trial evaluation, stands to provide valuable insights not only into why an intervention may succeed or fail but also how we might carry out adaptations of complex interventions when they are needed.KEY ARTICLE MESSAGESThere is a growing knowledge base regarding how to assess the fidelity with which complex interventions (trials) are delivered, though there is relatively little knowledge regarding how to efficiently assess the fidelity with which they are implemented (enacted) by intervention participants. Data on fidelity enactment is critical for proper interpretation of trial outcomes.The present study provides an easy-to-use, valid and reliable approach to assessment of fidelity enactment for use in complex trials (the OFES-CI) and outlines specific procedures for assessing fidelity.The OFES-CI can be easily adapted for practical assessment of fidelity of other complex interventions. Such fidelity data can help address well known problems with trial replication by providing valuable insight into why interventions succeed or fail and what adaptations may be needed to promote greater success.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.Funding StatementThis study was funded by a Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Transitional Operating Grant CIHR PS 148582 WaggAuthor DeclarationsI confirm all relevant ethical guidelines have been followed, and any necessary IRB and/or ethics committee approvals have been obtained.YesThe details of the IRB/oversight body that provided approval or exemption for the research described are given below:This study was approved by the Research Ethics Boards of the University of Alberta (Pro00000012517), University of British Columbia (H14-03286), Operational approval was obtained from all included facilities as required. SCOPE sponsors and team members were asked for informed consent prior to taking part in the study.I confirm that all necessary patient/participant consent has been obtained and the appropriate institutional forms have been archived, and that any patient/participant/sample identifiers included were not known to anyone (e.g., hospital staff, patients or participants themselves) outside the research group so cannot be used to identify individuals.YesI understand that all clinical trials and any other prospective interventional studies must be registered with an ICMJE-approved registry, such as ClinicalTrials.gov. I confirm that any such study reported in the manuscript has been registered and the trial registration ID is provided (note: if posting a prospective study registered retrospectively, please provide a statement in the trial ID field explaining why the study was not registered in advance).YesI have followed all appropriate research reporting guidelines and uploaded the relevant EQUATOR Network research reporting checklist(s) and other pertinent material as supplementary files, if applicable.YesAll data produced in the present study are available upon reasonable request to the authors provided they adhere to our data confidentiality and access policies.
MacEachern L, Ginsburg LR, Hoben M, Doupe M, Wagg A, Knopp-Sihota JA, et al.
BMJ Open Qual. 2023 Feb;12(1).
Quality improvement (QI) projects are common in healthcare settings and often involve interdisciplinary teams working together towards a common goal. Many interventions and programmes have been introduced through research to convey QI skills and knowledge to healthcare workers, however, a few studies have attempted to differentiate between what individuals ‘learn’ or ‘know’ versus their capacity to apply their learnings in complex healthcare settings. Understanding and differentiating between delivery, receipt, and enactment of QI skills and knowledge is important because while enactment alone does not guarantee desired QI outcomes, it might be reasonably assumed that ‘better enactment’ is likely to lead to better outcomes. This paper describes the development, application and validation of a tool to measure enactment of core QI skills and knowledge of a complex QI intervention in a healthcare setting. Based on the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s Model for Improvement, existing QI assessment tools, literature on enactment fidelity and our research protocols, 10 indicators related to core QI skills and knowledge were determined. Definitions and assessment criteria were tested and refined in five iterative cycles. Qualitative data from four QI teams in long-term care homes were used to test and validate the tool. The final measurement tool contains 10 QI indicators and a five-point scale. Inter-rater reliability ranged from good to excellent. Usability and acceptability among raters were considered high. This measurement tool assists in identifying strengths and weaknesses of a QI team and allows for targeted feedback on core QI components. The indicators developed in our tool and the approach to tool development may be useful in other health related contexts where similar data are collected.
Bauer S, Eglseer D, Hödl M.
HeilberufeScience. 2023 Feb 2;1–9.
BACKGROUND: Most of the limited number of studies that have been carried out on COVID-19 in nursing homes have not included primarily nursing staff. Nevertheless, knowledge about staff experiences will help to provide recommendations for the future. AIM: The aim of this study was to describe stress experienced and interventions performed by nursing staff and to identify factors that are associated to the perceived stress among Austrian nursing home staff during the first and the second waves of COVID-19. METHODS: A secondary data analysis of two cross-sectional surveys performed in 2020 and 2021 among nursing home staff was performed. We did descriptive analysis as well as univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 449 nurses participated in the first survey and 300 in the second survey. 12.7% experienced high stress levels in the first wave, while 26.0% experienced high stress levels in the second wave (p < 0.001). The analysis showed that nursing staff in the second wave had a 2.195-fold higher relative chance of experiencing a high stress level compared to nursing staff in the first wave (p < 0.001). Caring for COVID-19 residents (odds ratio [OR] 1.827; p = 0.007) and being female (OR 1.992; p = 0.018) also significantly increased the relative chance of experiencing a high stress level. Some protective interventions, such as the use of FFP masks, increased between the two waves, while others decreased, such as the practice of airing the residents’ rooms. CONCLUSION: Austrian nursing staff in nursing homes experienced more stress during the second wave, illustrating the heavy burden of the long pandemic on staff. Nursing management should plan appropriate supportive interventions such as psychological help, stress relief measures and financial incentives for nursing staff, especially for the identified high-risk groups. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version of this article (10.1007/s16024-022-00395-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Bryant NS, Cimarolli VR, Falzarano F, Stone R.
J Appl Gerontol. 2023 Feb 7;7334648231155017.
Given the instability of the nursing home (NH) certified nursing assistant (CNA) workforce and the challenging demands during COVID-19, it is important to understand the organizational factors that are correlated with job satisfaction which is a major predictor of CNA turnover. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between quality of supervisor relationships, organizational supports, COVID-19 work-related stressors, and job satisfaction among CNAs in NHs. The results indicate that CNAs who reported a more optimal relationship with their supervisors, felt appreciated for the job they do and worked in NHs with lower COVID-19 resident infection rates tended to report higher rates of job satisfaction. The COVID-19 work-related stressors of increased workload demands and understaffing were associated with lower rates of job satisfaction. The study has practical implications for employers regarding how to support CNAs to improve job satisfaction especially during a crisis.
Nascimento C, Dias SF, Rodrigues S, Afonso R, Sousa L.
Death Stud. 2023 Feb 7;1–8.
This qualitative exploratory study aimed to describe the experiences and practices of care facility directors regarding residents dying in Portuguese residential care facilities (RCFs) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data was obtained from 17 care director facilities who participated in focus groups. The data analysis followed the interpretative phenomenological approach. Participants stated that practices surrounding the death of the residents in Portuguese RCFs changed significantly from before to during the pandemic, regarding both those who died from COVID-19 infection and from other conditions. Four themes emerged that illustrated the situation during the peaks of the pandemic. During the pandemic, practices and experiences quite different from the usual ones have emerged. These results support the importance of a good death, and dying with dignity in RCFs, and the need for policies, practices, and training on the death of residents in RCFs in Portugal.
Oliveira ACDS, Gallego MG, Martínez CG, Martínez EC, Molina JM, Morante JJH, et al.
BMC Geriatr. 2023 Feb 3;23(1):71.
BACKGROUND: Previous works have observed an increase of depression and other psychological disorders on nursing home residents as a consequence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown; however, there are few studies that have performed a comprehensive evaluation of all people involved in nursing homes environment. The objective of the work was to analyse the impact of lockdown on psychosocial factors of nursing home residents, relatives and clinical staff and how these variables have influenced residents’ survival. METHODS: A prospective study was designed. Evaluations were performed at three different times: a) at the beginning of Spanish confinement, in March 2020; b) just before the second wave of the pandemic, with relaxation of security measures but in lockdown, and c) in January-February 2021, at the end of the second wave, when visits were already allowed. The study was conducted on three different nursing homes. Three hundred and one residents, 119 clinical staff and 51 relatives took part in the study. Anxiety and depression were evaluated in all participants. A scale on the meaning of suffering was also performed. In addition, burnout status was also determined in the clinical staff. RESULTS: All participants showed lower depression during lockdown, while at the beginning and at the end of the confinement, these values were significantly increased. In residents, these changes were dependent of cognitive status (p = 0.012). Anxiety was significantly higher in residents. The evolution of anxiety was similar than with depression, with lower values during confinement, although clinical staff showed higher anxiety levels at the beginning. The feeling of suffering was significantly lower in the clinical staff than in resident and relative groups. Residents’ survival was dependent of cognitive status (p = 0.018) and voluntary confinement (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: During the first COVID-19 lockdown, psychological wellbeing of residents cared in nursing homes, their relatives and staff did not seem to be seriously affected. Previous mental health in relatives and staff together with a resilient approach to the adversity might partly be protecting factors. The lack of consequences on residents’ anxiety, depression and perception of social support may reflect the special attention and care they received. Finally, as in the current study only data of the first two COVID-19 waves were analysed, its findings might be partly generalized to all the pandemic.
van Wijngaarden J, de Mul M, Ahaus K.
Med Care Res Rev. 2023 Feb 1;10775587221150476.
The COVID-19 pandemic hit long-term care, and particularly nursing homes hard. We aimed to explore how crisis management goals and tasks evolve during such a prolonged crisis, using the crisis management tasks as identified by Boin and ‘t Hart as a starting point. This longitudinal, qualitative study comprises 47 interviews with seven Dutch nursing home directors and a focus group. We identified two phases to the crisis response: an acute phase with a linear, rational perspective of saving lives and compliancy to centralized decision-making and an adaptive phase characterized by more decentralized decision-making, reflection, and competing values and perspectives. This study confirms the usability of Boin and ‘t Hart’s typology of crisis management tasks and shows that these tasks “changed color” in the second phase. We also revealed three types of additional work in managing such a crisis: resilience work, emotion work, and normative work.
Awosoga OA, Odole AC, Onyeso OK, Doan J, Nord C, Nwosu IB, et al.
BMC Geriatr. 2023 Feb 9;23(1):85.
BACKGROUND: For the care need of older adults, long-term care (LTC) and assisted living (AL) facilities are expanding in Alberta, but little is known about the caregivers’ well-being. The purpose of the study was to investigate the physical health conditions, mental and emotional health (MEH), health behaviour, stress levels, quality of life (QOL), and turnover and absenteeism (TAA) among professional caregivers in Alberta’s LTC and AL facilities. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey involved 933 conveniently selected caregivers working in Alberta’s LTC and AL facilities. Standardised questions were selected from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and Short Form-36 QOL survey revalidated and administered to the participants. The new questionnaire was used to assess the caregivers’ general health condition (GHC), physical health, health behaviour, stress level, QOL, and TAA. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Cronbach alpha, Pearson’s correlation, one-way analysis of variance, and multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Of 1385 surveys sent to 39 facilities, 933 valid responses were received (response rate = 67.4%). The majority of the caregivers were females (90.8%) who were ≥ 35 years (73.6%), worked between 20 to 40 h weekly (67.3%), and were satisfied with their GHC (68.1%). The Registered Nurses had better GHC (mean difference [MD] = 0.18, p = 0.004) and higher TAA than the Health Care Aides (MD = 0.24, p = 0.005). There were correlations between caregivers’ TAA and each of MEH (r = 0.398), QOL (r = 0.308), and stress (r = 0.251); p < 0.001. The most significant predictors of TAA were the propensity to quit a workplace or the profession, illness, job stress, and work-related injury, F (5, 551) = 76.62, p < 0.001, adjusted R(2) = 0.998. CONCLUSION: Reducing the caregivers’ job stressors such as work overload, inflexible schedule, and poor remuneration, and improving their quality of life, health behaviour, and mental, emotional, and physical health conditions may increase their job satisfaction and reduce turnover and absenteeism.
Drost A, Alam MI, Boamah S, Kralj B, Costa A, Sweetman A.
Health Policy. 2023 Jan 26;130:104713.
About two-thirds of Canadian COVID-19 related deaths occurred in long-term care homes (LTCHs). Multiple jobholding and excessive part-time work among staff have been discussed as vectors of transmission. Using an administrative census of registered nurses (RNs) and registered practical nurses (RPNs) in the Canadian province of Ontario, this paper contrasts the prevalence of multiple jobholding, part-time/casual work, and other job and worker characteristics across health sectors in 2019 and 2020 to establish whether the LTCH sector deviates from the norms in Ontario healthcare. Prior to COVID-19, about 19% of RNs and 21% of RPNs in LTCHs held multiple jobs. For RPNs, this was almost identical to the RPN provincial average, while for RNs this was 2.5 percentage points above the RN provincial average. In 2020, multiple jobholding fell significantly in LTCHs after the province passed a single site order to reduce COVD-19 transmission. Although there are many similarities across sectors, nurses, especially RNs, in LTCHs differ on some dimensions. They are more likely to be internationally educated and, together with nurses in hospitals, those who work part- time/casual are more likely to prefer full-time hours (involuntary part-time/casual). Overall, while multiple jobholding and part-time work among nurses are problematic for infection prevention and control, these employment practices in LTCHs did not substantially deviate from the norms in the rest of healthcare in Ontario.
Emilsson M, Karlsson C, Svensson A.
BMC Health Serv Res. 2023 Feb 10;23(1):144.
BACKGROUND: As the number of older people increases, so does the need for care. However, the workforce in eldercare cannot increase at the rate required to match the needs. Welfare technologies, such as surveillance cameras, can replace physical visits and be used at night to monitor older people in order to keep them safe, while not disturbing their sleep. The aim of the paper is to analyze obstacles and opportunities associated with implementation and use of surveillance cameras at nursing homes from the perspectives of the practitioners who use the technology, their working environment and the conditions of the older people with cognitive impairment who live in nursing homes. METHODS: Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with the eldercare personnel at nursing homes to understand their experiences of implementation and use of surveillance cameras. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ) was used as a guidance tool. RESULTS: The results show that the eldercare personnel experienced lack of adequate information, education and support related to using surveillance cameras. Several benefits are highlighted, such as better working environment and that the residents were not unnecessarily disturbed at night. However, the results also show that it is important to clarify that surveillance cameras cannot replace the human presence. CONCLUSIONS: The conclusions from this study are the importance of prerequisites for implementation, and that using surveillance cameras contributed to improvements in the working environment at night and created possibilities to maintain security and integrity for older people living in nursing homes.
Perry B, Thirsk L, Gordon B.
Int J Older People Nurs. 2023 Jan 29;e12527.
BACKGROUND: The focus of this paper is exemplary gerontological nursing interventions that effectively supported families and long-term care residents in Canada during visiting restrictions resulting from COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to describe exemplary gerontological nursing interventions that families and long-term care residents in Canada found supportive during visiting restrictions resulting from COVID-19. METHODS: An analysis of data artefacts including news reports, blogs and social media postings was completed. RESULTS: Thematic analysis resulted in four themes: dedication amidst challenge, innovation and continuous learning, living their nursing values and purposeful knowledge sharing. These themes are described using a framework that depicts four pillars of exemplary nursing practice: professionalism, scholarly practice, leadership and stewardship (Riley, Beal, & Ponte, 2021). CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: A link is made between these pillars of exemplary practice and enactment of family-focused care. Recommendations focused on gerontological nursing approaches that facilitate family-focused care for older adults residing in long-term care are included.
Poldrugovac M, Pot AM, Klazinga N, Kringos D.
BMJ Open. 2023 Feb 3;13(2):e067495.
OBJECTIVES: Regulatory oversight organisations play an important role in quality stewardship in long-term care (LTC) facilities. Performance indicators are a key tool for any quality-related work. Our aim was to better understand how and what performance indicators are used by regulatory oversight organisations for long-term care facilities oversight and which features are affecting their fitness for use. DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We explored the use of LTC facility performance indicators by 10 regulatory oversight organisations from England, Ireland, Malta, New Zealand, Norway, Scotland, Singapore, Slovenia, Sweden and the Netherlands. We collected information by means of a questionnaire, 13 follow-up interviews with 20 experts from these organisations and document review. RESULTS: Performance indicators are used by participating oversight organisations to choose priority topics for audits, prioritise facilities to be audited and to identify areas within an audited facility, that require more attention. The indicators of most interest to oversight organisations are related to the dimensions of care articulated in the preset requirements on which audits are based. When the purpose of using indicators is to design a risk assessment model, the fitness for use of indicators ultimately depends on their ability to predict non-compliances on subsequent audits. When indicators are used directly by auditors, the ease of access, clear guidance to evaluate the data and the provision of contextual information are used by oversight organisations to increase fitness for use. CONCLUSIONS: Oversight organisations do not use LTC facility performance indicators to assess quality, but rather to assess the risk of lower quality or of non-compliance with requirements. This risk-related purpose has to be considered when the indicators used in oversight are chosen and when other aspects of fitness for use, such as data analysis and displaying findings, are developed.
Sattar Z, Young-Murphy L, Craig L, Steven A, Wilson-Menzfeld G.
BMC Geriatr. 2023 Feb 3;23(1):69.
BACKGROUND: The Enhanced Health for Care homes (EHCH) framework is an innovative response to provide more proactive, preventative approaches to care for residents living in care homes. It involves co-producing a shared vision with primary care. As part of EHCH a UK clinical commissioning group supported GP’s in two localities to implement their preferred delivery approach involving a new Frailty Nurse-led (FN-led) model in care homes alongside an existing General Practitioner-led (GP-led) model. This paper focuses on implementation of the new FN-led model. METHODS: A qualitative study design was adopted. Forty-eight qualitative semi-structured interviews were undertaken across six care home sites in a Northern locality: three implementing the FN-led and three engaged in an existing GP-led model. Participants included residents, family members, care home managers, care staff, and health professionals working within the EHCH framework. RESULTS: Two overarching themes were generated from data analysis: Unanticipated implementation issues and Unintended consequences. Unsuccessful attempts to recruit Frailty Nurses (FN) with enhanced clinical skills working at the desired level (UK NHS Band 7) led to an unanticipated evolution in the implementation process of the FN-led model towards ‘training posts’. This prompted misaligned role expectations subsequently provoking unexpected temporary outcomes regarding role-based trust. The existing, well understood nature of the GP-led model may have further exacerbated these unintended consequences. CONCLUSION: Within the broader remit of embedding EHCH frameworks, the implementation of new FN roles needed to evolve due to unforeseen recruitment issues. Wider contextual factors are not in the control of those developing new initiatives and cannot always be foreseen, highlighting how wider factors can force evolution of planned implementation processes with unintended consequences. However, the unintended consequences in this study highlight the need for careful consideration of information dissemination (content and timing) to key stakeholders, and the influence of existing ways of working.
Weidner M, Towsley GL.
Gerontol Geriatr Educ. 2023 Feb 8;1–17.
Close relationships between nursing home residents and Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs) result in positive outcomes for both residents and staff, including increased well-being for residents. However, many resident-CNA relationships remain superficial, are focused primarily on physical care, and interpersonal skill training for CNAs is sparse. The purpose of this study was to develop an education program to foster CNAs’ interpersonal skills and relationship development. We conducted a literature review on CNA interpersonal skill training and disseminated a survey to CNAs to inform the education program. Literature review findings revealed that CNAs value their relationships with residents and desire more interpersonal training, but this training is often limited. The survey, which was disseminated via social media and facility contact referrals, asked responding CNAs (n = 73) to evaluate their perceptions of empowerment, interpersonal skill competency, and learning preferences. We found that most CNAs feel confident in their interpersonal skills, but they lack training in boundary-setting and bereavement support. About one-third of respondents did not feel that their work was valued or their strengths recognized by their supervisors. Most respondents reported that they valued visual (85%), experiential (91%) learning. The final program, Meaningful Connections, includes nine modules covering topics such as person-centered caregiving, empathy, emotional intelligence, and boundary-setting. One supplementary module provides potential adaptations to the curriculum to customize the needs of each participant group. The results of this project suggest a need for more CNA relationship training and support, especially in the areas of boundary-setting and bereavement.
Xiao L, Gregoric C, Gordon S, Ullah S, Goodwin-Smith I, Muir-Cochrane E, et al.
BMC Geriatr. 2023 Feb 7;23(1):81.
BACKGROUND: Studies revealed that supporting residents fulfilling self-determination is positively associated with their health, wellbeing and quality of life. Cross-cultural care poses significant challenges for nursing home residents to fulfil their self-determination in control of own care and maintaining meaningful connections with others. The aim of the study was to compare factors affecting residents fulfilling self-determination in ethno-specific and mainstream nursing homes. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive approach was applied to the study. Culturally competent care and person-centred care were employed as guiding frameworks. Individual interviews or a focus group with residents and family members were conducted to collect data. RESULTS: In total, 29 participants participated in the study. Three main themes were identified: communicating needs and preferences; mastering own care; and maintaining meaningful relationships. Each theme includes sub-themes that detail similarities and differences of factors affecting residents fulfilling self-determination in the two type nursing homes. Findings indicate that residents from both types of nursing homes experienced challenges to communicate their care needs and preferences in daily care activities. Moreover, residents or their representatives from both types of nursing homes demonstrated motivation and competence to master residents’ care based on their individual preferences, but also perceived that their motivation was not always supported by staff or the nursing home environment. Residents’ competence in mastering their care activities in ethno-specific nursing homes was based on the condition that they were given opportunities to use a language of choice in communication and staff and the nursing home demonstrated culturally competent care for them. In addition, ethno-specific nursing homes showed more recourse to support residents to maintain meaningful relationships with peers and others. CONCLUSIONS: Culturally competent care created by staff, nursing homes and the aged care system is a basic condition for residents from ethnic minority groups to fulfil self-determination. In addition, person-centred care approach enables residents to optimise self-determination.
Cetin-Sahin D, Gore G, Cummings GG, Vedel I, Karanofsky M, Voyer P, et al.
J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2023 Feb 6;S1525-8610(23)00035-X.
OBJECTIVE: To develop a taxonomy of interventions aimed at reducing emergency department (ED) transfers and/or hospitalizations from long-term care (LTC) homes. DESIGN: A systematic scoping review. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Permanent LTC home residents. METHODS: Experimental and comparative observational studies were searched in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase Classic + Embase, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, Social Work Abstracts, AMED, Global Health, Health and Psychosocial Instruments, Joanna Briggs Institute EBP Database, Ovid Healthstar, and Web of Science Core Collection from inception until March 2020. Forward/backward citation tracking and gray literature searches strengthened comprehensiveness. The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool was used to assess study quality. Intervention categories and components were identified using an inductive-deductive thematic analysis. Categories were informed by 3 intervention dimensions: (1) “when/at what point(s)” on the continuum of care they occur, (2) “for whom” (ie, intervention target resident populations), and (3) “how” these interventions effect change. Components were informed by the logistical elements of the interventions having the potential to influence outcomes. All interventions were mapped to the developed taxonomy based on their categories, components, and outcomes. Distributions of components by category and study year were graphically presented. RESULTS: Ninety studies (25 randomized, 23 high quality) were included. Six intervention categories were identified: advance care planning; palliative and end-of-life care; onsite care for acute, subacute, or uncontrolled chronic conditions; transitional care; enhanced usual care (most prevalent, 31% of 90 interventions); and comprehensive care. Four components were identified: increasing human resource capacity (most prevalent, 93%), training or reorganization of existing staff, technology, and standardized tools. The use of technology increased over time. Potentially avoidable ED transfers and/or hospitalizations were measured infrequently as primary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: This proposed taxonomy can guide future intervention designs. It can also facilitate systematic reviews and precise effect size estimations for homogenous interventions when outcomes are comparable.
Omotunde M, Agholme F, Böhling A, Huige N, Schweigel H, Hayder-Beichel D, et al.
Trials. 2023 Feb 3;24(1):80.
BACKGROUND: Urinary continence care for residents of nursing homes who are unable to communicate their toileting needs usually involves care aides manually checking continence products (pads) to determine the level of urine saturation prior to changing. The TENA SmartCare Change Indicator is a medical device which estimates urine saturation and notifies caregivers of the optimal time for pad changes. This study will seek to examine the effect of the TENA SmartCare Change Indicator on urinary continence care efficiency and skin health, in comparison to usual care. METHODS: This cluster randomized controlled trial (NCT05247047) involving older nursing home residents with urinary incontinence unable to consistently indicate their toileting needs, and their care aides, will compare technology-based and usual continence care over a period of 8 weeks. Co-primary endpoints of superiority in continence care efficiency and non-inferiority in the maintenance of skin health will be assessed. Secondary outcomes will examine the resident quality of life, sleep quality, responsive behaviours, changes in pad use and leakage episodes outside the pad. Change in care aide work engagement, job satisfaction and rushed tasks will be assessed. Benefits and challenges with the use of the device for continence care will be identified from the perspectives of the care staff. DISCUSSION: Urinary continence assessment and care in nursing homes is reported as suboptimal and threatening to dignity. Data on the utility and effect of technological solutions for improving urinary continence care are few and conflicting. If shown effective, this technological solution has the potential to improve the care for older residents and improve the working lives of caregiving staff who look after this most vulnerable section of the population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05247047. Registration date is Feb 18, 2022.
Tistad M, Bergström A, Elf M, Eriksson L, Gustavsson C, Göras C, et al.
Syst Rev. 2023 Jan 31;12(1):15.
BACKGROUND: Implementing and sustaining innovations in clinical practice, such as evidence-based practices, programmes, and policies, is frequently described as challenging. Facilitation as a strategy for supporting implementation requires a facilitator, i.e. an individual with a designated role to support the implementation process. A growing number of studies report that facilitation can help tackle the challenges in implementation efforts. To optimise the potential contribution of facilitation as a strategy to improve the implementation of new practices, there is a need to enhance understanding about what training and support is required for individuals in the facilitator role. The objective of this scoping review is to map how facilitators have been trained for, and supported in, the facilitator role in implementation studies in health and community care. Specifically, the review aims to examine what is reported on training and support of facilitators in terms of learning outcomes, content, dose, mode of delivery, learning activities, and qualifications of the trainers and how the facilitators perceive training and support. METHODS: This scoping review will follow the guidance of the Joanna Briggs Institute and the PRISMA Extension for Scoping Review checklist. We will include articles in which (a) facilitation is deployed as an implementation strategy, with identified facilitator roles targeting staff and managers, to support the implementation of specified innovations in health or community care, and (b) training and/or support of facilitators is reported. We will exclude articles where facilitation is directed to education or training in specific clinical procedures or if facilitation supports the implementation of general quality improvement systems. All types of peer-reviewed studies and study protocols published in English will be included. A systematic search will be performed in MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (embase.com), Web of Science Core Collection, and CINAHL (Ebsco). DISCUSSION: The proposed scoping review will provide a systematic mapping of the literature on the training and support of implementation facilitators and contribute useful knowledge within the field of implementation science to inform future facilitation initiatives. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: Registered at Open Science Framework (registration https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/M6NPQ ).